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2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 365-375, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490458

ABSTRACT

Concerns about vaccine safety are an important reason for vaccine hesitancy, however, limited information is available on whether common adverse reactions following vaccination affect the immune response. Data from three clinical trials of recombinant vaccines were used in this post hoc analysis to assess the correlation between inflammation-related solicited adverse reactions (ISARs, including local pain, redness, swelling or induration and systematic fever) and immune responses after vaccination. In the phase III trial of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cecolin®), the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for IgG anti-HPV-16 and -18 (P<0.001) were significantly higher in participants with any ISAR following vaccination than in those without an ISAR. Local pain, induration, swelling and systemic fever were significantly correlated with higher GMCs for IgG anti-HPV-16 and/or anti-HPV-18, respectively. Furthermore, the analyses of the immunogenicity bridging study of Cecolin® and the phase III trial of a hepatitis E vaccine yielded similar results. Based on these results, we built a scoring model to quantify the inflammation reactions and found that the high score of ISAR indicates the strong vaccine-induced antibody level. In conclusion, this study suggests inflammation-related adverse reactions following vaccination potentially indicate a stronger immune response.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis E/immunology , Human papillomavirus 16/immunology , Human papillomavirus 18/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Hepatitis E/prevention & control , Hepatitis E/virology , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18/genetics , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Papillomavirus Vaccines/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/genetics , Young Adult
3.
Mol Ther ; 29(6): 1970-1983, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386766

ABSTRACT

A self-transcribing and replicating RNA (STARR)-based vaccine (LUNAR-COV19) has been developed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. The vaccine encodes an alphavirus-based replicon and the SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike glycoprotein. Translation of the replicon produces a replicase complex that amplifies and prolongs SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein expression. A single prime vaccination in mice led to robust antibody responses, with neutralizing antibody titers increasing up to day 60. Activation of cell-mediated immunity produced a strong viral antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte response. Assaying for intracellular cytokine staining for interferon (IFN)γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4)-positive CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes as well as anti-spike glycoprotein immunoglobulin G (IgG)2a/IgG1 ratios supported a strong Th1-dominant immune response. Finally, single LUNAR-COV19 vaccination at both 2 µg and 10 µg doses completely protected human ACE2 transgenic mice from both mortality and even measurable infection following wild-type SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Our findings collectively suggest the potential of LUNAR-COV19 as a single-dose vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Alphavirus/genetics , Alphavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-4/genetics , Interleukin-4/immunology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Replicon/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/virology , Transgenes , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/biosynthesis , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
4.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 176: 113900, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384817

ABSTRACT

The recent approval of messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines to combat the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic highlights the potential of both conventional mRNA and self-amplifying mRNA (saRNA) as a flexible immunotherapy platform to treat infectious diseases. Besides the antigen it encodes, mRNA itself has an immune-stimulating activity that can contribute to vaccine efficacy. This self-adjuvant effect, however, will interfere with mRNA translation and may influence the desired therapeutic outcome. To further exploit its potential as a versatile therapeutic platform, it will be crucial to control mRNA's innate immune-stimulating properties. In this regard, we describe the mechanisms behind the innate immune recognition of mRNA and provide an extensive overview of strategies to control its innate immune-stimulating activity. These strategies range from modifications to the mRNA backbone itself, optimization of production and purification processes to the combination with innate immune inhibitors. Furthermore, we discuss the delicate balance of the self-adjuvant effect in mRNA vaccination strategies, which can be both beneficial and detrimental to the therapeutic outcome.


Subject(s)
Gene Amplification/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunotherapy/methods , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gene Amplification/drug effects , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunotherapy/trends , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics
6.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(6): 569-575, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356717

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Molecular forms of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) are continuously emerging to improve the efficacy of the treatment, to shorten the duration of protocols and to prevent any side effects. The present review covers the recent progress in the development of AIT based on nucleic acid encoding allergens or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN). RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic vaccinations with plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) encoding major shrimp Met e 1 or insect For t 2 allergen were effective for the treatment of food or insect bite allergy in respective animal models. DNA expressing hypoallergenic shrimp tropomyosin activated Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells whereas DNA encoding For t 2 down-regulated the expression of pruritus-inducing IL-31. Co-administrations of major cat allergen Fel d 1 with high doses of CpG-ODN reduced Th2 airway inflammation through tolerance induction mediated by GATA3+ Foxp3hi Treg cells as well as early anti-inflammatory TNF/TNFR2 signaling cascade. Non-canonical CpG-ODN derived from Cryptococcus neoformans as well as methylated CpG sites present in the genomic DNA from Bifidobacterium infantis mediated Th1 or Treg cell differentiation respectively. SUMMARY: Recent studies on plasmid DNA encoding allergens evidenced their therapeutic potential for the treatment of food allergy and atopic dermatitis. Unmethylated or methylated CpG-ODNs were shown to activate dose-dependent Treg/Th1 responses. Large clinical trials need to be conducted to confirm these promising preclinical data. Moreover, tremendous success of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 must encourage as well the re-exploration of mRNA vaccine platform for innovative AIT.


Subject(s)
Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/therapy , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Allergens/administration & dosage , Allergens/genetics , Allergens/immunology , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Desensitization, Immunologic/trends , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/immunology , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/genetics , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/immunology , Plasmids/administration & dosage , Plasmids/genetics , Plasmids/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
8.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325788

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Most of the currently approved SARS-CoV-2 vaccines use the prototype strain-derived spike (S) protein or its receptor-binding domain (RBD) as the vaccine antigen. The emergence of several novel SARS-CoV-2 variants has raised concerns about potential immune escape. In this study, we performed an immunogenicity comparison of prototype strain-derived RBD, S1, and S ectodomain trimer (S-trimer) antigens and evaluated their induction of neutralizing antibodies against three circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, including B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.617.1. We found that, at the same antigen dose, the RBD and S-trimer vaccines were more potent than the S1 vaccine in eliciting long-lasting, high-titer broadly neutralizing antibodies in mice. The RBD immune sera remained highly effective against the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.617.1 variants despite the corresponding neutralizing titers decreasing by 1.2-, 2.8-, and 3.5-fold relative to that against the wild-type strain. Significantly, the S-trimer immune sera exhibited comparable neutralization potency (less than twofold variation in neutralizing GMTs) towards the prototype strain and all three variants tested. These findings provide valuable information for further development of recombinant protein-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and support the continued use of currently approved SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the regions/countries where variant viruses circulate.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Mice , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 679344, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325528

ABSTRACT

Recently, mRNA vaccines have become a significant type of therapeutic and have created new fields in the biopharmaceutical industry. mRNA vaccines are promising next-generation vaccines that have introduced a new age in vaccinology. The recent approval of two COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2) has accelerated mRNA vaccine technology and boosted the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. These mRNA vaccines will help to tackle COVID-19 pandemic through immunization, offering considerable hope for future mRNA vaccines. Human trials with data both from mRNA cancer vaccines and mRNA infectious disease vaccines have provided encouraging results, inspiring the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries to focus on this area of research. In this article, we discuss current mRNA vaccines broadly in two parts. In the first part, mRNA vaccines in general and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are discussed. We presented the mRNA vaccine structure in general, the different delivery systems, the immune response, and the recent clinical trials for mRNA vaccines (both for cancer mRNA vaccines and different infectious diseases mRNA vaccines). In the second part, different COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are explained. Finally, we illustrated a snapshot of the different leading mRNA vaccine developers, challenges, and future prospects of mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug Development , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/genetics , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Immunity , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
10.
J Genet Genomics ; 48(2): 107-114, 2021 02 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316536

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and its unprecedented global societal and economic disruptive impact highlight the urgent need for safe and effective vaccines. Taking substantial advantages of versatility and rapid development, two mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 have completed late-stage clinical assessment at an unprecedented speed and reported positive results. In this review, we outline keynotes in mRNA vaccine development, discuss recently published data on COVID-19 mRNA vaccine candidates, focusing on those in clinical trials and analyze future potential challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug Development , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
11.
Nature ; 596(7871): 273-275, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263498

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is continuing to evolve around the world, generating new variants that are of concern on the basis of their potential for altered transmissibility, pathogenicity, and coverage by vaccines and therapeutic agents1-5. Here we show that serum samples taken from twenty human volunteers, two or four weeks after their second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, neutralize engineered SARS-CoV-2 with a USA-WA1/2020 genetic background (a virus strain isolated in January 2020) and spike glycoproteins from the recently identified B.1.617.1, B.1.617.2, B.1.618 (all of which were first identified in India) or B.1.525 (first identified in Nigeria) lineages. Geometric mean plaque reduction neutralization titres against the variant viruses-particularly the B.1.617.1 variant-seemed to be lower than the titre against the USA-WA1/2020 virus, but all sera tested neutralized the variant viruses at titres of at least 1:40. The susceptibility of the variant strains to neutralization elicited by the BNT162b2 vaccine supports mass immunization as a central strategy to end the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic globally.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vero Cells
12.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211021498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249538

ABSTRACT

Today the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global health problem. After more than a year with the pandemic, although our knowledge has progressed on COVID-19, there are still many unknowns in virological, pathophysiological and immunological aspects. It is obvious that the most efficient solution to end this pandemic are safe and efficient vaccines. This manuscript summarizes the pathophysiological and thrombotic features of COVID-19 and the safety and efficacy of currently approved COVID-19 vaccines with an aim to clarify the recent concerns of thromboembolic events after COVID-19 vaccination. The influx of newer information is rapid, requiring periodic updates and objective assessment of the data on the pathogenesis of COVID-19 variants and the safety and efficacy of currently available vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Autoantibodies/biosynthesis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Drug Approval , Female , Genetic Vectors , Glycosaminoglycans/immunology , Humans , Male , Models, Cardiovascular , Pandemics/prevention & control , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Safety , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2893, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232068

ABSTRACT

Several vaccines have demonstrated efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 mediated disease, yet there is limited data on the immune response induced by heterologous vaccination regimens using alternate vaccine modalities. Here, we present a detailed description of the immune response, in mice, following vaccination with a self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccine and an adenoviral vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2. We demonstrate that antibody responses are higher in two-dose heterologous vaccination regimens than single-dose regimens. Neutralising titres after heterologous prime-boost were at least comparable or higher than the titres measured after homologous prime boost vaccination with viral vectors. Importantly, the cellular immune response after a heterologous regimen is dominated by cytotoxic T cells and Th1+ CD4 T cells, which is superior to the response induced in homologous vaccination regimens in mice. These results underpin the need for clinical trials to investigate the immunogenicity of heterologous regimens with alternate vaccine technologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Viral/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
15.
Curr Opin Virol ; 49: 52-57, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213121

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in more than 141 million people and caused more than 3 million deaths worldwide. To reduce the additional loss of millions of lives until natural immunity is reached, researchers have focused on the only known method to stop the COVID-19 pandemic: vaccines. The pandemic has propelled high-speed vaccine development, some based on novel technology previously not utilized in the vaccine field. The new technology opens new possibilities and comes with challenges because the long-term performance of the new platforms is unknown. Here we review the current leading vaccine candidates against COVID-19 and outline the advantages and disadvantages as well as the unknowns of each candidate.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/adverse effects , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
16.
Clin Immunol ; 227: 108748, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208438

ABSTRACT

Reports about cases of anaphylaxis to mRNA vaccines have created anxiety in the community and could increase vaccine hesitancy in the population. There are no standardized protocols for allergy testing to mRNA vaccines. PEG is currently the only excipient in both vaccines with recognized allergenic potential. Allergy to PEG has been reported with increasing frequency over recent years, often in patients who had repeated systemic allergic reactions/anaphylaxis to several classes of drugs before diagnosis. Proposed protocols are based on current knowledge about potential mechanisms of anaphylaxis associated with the mRNA vaccines, and the assumption that polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the most likely culprit. Allergy testing to PEGs and mRNA vaccines is complex and carries the risk of anaphylaxis and should be conducted in a specialist drug allergy center. Appropriate PEG-free emergency medical treatment and supervision should be readily available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Hypersensitivity/immunology , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Risk Factors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
17.
Nat Med ; 27(6): 1062-1070, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199302

ABSTRACT

An effective vaccine is needed to end the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Here, we assess the preliminary safety, tolerability and immunogenicity data from an ongoing single-center (in Jiangsu province, China), parallel-group, double-blind phase 1 trial of the vaccine candidate BNT162b1 in 144 healthy SARS-CoV-2-naive Chinese participants. These participants are randomized 1:1:1 to receive prime and boost vaccinations of 10 µg or 30 µg BNT162b1 or placebo, given 21 d apart, with equal allocation of younger (aged 18-55 years) and older adults (aged 65-85 years) to each treatment group (ChiCTR2000034825). BNT162b1 encodes the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and is one of several messenger RNA-based vaccine candidates under clinical investigation. Local reactions and systemic events were generally dose dependent, transient and mild to moderate. Fever was the only grade 3 adverse event. BNT162b1 induced robust interferon-γ T cell responses to a peptide pool including the RBD in both younger and older Chinese adults, and geometric mean neutralizing titers reached 2.1-fold (for younger participants) and 1.3-fold (for the older participants) that of a panel of COVID-19 convalescent human sera obtained at least 14 d after positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test. In summary, BNT162b1 has an acceptable safety profile and produces high levels of humoral and T cell responses in an Asian population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Young Adult
19.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 52, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136226

ABSTRACT

In vitro-transcribed messenger RNA-based therapeutics represent a relatively novel and highly efficient class of drugs. Several recently published studies emphasize the potential efficacy of mRNA vaccines in treating different types of malignant and infectious diseases where conventional vaccine strategies and platforms fail to elicit protective immune responses. mRNA vaccines have lately raised high interest as potent vaccines against SARS-CoV2. Direct application of mRNA or its electroporation into dendritic cells was shown to induce polyclonal CD4+ and CD8+ mediated antigen-specific T cell responses as well as the production of protective antibodies with the ability to eliminate transformed or infected cells. More importantly, the vaccine composition may include two or more mRNAs coding for different proteins or long peptides. This enables the induction of polyclonal immune responses against a broad variety of epitopes within the encoded antigens that are presented on various MHC complexes, thus avoiding the restriction to a certain HLA molecule or possible immune escape due to antigen-loss. The development and design of mRNA therapies was recently boosted by several critical innovations including the development of technologies for the production and delivery of high quality and stable mRNA. Several technical obstacles such as stability, delivery and immunogenicity were addressed in the past and gradually solved in the recent years.This review will summarize the most recent technological developments and application of mRNA vaccines in clinical trials and discusses the results, challenges and future directions with a special focus on the induced innate and adaptive immune responses.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines/genetics , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/therapy , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Animals , Antigens, Neoplasm/genetics , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Transfer Techniques , Humans , Immunity , Immunotherapy , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/metabolism , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/pathology , Neoplasms/pathology , RNA Stability , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
20.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128059

ABSTRACT

In the race for a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the synthetic mRNA format has been shown to be the fastest one and proved to be safe and highly efficient, even at the very low dose of a few µg per injection. The mRNA vaccines are not new: vaccines that are based on attenuated mRNA viruses, such as Mumps, Measles, and Rubella, immunize by delivering their mRNAs into the cells of the vaccinated individual, who produces the viral proteins that then prime the immune response. Synthetic mRNA in liposomes can be seen as a modern, more refined, and thereby a safer version of those live attenuated RNA viruses. The anti-COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (coding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein) is the third synthetic RNA therapeutic being approved. It follows the aptamer Macugen® (which neutralizes VEGF) and the siRNA Onpattro® (which destroys the transthyretin-coding mRNA). Remarkably, the 30 µg of mRNA that are contained in the first approved anti-COVID-19 vaccine are sufficient for generating high levels of neutralizing antibodies against the virus in all injected volunteers (including participants over 65 years old). The efficacy and safety data are stunning. The distribution of these vaccines throughout the world will bring a halt to the coronavirus pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics
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