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1.
Vaccine ; 41(11): 1834-1847, 2023 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In early 2020, developing vaccines was an urgent need for preventing COVID-19 from a contingency perspective. METHODS: S-268019-a is a recombinant protein-based vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), comprising a modified recombinant spike protein antigen adjuvanted with agatolimod sodium, a Toll-like receptor-9 agonist. In the preclinical phase, it was administered intramuscularly twice at a 2-week interval in 7-week-old mice. Immunogenicity was assessed, and the mice were challenged intranasally with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 at 2 and 8 weeks, respectively, after the second immunization. After confirming the preclinical effect, a Phase 1/2, randomized, parallel-group clinical study was conducted in healthy adults (aged 20-64 years). All participants received 2 intramuscular injections at various combinations of the antigen and the adjuvant (S-910823/agatolimod sodium, in µg: 12.5/250, 25/250, 50/250, 25/500, 50/500, 100/500, 10/500, 100/100, 200/1000) or placebo (saline) in an equivalent volume at a 3-week interval and were followed up until Day 50 in this interim analysis. RESULTS: In the preclinical studies, S-268019-a was safe and elicited robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing antibody responses in mice. When challenged with SARS-CoV-2, all S-268019-a-treated mice survived and maintained weight until 10 days, whereas all placebo- or adjuvant-treated (without antigen) mice died within 6 days. In the Phase 1/2 trial, although S-268019-a was well tolerated in adult participants, was safe up to Day 50, and elicited robust anti-spike protein IgG antibodies, it did not elicit sufficient neutralizing antibody levels. CONCLUSIONS: The S-268019-a vaccine was not sufficiently immunogenic in Japanese adults despite robust immunogenicity and efficacy in mice. Our results exemplify the innate challenges in translating preclinical data in animals to clinical trials, and highlight the need for continued research to overcome such barriers. (jRCT2051200092).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Animals , Humans , Mice , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Double-Blind Method , East Asian People , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
2.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1299, 2023 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264553

ABSTRACT

mRNA-based vaccines dramatically reduce the occurrence and severity of COVID-19, but are associated with rare vaccine-related adverse effects. These toxicities, coupled with observations that SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with autoantibody development, raise questions whether COVID-19 vaccines may also promote the development of autoantibodies, particularly in autoimmune patients. Here we used Rapid Extracellular Antigen Profiling to characterize self- and viral-directed humoral responses after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in 145 healthy individuals, 38 patients with autoimmune diseases, and 8 patients with mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis. We confirm that most individuals generated robust virus-specific antibody responses post vaccination, but that the quality of this response is impaired in autoimmune patients on certain modes of immunosuppression. Autoantibody dynamics are remarkably stable in all vaccinated patients compared to COVID-19 patients that exhibit an increased prevalence of new autoantibody reactivities. Patients with vaccine-associated myocarditis do not have increased autoantibody reactivities relative to controls. In summary, our findings indicate that mRNA vaccines decouple SARS-CoV-2 immunity from autoantibody responses observed during acute COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Myocarditis/immunology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
5.
Nature ; 593(7857): 136-141, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114170

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is uncontrolled in many parts of the world; control is compounded in some areas by the higher transmission potential of the B.1.1.7 variant1, which has now been reported in 94 countries. It is unclear whether the response of the virus to vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of the prototypic strain will be affected by the mutations found in B.1.1.7. Here we assess the immune responses of individuals after vaccination with the mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b22. We measured neutralizing antibody responses after the first and second immunizations using pseudoviruses that expressed the wild-type spike protein or a mutated spike protein that contained the eight amino acid changes found in the B.1.1.7 variant. The sera from individuals who received the vaccine exhibited a broad range of neutralizing titres against the wild-type pseudoviruses that were modestly reduced against the B.1.1.7 variant. This reduction was also evident in sera from some patients who had recovered from COVID-19. Decreased neutralization of the B.1.1.7 variant was also observed for monoclonal antibodies that target the N-terminal domain (9 out of 10) and the receptor-binding motif (5 out of 31), but not for monoclonal antibodies that recognize the receptor-binding domain that bind outside the receptor-binding motif. Introduction of the mutation that encodes the E484K substitution in the B.1.1.7 background to reflect a newly emerged variant of concern (VOC 202102/02) led to a more-substantial loss of neutralizing activity by vaccine-elicited antibodies and monoclonal antibodies (19 out of 31) compared with the loss of neutralizing activity conferred by the mutations in B.1.1.7 alone. The emergence of the E484K substitution in a B.1.1.7 background represents a threat to the efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Serotherapy
7.
Viruses ; 12(1)2020 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969491

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an acute, high-mortality-rate, severe infectious disease caused by an emerging MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that causes severe respiratory diseases. The continuous spread and great pandemic potential of MERS-CoV make it necessarily important to develop effective vaccines. We previously demonstrated that the application of Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles as a bacterial vector displaying the MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD) is a very promising MERS vaccine candidate that is capable of producing potential neutralization antibodies. We have also used the rabies virus (RV) as a viral vector to design a recombinant vaccine by expressing the MERS-CoV S1 (spike) protein on the surface of the RV. In this study, we compared the immunological efficacy of the vaccine candidates in BALB/c mice in terms of the levels of humoral and cellular immune responses. The results show that the rabies virus vector-based vaccine can induce remarkably earlier antibody response and higher levels of cellular immunity than the GEM particles vector. However, the GEM particles vector-based vaccine candidate can induce remarkably higher antibody response, even at a very low dose of 1 µg. These results indicate that vaccines constructed using different vaccine vector platforms for the same pathogen have different rates and trends in humoral and cellular immune responses in the same animal model. This discovery not only provides more alternative vaccine development platforms for MERS-CoV vaccine development, but also provides a theoretical basis for our future selection of vaccine vector platforms for other specific pathogens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lactococcus lactis/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Rabies virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
9.
J Med Virol ; 94(9): 4287-4293, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864337

ABSTRACT

The newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant, sublineages BA.1 and BA.2, recently became the dominant variants of concern (VOCs) with significantly higher transmissibility than any other variant appeared and markedly greater resistance to neutralization antibodies and original ancestral WA1 spike-matched vaccine. Therefore, it is urgent to develop vaccines against VOCs like Omicron. Unlike the new booming messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine, protein vaccines have been used for decades to protect people from various kinds of viral infections and have advantages with their inexpensive production protocols and their relative stability in comparison to the mRNA vaccine. Here, we show that sera from BA.1 spike protein vaccinated mice mainly elicited neutralizing antibodies against BA.1 itself. However, a booster with BA.1 spike protein or a bivalent vaccine composed of D614G and BA.1 spike protein-induced not only potent neutralizing antibody response against D614G and BA.1 pseudovirus, but also against BA.2, other four SARS-CoV-2 VOCs (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta) and SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses (pangolin CoV GD-1 and bat CoV RsSHC014). The two recombinant spike protein vaccines method described here lay a foundation for future vaccine development for broad protection against pan-sarbecovirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Combined , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
10.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 4028577, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846583

ABSTRACT

Several vaccine strategies are now available to fight the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Those based on the administration of lipid-complexed messenger(m)RNA molecules represent the last frontiers in terms of technology innovation. mRNA molecules coding for the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein are intramuscularly injected, thereby entering cells by virtue of their encapsulation into synthetic lipid nanovesicles. mRNA-targeted cells express the Spike protein on their plasma membrane in a way that it can be sensed by the immune system, which reacts generating anti-Spike antibodies. Although this class of vaccines appears as the most effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease, their safety and efficiency are challenged by several factors included, but not limited to the following: emergence of viral variants, lack of adequate pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics studies, inability to protect oral mucosa from infection, and antibody waning. Emergence of viral variants can be a consequence of mass vaccination carried out in a pandemic time using suboptimal vaccines against an RNA virus. On the other hand, understanding the remainder flaws could be of some help in designing next generation anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. In this commentary, issues regarding the fate of injected mRNA, the tissue distribution of the induced antiviral antibodies, and the generation of memory B cells are discussed. Careful evaluation of both experimental and clinical observations on these key aspects should be taken into account before planning booster administration, vaccination to non-at-risk population, and social restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Lipids , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
11.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810323

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has now been continuing for more than two years. The infection causes COVID-19, a disease of the respiratory and cardiovascular system of variable severity. Here, the humoral immune response of 80 COVID-19 patients from the University Hospital Frankfurt/Main, Germany, was characterized longitudinally. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralization activity of serum waned over time. The neutralizing potential of serum directed towards the human alpha-coronavirus NL-63 (NL63) also waned, indicating that no cross-priming against alpha-coronaviruses occurred. A subset of the recovered patients (n = 13) was additionally vaccinated with the mRNA vaccine Comirnaty. Vaccination increased neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type (WT), Delta, and Omicron, although Omicron-specific neutralization was not detectable prior to vaccination. In addition, the vaccination induced neutralizing antibodies against the more distantly related SARS-CoV-1 but not against NL63. The results indicate that although SARS-CoV-2 humoral immune responses induced by infection wane, vaccination induces a broad neutralizing activity against multiple SARS-CoVs, but not to the common cold alpha-coronavirus NL63.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
12.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(5): 100631, 2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799660

ABSTRACT

Two doses of Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine elicit robust severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-neutralizing antibodies with frequent adverse events. Here, by applying a high-dimensional immune profiling on 92 vaccinees, we identify six vaccine-induced immune dynamics that correlate with the amounts of neutralizing antibodies, the severity of adverse events, or both. The early dynamics of natural killer (NK)/monocyte subsets (CD16+ NK cells, CD56high NK cells, and non-classical monocytes), dendritic cell (DC) subsets (DC3s and CD11c- Axl+ Siglec-6+ [AS]-DCs), and NKT-like cells are revealed as the distinct cell correlates for neutralizing-antibody titers, severity of adverse events, and both, respectively. The cell correlates for neutralizing antibodies or adverse events are consistently associated with elevation of interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-inducible chemokines, but the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CXCR3 are expressed in distinct manners between the two correlates: vaccine-induced expression on the neutralizing-antibody correlate and constitutive expression on the adverse-event correlate. The finding may guide vaccine strategies that balance immunogenicity and reactogenicity.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 840707, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742222

ABSTRACT

The development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 remains a global health priority. Despite extensive use, the effects of Sputnik V on B cell immunity need to be explored in detail. We performed comprehensive profiling of humoral and B cell responses in a cohort of vaccinated subjects (n = 22), and demonstrate that Sputnik vaccination results in robust B cell immunity. We show that B memory cell (MBC) and antibody responses to Sputnik V were heavily dependent on whether the vaccinee had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection or not. 85 days after the first dose of the vaccine, ex vivo stimulated MBCs from the vast majority of Sputnik V vaccinees produced antibodies that robustly neutralized the Wuhan Spike-pseudotyped lentivirus. MBC-derived antibodies from all previously infected and some of the naïve vaccine recipients could also cross-neutralize Beta (B.1.351) variant of SARS-CoV-2. Virus-neutralizing activity of MBC-derived antibodies correlated well with that of the serum antibodies, suggesting the interplay between the MBC and long-lived plasma cell responses. Thus, our in-depth analysis of MBC responses in Sputnik V vaccinees complements traditional serological approaches and may provide important outlook into future B cell responses upon re-encounter with the emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Memory B Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cells, Cultured , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(12): e2200065119, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740535

ABSTRACT

SignificanceConcern has increased about the pandemic potential of Nipah virus (NiV). Similar to SARS-CoV-2, NiV is an RNA virus that is transmitted by respiratory droplets. There are currently no NiV vaccines licensed for human use. While several preventive vaccines have shown promise in protecting animals against lethal NiV disease, most studies have assessed protection 1 mo after vaccination. However, in order to contain and control outbreaks, vaccines that can rapidly confer protection in days rather than months are needed. Here, we show that a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vector expressing the NiV glycoprotein can completely protect monkeys vaccinated 7 d prior to NiV exposure and 67% of animals vaccinated 3 d before NiV challenge.


Subject(s)
Henipavirus Infections/veterinary , Nipah Virus/immunology , Primate Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , Genetic Vectors , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Neutralization Tests , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Primate Diseases/diagnosis , Primate Diseases/mortality , Primate Diseases/virology , Vaccination , Viral Load
15.
Cell Rep ; 38(9): 110429, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734242

ABSTRACT

Continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) is fueling the COVID-19 pandemic. Omicron (B.1.1.529) rapidly spread worldwide. The large number of mutations in its Spike raise concerns about a major antigenic drift that could significantly decrease vaccine efficacy and infection-induced immunity. A long interval between BNT162b2 mRNA doses elicits antibodies that efficiently recognize Spikes from different VOCs. Here, we evaluate the recognition of Omicron Spike by plasma from a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 naive and previously infected individuals who received their BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine 16 weeks apart. Omicron Spike is recognized less efficiently than D614G, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta Spikes. We compare with plasma activity from participants receiving a short (4 weeks) interval regimen. Plasma from individuals of the long-interval cohort recognize and neutralize better the Omicron Spike compared with those who received a short interval. Whether this difference confers any clinical benefit against Omicron remains unknown.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , Immunization Schedule , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Quebec , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Vaccination/methods , Vaccine Potency , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult , mRNA Vaccines/administration & dosage , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 811802, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731773

ABSTRACT

A mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 that can be developed in any molecular biology lab with standard facilities will be valuable in evaluating drugs and vaccines. Here we present a simplified SARS-CoV-2 mouse model exploiting the rapid adenoviral purification method. Mice that are sensitive to SARS-CoV-2 infection were generated by transducing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) by an adenovirus. The expression kinetics of the hACE2 in transduced mice were assessed by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and qPCR. Further, the ability of the hACE2 to support viral replication was determined in vitro and in vivo. The hACE2 expression in the lungs of mice was observed for at least nine days after transduction. The murine macrophages expressing hACE2 supported viral replication with detection of high viral titers. Next, in vivo studies were carried out to determine viral replication and lung disease following SARS-CoV-2 challenge. The model supported viral replication, and the challenged mouse developed lung disease characteristic of moderate interstitial pneumonia. Further, we illustrated the utility of the system by demonstrating protection using an oral mRNA vaccine. The multicistronic vaccine design enabled by the viral self-cleaving peptides targets receptor binding domain (RBD), heptad repeat domain (HR), membrane glycoprotein (M) and epitopes of nsp13 of parental SARS-CoV-2. Further, Salmonella and Semliki Forest virus replicon were exploited, respectively, for gene delivery and mRNA expression. We recorded potent cross-protective neutralizing antibodies in immunized mice against the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. The vaccine protected the mice against viral replication and SARS-CoV-2-induced weight loss and lung pathology. The findings support the suitability of the model for preclinical evaluation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapies and vaccines. In addition, the findings provide novel insights into mRNA vaccine design against infectious diseases not limiting to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Replicon/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(634): eabn7842, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723505

ABSTRACT

Multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that have mutations associated with increased transmission and antibody escape have arisen over the course of the current pandemic. Although the current vaccines have largely been effective against past variants, the number of mutations found on the Omicron (B.1.1.529) spike protein appear to diminish the protection conferred by preexisting immunity. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudoparticles expressing the spike protein of several SARS-CoV-2 variants, we evaluated the magnitude and breadth of the neutralizing antibody response over time in individuals after infection and in mRNA-vaccinated individuals. We observed that boosting increases the magnitude of the antibody response to wild-type (D614), Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants; however, the Omicron variant was the most resistant to neutralization. We further observed that vaccinated healthy adults had robust and broad antibody responses, whereas responses may have been reduced in vaccinated pregnant women, underscoring the importance of learning how to maximize mRNA vaccine responses in pregnant populations. Findings from this study show substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude and breadth of responses after infection and mRNA vaccination and may support the addition of more conserved viral antigens to existing SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
19.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 69, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721495

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and the gradually decreasing neutralizing antibodies over time post vaccination have led to an increase in incidents of breakthrough infection across the world. To investigate the potential protective effect of the recombinant protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine targeting receptor-binding domain (RBD) (PS-RBD) and whole inactivated virus particle vaccine (IV) against the variant strains, in this study, rhesus macaques were immunized with PS-RBD or IV vaccine, followed by a Beta variant (B.1.351) challenge. Although neutralizing activity against the Beta variant was reduced compared with that against the prototype, the decreased viral load in both upper and lower respiratory tracts, milder pathological changes, and downregulated inflammatory cytokine levels in lung tissues after challenge demonstrated that PS-RBD and IV still provided effective protection against the Beta variant in the macaque model. Furthermore, PS-RBD-induced macaque sera possessed general binding and neutralizing activity to Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants in our study, though the neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers declined by varying degrees, demonstrating potential protection of PS-RBD against current circulating variants of concern (VOCs). Interestingly, although the IV vaccine-induced extremely low neutralizing antibody titers against the Beta variant, it still showed reduction for viral load and significantly alleviated pathological change. Other correlates of vaccine-induced protection (CoP) like antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and immune memory were both confirmed to be existing in IV vaccinated group and possibly be involved in the protective mechanism.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/pharmacology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology
20.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 23, 2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised (IC) patients are at higher risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, morbidity, and mortality compared to the general population. They should be prioritized for primary prevention through vaccination. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in IC patients through a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. METHOD: PubMed-MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for original articles reporting the immunogenicity of two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in adult patients with IC condition between June 1, 2020 and September 1, 2021. Meta-analysis was performed using either random or fixed effect according to the heterogeneity of the studies. Subgroup analysis was performed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 26 studies on 3207 IC patients and 1726 healthy individuals were included. The risk of seroconversion in IC patients was 48% lower than those in controls (RR = 0.52 [0.42, 0.65]). IC patients with autoimmune conditions were 54%, and patients with malignancy were 42% more likely to have positive seroconversion than transplant recipients (P < 0.01). Subgroup meta-analysis based on the type of malignancy, revealed significantly higher proportion of positive seroconversion in solid organ compared to hematologic malignancies (RR = 0.88 [0.85, 0.92] vs. 0.61 [0.44, 0.86], P = 0.03). Subgroup meta-analysis based on type of transplantation (kidney vs. others) showed no statistically significant between-group difference of seroconversion (P = 0.55). CONCLUSIONS: IC patients, especially transplant recipients, developed lower immunogenicity with two-dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Among patients with IC, those with autoimmune conditions and solid organ malignancies are mostly benefited from COVID-19 vaccination. Findings from this meta-analysis could aid healthcare policymakers in making decisions regarding the importance of the booster dose or more strict personal protections in the IC patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Neoplasms/immunology , Organ Transplantation , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
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