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1.
J Clin Virol ; 146: 105057, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638778

ABSTRACT

It is well-known that the Coronavirus Disease 2019, which is caused by the beta-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in December 2019 followed by an outbreak first reported in Wuhan, China. Thus far, vaccination appears to be the only way to bring the pandemic to an end. In the present study, immunogenicity data was evaluated using LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay (DiaSorin S.p.A) among a sample of 52 vaccinated healthcare workers, five of whom were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 47 who were seronegative, over a time span of ≤90 days following the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. The test detects antibodies against the Trimeric complex (S1, S2 and receptor binding domain). The overall mean value of the serum levels of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 30 days following the second dose of the vaccine was 1,901.8 binding arbitrary unit (BAU)/ml, after 60 days the mean value declined to 1,244.9 BAU/ml. The antibody levels then reached a plateau, as confirmed by the antibody test carried out 90 days following the second dose, which revealed a mean value of 1,032.4 BAU/ml (P<0.0001). A higher level was observed at all three times in male subjects compared with female subjects, and in younger male participants compared with female participants, although these differences did not reach a statistically significant level. Similarly, no significant difference was found in antibody values at different times according to age. After the second dose of the vaccine, two subjects were infected with SARS-CoV-2, and an increase in antibody values in the third assay was observed in both individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Preliminary Data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1264, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From May 2020 to January 2021, we enrolled 1233 health care workers (HCW) from Danish Hospitals in a randomized trial evaluating whether Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) provides protection against COVID-19. Participants were randomized 1:1 to BCG vs saline and followed for 6 months. From December 2020, Covid-19 vaccines were offered to the HCW. In most cases, BCG vaccination results in a characteristic scar. Reactivation of the BCG scar has been described in children during viral infections and following influenza vaccination, but is mostly associated to Kawasaki's disease, a disease entity with pathogenesis likely similar to the child Covid-19 complication MIS-C: Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome. Reactivation of scars after neonatal BCG vaccination has recently been described in four women after Covid-19 mRNA vaccination. Two of our trial participants experienced reactivation of their novel BCG scars after receiving mRNA Covid-19 vaccination 6 to 8 months post-BCG. CASE PRESENTATIONS: Two female HCW participants that had been randomly allocated to BCG in the BCG-DENMARK-COVID trial, spontaneously reported itching and secretion at the BCG scar site after having received mRNA Covid-19 vaccination (Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech) 6 to 8 months following inclusion and BCG vaccination. One participant, who had a larger BCG skin reaction, noticed re-appearing symptoms after both the first and the second COVID-vaccine dose, while the other participant only noted symptoms after the second dose. Both had been BCG vaccinated during childhood, and no reactivation was noted in the older scars. No treatment was needed or provided. CONCLUSIONS: The reactivation of the BCG scar after receiving mRNA vaccine might have been caused by cross-reactivity between BCG and SARS-CoV-2. In both cases, the symptoms were bothersome, but self-limiting and left no sequelae. The risk of reactivation at the scar site is thus not a reason to avoid vaccination with either vaccine.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine , COVID-19 , BCG Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cicatrix , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1354, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were excluded from the original SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine trials, which may influence vaccine hesitancy in this population. We prospectively characterized the safety and immunogenicity of two-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in 44 patients with MM, who underwent vaccination from 12/17/2020 to 3/18/2021. RESULTS: Rates adverse reactions were low and consistent with those documented in vaccine trials. Among those on MM therapy, 93% developed detectable anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies after dose 2, while 94% of patients not on MM therapy seroconverted. CONCLUSIONS: Two-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination is mildly reactogenic and leads to high rates of seroconversion in patients with MM. These findings can provide reassurance to MM patients who are hesitant to receive SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Multiple Myeloma/blood , /adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , /adverse effects
4.
Vaccine ; 40(4): 650-655, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was responsible for the death of millions of people around the world, which accelerated the study of vaccines. The BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 is a messenger RNA vaccine that encodes the spike protein of the virus. However, the duration of the protection conferred by this vaccine and factors associated with immune responses require validation in large cohorts. METHODS: Here, we present data of humoral immune response to vaccination in4264 healthcare workers, tested before (T0) and 15 and 90 days (T1 and T2, respectively) following vaccination.Peripheral blood was collected for immunological analysis using the Quant SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) to determine anti-spike IgG, receptor binding domain (RBD), S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: At T0, 96·8% (n = 4129) of participants had IgG antibodies non-reactive to anti-SARS-CoV-2. Fifteen days after completing the vaccination, the IgG overall median titer was significantly elevated (21·7x103AU/mL). Both for uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses women presented higher antibody levels than men, independent of age. Titers were significantly altered among age groups, decreasing by each increase in 10-year of age. At 3 months after completing the vaccination, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers were 6·3-fold diminished. This real-world post-vaccination data confirmed production of a frequent and elevated anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers, associated with high protection rates. Females and younger participants had higher titer 15 days after vaccination, and despite the significant reduction from 15-to-90 days, those with higher pre-vaccination titers maintained higher levels throughout the remaining timepoints. INTERPRETATION: These findings support the need to track humoral immunity kinetics to uncover viral susceptibility and eventually implement re-vaccination, particularly in groups prone to lower humoral immune response. FUNDING: No external funding was received to conduct this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
Euro Surveill ; 27(2)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625399

ABSTRACT

The mRNA vaccine Comirnaty and the inactivated vaccine CoronaVac are both available in Hong Kong's COVID-19 vaccination programme. We observed waning antibody levels in 850 fully vaccinated (at least 14 days passed after second dose) blood donors using ELISA and surrogate virus neutralisation test. The Comirnaty-vaccinated group's (n = 593) antibody levels remained over the ELISA and sVNT positive cut-offs within the first 6 months. The CoronaVac-vaccinated group's (n = 257) median antibody levels began to fall below the cut-offs 4 months after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , Hong Kong , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 24(1): 21, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (RMD). We evaluated the occurrence of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in RMD patients and heathy subjects who received anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. METHODS: We performed a telephone interview collecting any adverse event (AE) following immunization (AEFI) that occurred in RMD patients and healthy controls after the two doses of mRNA vaccine including common local reactogenicity and systemic events (for example, fever, fatigue/malaise, joint and muscle pain). We also investigated the onset of new signs or symptoms of the RMD after the vaccination. RESULTS: We evaluated 126 patients with RMDs [105 females and 19 males, median age 51(IQR 17)] and 85 controls [62 females and 23 males, (median age 49 (20)]. Seventy patients (55.6%) were taking immunosuppressants, conventional synthetic (n=31, 43.3%) and/or biological [TNF inhibitors (n=49, 68.6%)], and 30 (23.8%) were taking hydroxychloroquine; treatment remained unchanged in 77% of patients. Eleven out of 126 patients and none of the 85 controls previously contracted COVID-19. The median follow-up from the completion of vaccination was 15 (3) weeks both in patients and controls. We reviewed 5 suspected cases confirming mild articular flares in 3 women (2.8) with inflammatory arthritis (2 psoriatic arthritis and 1 rheumatoid arthritis) while no disease reactivation was recorded in patients with connective tissue diseases; the incidence rate of RMD reactivation was 0.007 person/month. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed similar frequencies of local and systemic AEFI in patients and controls with no effect of therapies or previous COVID-19. Local reaction-pain in the injection site-was the most frequently reported AEFI both in RMD and controls (71% and 75% of all the AEFI, respectively) after the first dose. Overall, up to 66% of patients experienced at least one AEFI at the second dose and up to 62% in the control group. Most of AEFI occurred within 2 days of vaccine administration. Two RMD patients developed pauci-symptomatic COVID-19 after the first dose of vaccine. CONCLUSION: The low incidence rate of disease reactivation and the similar AEFI occurrence compared to controls should reassure on mRNA vaccine safety in RMD patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Rheumatic Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Flare Up , Vaccines, Synthetic
7.
RMD Open ; 8(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases (IMRDs) are commonly treated with immunosuppressors and prone to infections. Recently introduced mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have demonstrated extraordinary efficacy across all ages. Immunosuppressed patients were excluded from phase III trials with SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. AIMS: To fully characterise B-cell and T-cell immune responses elicited by mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with rheumatic diseases under immunotherapies, and to identify which drugs reduce vaccine's immunogenicity. METHODS: Humoral, CD4 and CD8 immune responses were investigated in 100 naïve patients with SARS-CoV-2 with selected rheumatic diseases under immunosuppression after a two-dose regimen of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Responses were compared with age, gender and disease-matched patients with IMRD not receiving immunosuppressors and with healthy controls. RESULTS: Patients with IMRD showed decreased seroconversion rates (80% vs 100%, p=0.03) and cellular immune responses (75% vs 100%, p=0.02). Patients on methotrexate achieved seroconversion in 62% of cases and cellular responses in 80% of cases. Abatacept decreased humoral and cellular responses. Rituximab (31% responders) and belimumab (50% responders) showed impaired humoral responses, but cellular responses were often preserved. Antibody titres were reduced with mycophenolate and azathioprine but preserved with leflunomide and anticytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IMRD exhibit impaired SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity, variably reduced with immunosuppressors. Among commonly used therapies, abatacept and B-cell depleting therapies show deleterious effects, while anticytokines preserved immunogenicity. The effects of cumulative methotrexate and glucocorticoid doses on immunogenicity should be considered. Humoral and cellular responses are weakly correlated, but CD4 and CD8 tightly correlate. Seroconversion alone might not reflect the vaccine's immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
8.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(1): 6-9, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify rates of work absence following receipt of COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of healthcare personnel (HCP). METHODS: Short-term disability (STD) usage by HCP attributed to side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine was calculated for each vaccine manufacturer, job category, age group, and work region. Analysis was performed for the cohort of HCP during the initial vaccination campaign. RESULTS: 4.1% of COVID-19 vaccinations generated a STD claim for lost work due to side effects, with increased STD rates after dose 2 than dose 1 (7.4% and 0.9%, respectively). Rates were higher for younger HCP and allied health staff. CONCLUSIONS: While side effects from mRNA vaccine dose 2 resulted in more work absence, statistically significant geographic differences in STD suggest cultural and staffing factors may impact HCP to utilize STD following vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
9.
JCI Insight ; 6(24)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598468

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have shown exceptional clinical efficacy, providing robust protection against severe disease. However, our understanding of transcriptional and repertoire changes following full vaccination remains incomplete. We used scRNA-Seq and functional assays to compare humoral and cellular responses to 2 doses of mRNA vaccine with responses observed in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic disease. Our analyses revealed enrichment of spike-specific B cells, activated CD4+ T cells, and robust antigen-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses following vaccination. On the other hand, although clonally expanded CD8+ T cells were observed following both vaccination and natural infection, CD8+ T cell responses were relatively weak and variable. In addition, TCR gene usage was variable, reflecting the diversity of repertoires and MHC polymorphism in the human population. Natural infection induced expansion of CD8+ T cell clones that occupy distinct clusters compared to those induced by vaccination and likely recognize a broader set of viral antigens of viral epitopes presented by the virus not seen in the mRNA vaccine. Our study highlights a coordinated adaptive immune response in which early CD4+ T cell responses facilitate the development of the B cell response and substantial expansion of effector CD8+ T cells, together capable of contributing to future recall responses.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , /therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, Viral , B-Lymphocytes , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Carrier State , Convalescence , Epitopes , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Memory , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells , Th17 Cells , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Young Adult , /therapeutic use
10.
Med Lav ; 112(6): 465-476, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A prospective observational study involved 13,787 Health Care Workers (HCWs) of a large hospital to assess the effectiveness of a SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. METHODS: The daily incidence of infections was estimated from 1st October 2020 to 30th April 2021 and compared with that of the province of Turin (2.26 million). In the middle of this period, a mass vaccination began among HCW, and its effect was assessed. RESULTS: In the first half-period, 1,163 positive HCWs were observed, the average daily incidence rate per 100,000 being 79.58 (± 15.58; 95% CI) compared to 38.54 (± 5.96; 95% CI) in the general population (p<0.001). The vaccination campaign immunized 9,843 HCWs; among them, the average daily incidence was 14.23 (± 2.73; 95% CI) compared to 34.2 (± 2.95; 95% CI) in the province (p<0.001). Among fully vaccinated HCW, 59 cases were observed, giving rise to an incidence of 6.3 (± 2.66; 95% CI) much lower than in the province (p<0.001). In the second half of the observation period, the RR for HCWs compared to the province dropped from 2.07 (1.96 - 2.18; 95% CI; p<0.001) to 0.5 (0.42 - 0.58; 95% CI; p<0.001) and to 0.17 (0.13 - 0.22; 95% CI; p<0.001) for unvaccinated and vaccinated HCWs, respectively. The RR of vaccinate HCW was 0.43 (0.31 - 0.58; 95% CI; p<0.001) compared to unvaccinated. In the second half of the observation period, unvaccinated HCWs had a RR of 0.21 (0.18 - 0.25; 95% CI; p<0.001) as compared to the first one. A linear regression model (R2 = 0.87) showed that every percent increase in vaccinated HCWs lowered daily incidence by 0.94 (0.86 - 1.02; IC 95%; p<0.001). Vaccinated HCWs had a RR of 0.09 (0.07 - 0.12; 95% CI; p<0.001) compared to unvaccinated HCWs, which led to estimated effectiveness of the two-dose vaccine of 91 % (± 3 %; CI 95%) similar to that reported by the manufacturer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , Workforce
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 766112, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581336

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global health concern. The development of vaccines with high immunogenicity and safety is crucial for controlling the global COVID-19 pandemic and preventing further illness and fatalities. Here, we report the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, Nanocovax, based on recombinant protein production of the extracellular (soluble) portion of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. The results showed that Nanocovax induced high levels of S protein-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies in three animal models: BALB/c mouse, Syrian hamster, and a non-human primate (Macaca leonina). In addition, a viral challenge study using the hamster model showed that Nanocovax protected the upper respiratory tract from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nanocovax did not induce any adverse effects in mice (Mus musculus var. albino) and rats (Rattus norvegicus). These preclinical results indicate that Nanocovax is safe and effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/toxicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cricetinae , Macaca , Mice , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/toxicity
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 803742, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581314

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients are considered high-risk and prioritized for vaccination against COVID-19. We aimed to analyze B-cell subsets in these patients to identify potential predictors of humoral vaccination response. Patients (n=120) suffering from hematologic malignancies or other causes of immunodeficiency and healthy controls (n=79) received a full vaccination series with an mRNA vaccine. B-cell subsets were analyzed prior to vaccination. Two independent anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or trimeric S protein (TSP) were performed three to four weeks after the second vaccination. Seroconversion occurred in 100% of healthy controls, in contrast to 67% (RBD) and 82% (TSP) of immunocompromised patients, while only 32% (RBD) and 22% (TSP) achieved antibody levels comparable to those of healthy controls. The number of circulating CD19+IgD+CD27- naïve B cells was strongly associated with antibody levels (ρ=0.761, P<0.001) and the only independent predictor for achieving antibody levels comparable to healthy controls (OR 1.07 per 10-µL increase, 95%CI 1.02-1.12, P=0.009). Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified a cut-off at ≥61 naïve B cells per µl to discriminate between patients with and without an optimal antibody response. Consequently, measuring of naïve B cells in immunocompromised hematologic patients could be useful in predicting their humoral vaccination response.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
13.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(4): 547-560, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580008

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients and dialysis patients constitute a risk group for severe COVID-19. They are highly advised to get vaccinated according to the current guidelines. However, data on antibody response, cell responses and protection from events, and factors that might alter this response after a routine full series of vaccination remain incomplete for these populations. The aim of this article was to analyze the antibody responses after a full series of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in kidney transplantation and dialysis patients and to define the factors that alter seroconversion status in these populations. In this systematic review, 18 studies investigating the antibody response to full vaccination with two doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplant patients were included. Kidney transplant and dialysis patients have a lower seroconversion rate after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination than the healthy population: 27.2% for kidney transplantation, 88.5% for dialysis patients while all healthy control in these studies seroconverted. Moreover, anti-S antibody titers were lower in seroconverted kidney transplantation or dialysis patients than in healthy control in all studies that assessed this variable. Older age and dialysis vintage, immunosuppressive or chemotherapy treatment, and lower serum albumin, white blood cell, lymphocyte and hemoglobin counts were associated with lower/no antibody response to vaccination. Dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients have lower seroconversion rates after a full series of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination than the general population. Several factors are associated with an altered antibody response. A third dose could be considered in this patient group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
14.
Vaccine ; 40(3): 437-443, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterise the antibody response for 12 weeks following second dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in hospital workers of a Korean general hospital. METHODS: We measured the level of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) anti-receptor binding domain (anti-RBD) and neutralising antibodies every week in the first 4 weeks, and at weeks 8 and 12 following the second dose of vaccination in 71 hospital workers. RESULTS: The initial median level of anti-RBD and neutralising antibodies were 3898.0 U/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 2107.5-5478.5) and 97.54 % (IQR, 96.85-97.81), respectively. The levels declined the fastest and the most significantly between weeks 1 and 2 (p < 0.01, both), and continuously decreased thereafter, and were 1163.0 U/mL (683.4-1743.0) and 94.87% (89.24-96.99) at weeks 12. The antibodies levels showed a trend of rapid decrease in the older group over time. The slope of the decrease in the antibodies level was observed for each individual. Within 8 weeks, the anti-RBD antibody levels decreased to less than half of the initial levels in most of the participants (88.7%: 63/71). The SARS-CoV-2 anti-RBD and neutralising antibodies levels showed a strong positive correlation (Spearman's coefficient = 0.7833). CONCLUSIONS: Considerably high levels of SARS-CoV-2 anti-RBD and neutralising antibodies were produced following the second dose of vaccination. The levels decreased continuously, showing a tendency to decline over time; however, reasonable levels persisted up to weeks 12. Moreover, considering individual variations in antibody response following vaccination, a further inter-individual analysis is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
15.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211063356, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582476

ABSTRACT

Widespread vaccination is a principal strategy to mitigate the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and lessen the global burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Information is rapidly evolving about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on the immune and endocrine systems. This case series heightens clinical awareness of possible thyroid effects and conveys knowledge of what to monitor, which are fundamental components of public health and pharmacovigilance. We present a case series of Graves disease following mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, with symptoms and altered thyroid function tests developing within 7 days of the first dose in 2 women aged 38 and 63 years, and 28 days after the second dose in a 30-year-old man. New-onset Graves disease occurred following administration of mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Based on the timing of signs and symptoms relative to administration of the vaccine and the absence of other probable causes, we consider the vaccine as a potential contributor to the diagnosis. The viral spike protein, delivered indirectly through an encoded mRNA vaccine, may be capable of triggering an inflammatory cascade and immune response triggering thyroid dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graves Disease , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
16.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 521-527, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575141

ABSTRACT

There is currently an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. Individuals with COVID-19 have symptoms that are usually asymptomatic or mild in most initial cases. However, in some cases, moderate and severe symptoms have been observed with pneumonia. Many companies are developing COVID-19 vaccine candidates using different technologies that are classified into four groups (intact target viruses, proteins, viral vectors and nucleic acids). For rapid development, RNA vaccines and adenovirus vector vaccines have been urgently approved, and their injection has already started across the world. These types of vaccine technologies have been developed over more than 20 years using translational research for use against cancer or diseases caused by genetic disorders but the COVID-19 vaccines are the first licensed drugs to prevent infectious diseases using RNA vaccine technology. Although these vaccines are highly effective in preventing COVID-19 for a short period, safety and efficiency evaluations should be continuously monitored over a long time period. As the time of writing, more than 10 projects are now in phase 3 to evaluate the prevention of infection in double-blind studies. Hopefully, several projects may be approved to ensure high-efficiency and safe vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Animals , Double-Blind Method , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Technology/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 229-263, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575944

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are one of mankind's greatest medical advances, and their use has drastically reduced and in some cases eliminated (e.g., smallpox) disease and death caused by infectious agents. Traditional vaccine modalities including live-attenuated pathogen vaccines, wholly inactivated pathogen vaccines, and protein-based pathogen subunit vaccines have successfully been used to create efficacious vaccines against measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and yellow fever. These traditional vaccine modalities, however, take many months to years to develop and have thus proven less effective for use in creating vaccines to emerging or reemerging infectious diseases (EIDs) including influenza, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 1 and 2 (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2). As factors such as climate change and increased globalization continue to increase the pace of EID development, newer vaccine modalities are required to develop vaccines that can prevent or attenuate EID outbreaks throughout the world. One such modality, DNA vaccines, has been studied for over 30 years and has numerous qualities that make them ideal for meeting the challenge of EIDs including; (1) DNA vaccine candidates can be designed within hours of publishing of a pathogens genetic sequence; (2) they can be manufactured cheaply and rapidly in large quantities; (3) they are thermostable and have reduced requirement for a cold-chain during distribution, and (4) they have a remarkable safety record in the clinic. Optimizations made in plasmid design as well as in DNA vaccine delivery have greatly improved the immunogenicity of these vaccines. Here we describe the process of making a DNA vaccine to an EID pathogen and describe methods used for assessing the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccines in small animal models.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines, DNA , Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 193-208, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574895

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health emergency. Several vaccine candidates have been developed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. One approach is to construct live-recombinant viruses expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) as vaccine candidates. The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vector is a mature vaccine platform which was successfully developed as a vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV), leading to its licensure by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in December 2019. Based on this work, we developed two live, replication-competent VSV-vectored vaccines against SARS-CoV-2: (1) a VSV expressing the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and (2) a bivalent VSV expressing the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV. This protocol describes the methodologies for the design, cloning, rescue, and preparation of these recombinant VSV vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines, Synthetic , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ebolavirus/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated
19.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30084, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573820

ABSTRACT

We report the occurrence of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in a 77-year-old man a few days after receiving the first dose of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine tozinameran (Comirnaty®). The patient was treated with systemic corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and eltrombopag. He elected to proceed with the second dose of tozinameran 14 weeks after the first and his platelet count remained stable under a tapered eltrombopag dose. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which a second tozinameran dose has been administered to a patient who developed presumed secondary ITP after the first vaccination. We also report global pharmacovigilance data for the occurrence of ITP after vaccination with tozinameran.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pharmacovigilance , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112385, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565522

ABSTRACT

Chemically modified mRNA represents a unique, efficient, and straightforward approach to produce a class of biopharmaceutical agents. It has been already approved as a vaccination-based method for targeting SARS-CoV-2 virus. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the prospect of synthetic modified mRNA to efficiently and safely combat various diseases. Recently, various optimization advances have been adopted to overcome the limitations associated with conventional gene therapeutics leading to wide-ranging applications in different disease conditions. This review sheds light on emerging directions of chemically modified mRNAs to prevent and treat widespread chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders, cancer vaccination and immunotherapy, musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory conditions, cardiovascular diseases, and liver diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/therapy , Genetic Therapy/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic , Biological Availability , Drug Carriers , Forecasting , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunotherapy, Active , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
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