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2.
Bioconjug Chem ; 32(12): 2497-2506, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517581

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune responses toward viral infection will be useful for potential therapeutic intervention and offer insights into the design of prophylactic vaccines. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. To understand the complex immune responses toward SARS-CoV-2 infection, here we developed a method to express and purify the recombinant and engineered viral receptor-binding domain (RBD) to more than 95% purity. We could encapsulate RNA molecules into the interior of a virion-sized liposome. We conjugated the purified RBD proteins onto the surface of the liposome in an orientation-specific manner with defined spatial densities. Both the encapsulation of RNAs and the chemical conjugation of the RBD protein on liposome surfaces were stable under physiologically relevant conditions. In contrast to soluble RBD proteins, a single injection of RBD-conjugated liposomes alone, in the absence of any other adjuvants, elicited RBD-specific B cell responses in BALB/c mice, and the resulting animal sera could potently neutralize HIV-1 pseudovirions that displayed the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. These results validate these supramolecular structures as a novel and effective tool to mimic the structure of enveloped viruses, the use of which will allow systematic dissection of the complex B cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Liposomes/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/therapeutic use , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Female , Humans , Immunization , Liposomes/chemistry , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use
4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(43): 17975-17982, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483092

ABSTRACT

Targeted and efficient delivery of nucleic acids with viral and synthetic vectors is the key step of genetic nanomedicine. The four-component lipid nanoparticle synthetic delivery systems consisting of ionizable lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, and a PEG-conjugated lipid, assembled by microfluidic or T-tube technology, have been extraordinarily successful for delivery of mRNA to provide Covid-19 vaccines. Recently, we reported a one-component multifunctional sequence-defined ionizable amphiphilic Janus dendrimer (IAJD) synthetic delivery system for mRNA relying on amphiphilic Janus dendrimers and glycodendrimers developed in our laboratory. Amphiphilic Janus dendrimers consist of functional hydrophilic dendrons conjugated to hydrophobic dendrons. Co-assembly of IAJDs with mRNA into dendrimersome nanoparticles (DNPs) occurs by simple injection in acetate buffer, rather than by microfluidic devices, and provides a very efficient system for delivery of mRNA to lung. Here we report the replacement of most of the hydrophilic fragment of the dendron from IAJDs, maintaining only its ionizable amine, while changing its interconnecting group to the hydrophobic dendron from amide to ester. The resulting IAJDs demonstrated that protonated ionizable amines play dual roles of hydrophilic fragment and binding ligand for mRNA, changing delivery from lung to spleen and/or liver. Replacing the interconnecting ester with the amide switched the delivery back to lung. Delivery predominantly to liver is favored by pairs of odd and even alkyl groups in the hydrophobic dendron. This simple structural change transformed the targeted delivery of mRNA mediated with IAJDs, from lung to liver and spleen, and expands the utility of DNPs from therapeutics to vaccines.


Subject(s)
Dendrimers/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , Amines/chemistry , Animals , Esters/chemistry , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Ions/chemistry , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/metabolism
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 340, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402051

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 continues to spread rapidly worldwide and variants continue to emerge, the development and deployment of safe and effective vaccines are urgently needed. Here, we developed an mRNA vaccine based on the trimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein fused to ferritin-formed nanoparticles (TF-RBD). Compared to the trimeric form of the RBD mRNA vaccine (T-RBD), TF-RBD delivered intramuscularly elicited robust and durable humoral immunity as well as a Th1-biased cellular response. After further challenge with live SARS-CoV-2, immunization with a two-shot low-dose regimen of TF-RBD provided adequate protection in hACE2-transduced mice. In addition, the mRNA template of TF-RBD was easily and quickly engineered into a variant vaccine to address SARS-CoV-2 mutations. The TF-RBD multivalent vaccine produced broad-spectrum neutralizing antibodies against Alpha (B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351) variants. This mRNA vaccine based on the encoded self-assembled nanoparticle-based trimer RBD provides a reference for the design of mRNA vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/pathology , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vero Cells
6.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 49(5): 2411-2429, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397910

ABSTRACT

The importance of vaccine-induced protection was repeatedly demonstrated over the last three decades and emphasized during the recent COVID-19 pandemic as the safest and most effective way of preventing infectious diseases. Vaccines have controlled, and in some cases, eradicated global viral and bacterial infections with high efficiency and at a relatively low cost. Carbohydrates form the capsular sugar coat that surrounds the outer surface of human pathogenic bacteria. Specific surface-exposed bacterial carbohydrates serve as potent vaccine targets that broadened our toolbox against bacterial infections. Since first approved for commercial use, antibacterial carbohydrate-based vaccines mostly rely on inherently complex and heterogenous naturally derived polysaccharides, challenging to obtain in a pure, safe, and cost-effective manner. The introduction of synthetic fragments identical with bacterial capsular polysaccharides provided well-defined and homogenous structures that resolved many challenges of purified polysaccharides. The success of semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccines against bacterial infections, now in different phases of clinical trials, opened up new possibilities and encouraged further development towards fully synthetic antibacterial vaccine solutions. In this mini-review, we describe the recent achievements in semi- and fully synthetic carbohydrate vaccines against a range of human pathogenic bacteria, focusing on preclinical and clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/immunology , Bacteria/immunology , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Carbohydrates/immunology , Glycoconjugates/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Carbohydrate Sequence , Carbohydrates/chemistry , Glycoconjugates/chemistry , Glycoconjugates/therapeutic use , Humans , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use
9.
mBio ; 12(3)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225697

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein mediates viral entry into cells expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The S protein engages ACE2 through its receptor-binding domain (RBD), an independently folded 197-amino-acid fragment of the 1,273-amino-acid S-protein protomer. The RBD is the primary SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing epitope and a critical target of any SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Here, we show that this RBD conjugated to each of two carrier proteins elicited more potent neutralizing responses in immunized rodents than did a similarly conjugated proline-stabilized S-protein ectodomain. Nonetheless, the native RBD is expressed inefficiently, limiting its usefulness as a vaccine antigen. However, we show that an RBD engineered with four novel glycosylation sites (gRBD) is expressed markedly more efficiently and generates a more potent neutralizing responses as a DNA vaccine antigen than the wild-type RBD or the full-length S protein, especially when fused to multivalent carriers, such as a Helicobacter pylori ferritin 24-mer. Further, gRBD is more immunogenic than the wild-type RBD when administered as a subunit protein vaccine. Our data suggest that multivalent gRBD antigens can reduce costs and doses, and improve the immunogenicity, of all major classes of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.IMPORTANCE All available vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) express or deliver the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. We show that this antigen is not optimal, consistent with observations that the vast majority of the neutralizing response to the virus is focused on the S-protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). However, this RBD is not expressed well as an independent domain, especially when expressed as a fusion protein with a multivalent scaffold. We therefore engineered a more highly expressed form of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD by introducing four glycosylation sites into a face of the RBD normally occluded in the full S protein. We show that this engineered protein, gRBD, is more immunogenic than the wild-type RBD or the full-length S protein in both genetic and protein-delivered vaccines.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Female , Genetic Engineering , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Protein Domains , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Conjugate/genetics , Vaccines, Conjugate/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
10.
Pharm Res ; 38(3): 473-478, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117456

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has left scientists and clinicians no choice but a race to find solutions to save lives while controlling the rapid spreading. Messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines have become the front-runners because of their safety profiles, precise and reproducible immune response with more cost-effective and faster production than other types of vaccines. However, the physicochemical properties of naked mRNA necessitate innovative delivery technologies to ferry these 'messengers' to ribosomes inside cells by crossing various barriers and subsequently induce an immune response. Intracellular delivery followed by endosomal escape represents the key strategies for cytoplasmic delivery of mRNA vaccines to the target. This Perspective provides insights into how state-of-the-art nanotechnology helps break the delivery barriers and advance the development of mRNA vaccines. The challenges remaining and future perspectives are outlined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Drug Carriers , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles , Ribosomes/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , Drug Compounding , Humans , Nanomedicine , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry
11.
Nature ; 592(7853): 283-289, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101660

ABSTRACT

A safe and effective vaccine against COVID-19 is urgently needed in quantities that are sufficient to immunize large populations. Here we report the preclinical development of two vaccine candidates (BNT162b1 and BNT162b2) that contain nucleoside-modified messenger RNA that encodes immunogens derived from the spike glycoprotein (S) of SARS-CoV-2, formulated in lipid nanoparticles. BNT162b1 encodes a soluble, secreted trimerized receptor-binding domain (known as the RBD-foldon). BNT162b2 encodes the full-length transmembrane S glycoprotein, locked in its prefusion conformation by the substitution of two residues with proline (S(K986P/V987P); hereafter, S(P2) (also known as P2 S)). The flexibly tethered RBDs of the RBD-foldon bind to human ACE2 with high avidity. Approximately 20% of the S(P2) trimers are in the two-RBD 'down', one-RBD 'up' state. In mice, one intramuscular dose of either candidate vaccine elicits a dose-dependent antibody response with high virus-entry inhibition titres and strong T-helper-1 CD4+ and IFNγ+CD8+ T cell responses. Prime-boost vaccination of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with the BNT162b candidates elicits SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing geometric mean titres that are 8.2-18.2× that of a panel of SARS-CoV-2-convalescent human sera. The vaccine candidates protect macaques against challenge with SARS-CoV-2; in particular, BNT162b2 protects the lower respiratory tract against the presence of viral RNA and shows no evidence of disease enhancement. Both candidates are being evaluated in phase I trials in Germany and the USA1-3, and BNT162b2 is being evaluated in an ongoing global phase II/III trial (NCT04380701 and NCT04368728).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aging/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cell Line , Clinical Trials as Topic , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Internationality , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Protein Multimerization , RNA, Viral/analysis , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Solubility , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
13.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 169: 137-151, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986888

ABSTRACT

The novel corona virus termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread throughout the globe at a formidable speed, causing tens of millions of cases and more than one million deaths in less than a year of its report in December 2019. Since then, companies and research institutions have raced to develop SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, ranging from conventional viral and protein-based vaccines to those that are more cutting edge, including DNA- and mRNA-based vaccines. Each vaccine exhibits a different potency and duration of efficacy, as determined by the antigen design, adjuvant molecules, vaccine delivery platforms, and immunization method. In this review, we will introduce a few of the leading non-viral vaccines that are under clinical stage development and discuss delivery strategies to improve vaccine efficacy, duration of protection, safety, and mass vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/chemistry , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics
14.
J Pharm Sci ; 110(3): 997-1001, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972849

ABSTRACT

As mRNA vaccines became the frontrunners in late-stage clinical trials to fight the COVID-19 pandemic, challenges surrounding their formulation and stability became readily apparent. In this commentary, we first describe company proposals, based on available public information, for the (frozen) storage of mRNA vaccine drug products across the vaccine supply chain. We then review the literature on the pharmaceutical stability of mRNA vaccine candidates, including attempts to improve their stability, analytical techniques to monitor their stability, and regulatory guidelines covering product characterization and storage stability. We conclude that systematic approaches to identify the key physicochemical degradation mechanism(s) of formulated mRNA vaccine candidates are currently lacking. Rational design of optimally stabilized mRNA vaccine formulations during storage, transport, and administration at refrigerated or ambient temperatures should thus have top priority in the pharmaceutical development community. In addition to evidence of human immunogenicity against multiple viral pathogens, including compelling efficacy results against COVID-19, another key strength of the mRNA vaccine approach is that it is readily adaptable to rapidly address future outbreaks of new emerging infectious diseases. Consequently, we should not wait for the next pandemic to address and solve the challenges associated with the stability and storage of formulated mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Potency , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cold Temperature , Drug Stability , Drug Storage/methods , Humans , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
15.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(6): 778-779, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969255

ABSTRACT

In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Lu et al. utilize single-molecule FRET to reveal the conformation dynamics of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein, showing transitions from a closed ground state to the open receptor-accessible conformation via an on-path intermediate. These insights into spike conformations will facilitate rational immunogen design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Humans , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/ultrastructure
16.
Protein Pept Lett ; 28(5): 573-588, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918981

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study was to create a new version of the PentaFOLD algorithm and to test its performance experimentally in several proteins and peptides. BACKGROUND: Synthetic vaccines can cause production of neutralizing antibodies only in case if short peptides form the same secondary structure as fragments of full-length proteins. The Penta- FOLD 3.0 algorithm was designed to check stability of alpha helices, beta strands, and random coils using several propensity scales obtained during analysis of 1730 3D structures of proteins. OBJECTIVE: The algorithm has been tested in the three peptides known to keep the secondary structure of the corresponding fragments of full-length proteins: the NY25 peptide from the Influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin, the SF23 peptide from the diphtheria toxin, the NQ21 peptide from the HIV1 gp120; as well as in the CC36 peptide from the human major prion protein. METHODS: Affine chromatography for antibodies against peptides accompanied by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to check the predictions of the algorithm. RESULTS: Immunological experiments showed that all abovementioned peptides are more or less immunogenic in rabbits. The fact that antibodies against the NY25, the SF23, and the NQ21 form stable complexes with corresponding full-length proteins has been confirmed by affine chromatography. The surface of SARS CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain interacting with hACE2 has been shown to be unstable according to the results of the PentaFOLD 3.0. CONCLUSION: The PentaFOLD 3.0 algorithm (http://chemres.bsmu.by/PentaFOLD30.htm) can be used with the aim to design vaccine peptides with stable secondary structure elements.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Peptides/chemistry , Proteins/chemistry , Vaccines, Subunit/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Diphtheria Toxin/chemistry , HIV Envelope Protein gp120/chemistry , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/chemistry , Models, Molecular , Prions/chemistry , Protein Conformation , Protein Structure, Secondary , Software , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 162: 820-837, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618504

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the deadly virus behind COVID-19, the disease that went on to ravage the world and caused the biggest pandemic 21st century has witnessed so far. On the face of ongoing death and destruction, the urgent need for the discovery of a vaccine against the virus is paramount. This study resorted to the emerging discipline of immunoinformatics in order to design a multi-epitope mRNA vaccine against the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Various immunoinformatics tools were utilized to predict T and B lymphocyte epitopes. The epitopes were channeled through a filtering pipeline comprised of antigenicity, toxicity, allergenicity, and cytokine inducibility evaluation with the goal of selecting epitopes capable of generating both T and B cell-mediated immune responses. Molecular docking simulation between the epitopes and their corresponding MHC molecules was carried out. 13 epitopes, a highly immunogenic adjuvant, elements for proper sub-cellular trafficking, a secretion booster, and appropriate linkers were combined for constructing the vaccine. The vaccine was found to be antigenic, almost neutral at physiological pH, non-toxic, non-allergenic, capable of generating a robust immune response and had a decent worldwide population coverage. Based on these parameters, this design can be considered a promising choice for a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Design , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/genetics
18.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110084, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643765

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the pandemic outbreak that is caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus from December, 2019. Human race do not know the curative measure of this devastating disease. In today's era of nanotechnology, it may use its knowledge to develop molecular vaccine to combat this disease. In this article we are intended to propose a hypothesis on the development of a vaccine that is molecular in nature to work against COVID-19. The nanoconjugate may comprise with the inorganic nanoparticle layered double hydroxide intercalated with shRNA-plasmid that have a sequence targeting towards the viral genome or viral mRNA. This nanoconjugate may be used as a nasal spray to deliver the shRNA-plasmid to the target site. The nanoconjugate will have several advantages such as they are biocompatible, they forms as stable knockdown to the target cells and they are stable in the nasal mucosa.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Models, Biological , Nanoconjugates/chemistry , Plasmids/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Viral Vaccines/chemical synthesis
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3523, 2020 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640262

ABSTRACT

The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 into a global pandemic within a few months of onset motivates the development of a rapidly scalable vaccine. Here, we present a self-amplifying RNA encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein encapsulated within a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) as a vaccine. We observe remarkably high and dose-dependent SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody titers in mouse sera, as well as robust neutralization of both a pseudo-virus and wild-type virus. Upon further characterization we find that the neutralization is proportional to the quantity of specific IgG and of higher magnitude than recovered COVID-19 patients. saRNA LNP immunizations induce a Th1-biased response in mice, and there is no antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) observed. Finally, we observe high cellular responses, as characterized by IFN-γ production, upon re-stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptides. These data provide insight into the vaccine design and evaluation of immunogenicity to enable rapid translation to the clinic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry
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