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1.
JCI Insight ; 6(24)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598468

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have shown exceptional clinical efficacy, providing robust protection against severe disease. However, our understanding of transcriptional and repertoire changes following full vaccination remains incomplete. We used scRNA-Seq and functional assays to compare humoral and cellular responses to 2 doses of mRNA vaccine with responses observed in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic disease. Our analyses revealed enrichment of spike-specific B cells, activated CD4+ T cells, and robust antigen-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses following vaccination. On the other hand, although clonally expanded CD8+ T cells were observed following both vaccination and natural infection, CD8+ T cell responses were relatively weak and variable. In addition, TCR gene usage was variable, reflecting the diversity of repertoires and MHC polymorphism in the human population. Natural infection induced expansion of CD8+ T cell clones that occupy distinct clusters compared to those induced by vaccination and likely recognize a broader set of viral antigens of viral epitopes presented by the virus not seen in the mRNA vaccine. Our study highlights a coordinated adaptive immune response in which early CD4+ T cell responses facilitate the development of the B cell response and substantial expansion of effector CD8+ T cells, together capable of contributing to future recall responses.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , /therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, Viral , B-Lymphocytes , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Carrier State , Convalescence , Epitopes , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Memory , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells , Th17 Cells , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Young Adult , /therapeutic use
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 766112, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581336

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global health concern. The development of vaccines with high immunogenicity and safety is crucial for controlling the global COVID-19 pandemic and preventing further illness and fatalities. Here, we report the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, Nanocovax, based on recombinant protein production of the extracellular (soluble) portion of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. The results showed that Nanocovax induced high levels of S protein-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies in three animal models: BALB/c mouse, Syrian hamster, and a non-human primate (Macaca leonina). In addition, a viral challenge study using the hamster model showed that Nanocovax protected the upper respiratory tract from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nanocovax did not induce any adverse effects in mice (Mus musculus var. albino) and rats (Rattus norvegicus). These preclinical results indicate that Nanocovax is safe and effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/toxicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cricetinae , Macaca , Mice , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/toxicity
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 803742, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581314

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients are considered high-risk and prioritized for vaccination against COVID-19. We aimed to analyze B-cell subsets in these patients to identify potential predictors of humoral vaccination response. Patients (n=120) suffering from hematologic malignancies or other causes of immunodeficiency and healthy controls (n=79) received a full vaccination series with an mRNA vaccine. B-cell subsets were analyzed prior to vaccination. Two independent anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or trimeric S protein (TSP) were performed three to four weeks after the second vaccination. Seroconversion occurred in 100% of healthy controls, in contrast to 67% (RBD) and 82% (TSP) of immunocompromised patients, while only 32% (RBD) and 22% (TSP) achieved antibody levels comparable to those of healthy controls. The number of circulating CD19+IgD+CD27- naïve B cells was strongly associated with antibody levels (ρ=0.761, P<0.001) and the only independent predictor for achieving antibody levels comparable to healthy controls (OR 1.07 per 10-µL increase, 95%CI 1.02-1.12, P=0.009). Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified a cut-off at ≥61 naïve B cells per µl to discriminate between patients with and without an optimal antibody response. Consequently, measuring of naïve B cells in immunocompromised hematologic patients could be useful in predicting their humoral vaccination response.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
4.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 521-527, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575141

ABSTRACT

There is currently an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. Individuals with COVID-19 have symptoms that are usually asymptomatic or mild in most initial cases. However, in some cases, moderate and severe symptoms have been observed with pneumonia. Many companies are developing COVID-19 vaccine candidates using different technologies that are classified into four groups (intact target viruses, proteins, viral vectors and nucleic acids). For rapid development, RNA vaccines and adenovirus vector vaccines have been urgently approved, and their injection has already started across the world. These types of vaccine technologies have been developed over more than 20 years using translational research for use against cancer or diseases caused by genetic disorders but the COVID-19 vaccines are the first licensed drugs to prevent infectious diseases using RNA vaccine technology. Although these vaccines are highly effective in preventing COVID-19 for a short period, safety and efficiency evaluations should be continuously monitored over a long time period. As the time of writing, more than 10 projects are now in phase 3 to evaluate the prevention of infection in double-blind studies. Hopefully, several projects may be approved to ensure high-efficiency and safe vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Animals , Double-Blind Method , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Technology/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 229-263, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575944

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are one of mankind's greatest medical advances, and their use has drastically reduced and in some cases eliminated (e.g., smallpox) disease and death caused by infectious agents. Traditional vaccine modalities including live-attenuated pathogen vaccines, wholly inactivated pathogen vaccines, and protein-based pathogen subunit vaccines have successfully been used to create efficacious vaccines against measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and yellow fever. These traditional vaccine modalities, however, take many months to years to develop and have thus proven less effective for use in creating vaccines to emerging or reemerging infectious diseases (EIDs) including influenza, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 1 and 2 (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2). As factors such as climate change and increased globalization continue to increase the pace of EID development, newer vaccine modalities are required to develop vaccines that can prevent or attenuate EID outbreaks throughout the world. One such modality, DNA vaccines, has been studied for over 30 years and has numerous qualities that make them ideal for meeting the challenge of EIDs including; (1) DNA vaccine candidates can be designed within hours of publishing of a pathogens genetic sequence; (2) they can be manufactured cheaply and rapidly in large quantities; (3) they are thermostable and have reduced requirement for a cold-chain during distribution, and (4) they have a remarkable safety record in the clinic. Optimizations made in plasmid design as well as in DNA vaccine delivery have greatly improved the immunogenicity of these vaccines. Here we describe the process of making a DNA vaccine to an EID pathogen and describe methods used for assessing the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccines in small animal models.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines, DNA , Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112385, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565522

ABSTRACT

Chemically modified mRNA represents a unique, efficient, and straightforward approach to produce a class of biopharmaceutical agents. It has been already approved as a vaccination-based method for targeting SARS-CoV-2 virus. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the prospect of synthetic modified mRNA to efficiently and safely combat various diseases. Recently, various optimization advances have been adopted to overcome the limitations associated with conventional gene therapeutics leading to wide-ranging applications in different disease conditions. This review sheds light on emerging directions of chemically modified mRNAs to prevent and treat widespread chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders, cancer vaccination and immunotherapy, musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory conditions, cardiovascular diseases, and liver diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/therapy , Genetic Therapy/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic , Biological Availability , Drug Carriers , Forecasting , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunotherapy, Active , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6765-6777, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544330

ABSTRACT

Avidity is defined as the binding strength of immunoglobulin G (IgG) toward its target epitope. Avidity is directly related to affinity, as both processes are determined by the best fit of IgG to epitopes. We confirm and extend data on incomplete avidity maturation of IgG toward severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleoprotein (NP), spike protein-1 (S1), and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. In SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, an initial rise in avidity maturation was ending abruptly, leading to IgG of persistently low or intermediate avidity. Incomplete avidity maturation might facilitate secondary SARS-CoV-2 infections and thus prevent the establishment of herd immunity. Incomplete avidity maturation after infection with SARS-CoV-2 (with only 11.8% of cases showing finally IgG of high avidity, that is, an avidity index > 0.6) was contrasted by regular and rapid establishment of high avidity in SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals after two vaccination steps with the BioNTech messenger RNA (mRNA) Vaccine (78% of cases with high avidity). One vaccination step was not sufficient for induction of complete avidity maturation in vaccinated SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals, as it induced high avidity only in 2.9% of cases within 3 weeks. However, one vaccination step was sufficient to induce high avidity in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Herd/immunology , Immunologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6486-6495, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544303

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines currently undergoing clinical trials. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to collect open human COVID-19 vaccines randomized controlled trials, without limiting the search time and language. The research papers collected in the above-mentioned databases were initially screened according to the title and abstract content and merged, and the repeated ones were removed. After reading the full text of the remaining research, the studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded, and finally, nine studies were obtained. After extracting the statistical data of adverse events in the study, load them into Review Manager for heterogeneity analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of adverse reactions of inactivated virus vaccines, RNA vaccines, and adenovirus vector vaccines was higher than that of placebo. Common adverse reactions included pain, swelling, and fever at the injection site. CONCLUSION: From the perspective of effectiveness, RNA vaccine > adenovirus vector vaccine > inactivated virus vaccine. From the perspective of safety, the incidence of adverse reactions of the three vaccines is higher than that of a placebo, and the incidence of adverse reactions of the adenovirus vector vaccine is higher.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adenovirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Adenovirus Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 365-375, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490458

ABSTRACT

Concerns about vaccine safety are an important reason for vaccine hesitancy, however, limited information is available on whether common adverse reactions following vaccination affect the immune response. Data from three clinical trials of recombinant vaccines were used in this post hoc analysis to assess the correlation between inflammation-related solicited adverse reactions (ISARs, including local pain, redness, swelling or induration and systematic fever) and immune responses after vaccination. In the phase III trial of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cecolin®), the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for IgG anti-HPV-16 and -18 (P<0.001) were significantly higher in participants with any ISAR following vaccination than in those without an ISAR. Local pain, induration, swelling and systemic fever were significantly correlated with higher GMCs for IgG anti-HPV-16 and/or anti-HPV-18, respectively. Furthermore, the analyses of the immunogenicity bridging study of Cecolin® and the phase III trial of a hepatitis E vaccine yielded similar results. Based on these results, we built a scoring model to quantify the inflammation reactions and found that the high score of ISAR indicates the strong vaccine-induced antibody level. In conclusion, this study suggests inflammation-related adverse reactions following vaccination potentially indicate a stronger immune response.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis E/immunology , Human papillomavirus 16/immunology , Human papillomavirus 18/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Hepatitis E/prevention & control , Hepatitis E/virology , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18/genetics , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Papillomavirus Vaccines/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/genetics , Young Adult
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(44): 1539-1544, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502901

ABSTRACT

Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) or COVID-19 vaccination can provide immunity and protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection and illness. CDC used data from the VISION Network* to examine hospitalizations in adults with COVID-19-like illness and compared the odds of receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and thus having laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, between unvaccinated patients with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection occurring 90-179 days before COVID-19-like illness hospitalization, and patients who were fully vaccinated with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine 90-179 days before hospitalization with no previous documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hospitalized adults aged ≥18 years with COVID-19-like illness were included if they had received testing at least twice: once associated with a COVID-19-like illness hospitalization during January-September 2021 and at least once earlier (since February 1, 2020, and ≥14 days before that hospitalization). Among COVID-19-like illness hospitalizations in persons whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, the odds of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics) among unvaccinated, previously infected adults were higher than the odds among fully vaccinated recipients of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine with no previous documented infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.75-10.99). These findings suggest that among hospitalized adults with COVID-19-like illness whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, vaccine-induced immunity was more protective than infection-induced immunity against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. All eligible persons should be vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as possible, including unvaccinated persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 744887, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497079

ABSTRACT

Background: Although the serological antibody responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are well characterized, little is known about their ability to elicit mucosal immunity. Objectives: This study aims to examine and compare the mucosal and systemic responses of recipients of two different vaccination platforms: mRNA (Comirnaty) and inactivated virus (CoronaVac). Methods: Serial blood and nasal epithelial lining fluid (NELF) samples were collected from the recipients of either Comirnaty or CoronaVac. The plasma and NELF immunoglobulins A and G (IgA and IgG) specific to SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein (S1) and their neutralization effects were quantified. Results: Comirnaty induced nasal S1-specific immunoglobulin responses, which were evident as early as 14 ± 2 days after the first dose. In 64% of the subjects, the neutralizing effects of NELF persisted for at least 50 days. Moreover, 85% of Comirnaty recipients exhibited S1-specific IgA and IgG responses in plasma by 14 ± 2 days after the first dose. By 7 ± 2 days after the booster, all plasma samples possessed S1-specific IgA and IgG responses and were neutralizing. The induction of S1-specific plasma antibodies by CoronaVac was IgG dominant, and 83% of the subjects possessed S1-specific IgG by 7 ± 2 days after the booster, with neutralizing effects. Conclusion: Comirnaty induces S1-specific IgA and IgG responses with neutralizing activity in the nasal mucosa; a similar response is not seen with CoronaVac. Clinical Implication: The presence of a nasal response with mRNA vaccine may provide additional protection compared with inactivated virus vaccine. However, whether such widespread immunological response may produce inadvertent adverse effects in other tissues warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(10): e360-e363, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are paramount in the effort to end the coronavirus disease 2019 global epidemic. BNT162b2 is approved for the vaccination of adolescents over 16 years of age. Systemic adverse events were scarce though the pretested cohort of this age group was relatively small. The aim of the current study is to raise awareness for potential adverse reactions. METHODS: This is a case series of patients diagnosed with perimyocarditis following vaccination. Patients were compiled from 3 pediatric medical centers in Israel through a network of pediatricians and data regarding those cases was collected. In addition, incidence of perimyocarditis during the vaccination period was compared with previous years. RESULTS: All patients were males 16-18 years old, of Jewish descent, who presented with chest pain that began 1-3 days following vaccination (mean, 2.1 days). In 6 of the 7 patients, symptoms began following the 2nd dose and in 1 patient following the 1st dose. All cases were mild and none required cardiovascular or respiratory support. The incidence of perimyocarditis during the vaccination period was elevated in comparison to previous years. CONCLUSIONS: This case series describes a time association between coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine and perimyocarditis in adolescents. All cases were mild, although only long-term follow-up can reveal the true impact of this cardiac injury. While it seems that the incidence of perimyocarditis during the vaccination campaign period is increased, a more comprehensive data collection on a wider scale should be done. We hope this report will serve as a reminder to report events and allow for analysis of potential adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Humans , Incidence , Israel , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods
16.
JCI Insight ; 6(20)2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484165

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine antibody response under real-world conditions. This longitudinal study investigated the quantity and quality of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in 846 specimens from 350 patients, comparing BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals (19 previously diagnosed with COVID-19, termed RecoVax; and 49 never diagnosed, termed NaiveVax) with 122 hospitalized unvaccinated (HospNoVax) and 160 outpatient unvaccinated (OutPtNoVax) COVID-19 patients. NaiveVax experienced delay in generating SARS-CoV-2 total antibodies (TAb) and surrogate neutralizing antibodies (SNAb) after the first vaccine dose (D1) but rapid increase in antibody levels after the second dose (D2). However, these never reached RecoVax's robust levels. In fact, NaiveVax TAb and SNAb levels decreased 4 weeks after D2. For the most part, RecoVax TAb persisted, after reaching maximal levels 2 weeks after D2, but SNAb decreased significantly about 6 months after D1. Although NaiveVax avidity lagged behind that of RecoVax for most of the follow-up periods, NaiveVax did reach similar avidity by about 6 months after D1. These data suggest that 1 vaccine dose elicits maximal antibody response in RecoVax and may be sufficient. Also, despite decreasing levels in TAb and SNAb over time, long-term avidity may be a measure worth evaluating and possibly correlating to vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(43): 17975-17982, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483092

ABSTRACT

Targeted and efficient delivery of nucleic acids with viral and synthetic vectors is the key step of genetic nanomedicine. The four-component lipid nanoparticle synthetic delivery systems consisting of ionizable lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, and a PEG-conjugated lipid, assembled by microfluidic or T-tube technology, have been extraordinarily successful for delivery of mRNA to provide Covid-19 vaccines. Recently, we reported a one-component multifunctional sequence-defined ionizable amphiphilic Janus dendrimer (IAJD) synthetic delivery system for mRNA relying on amphiphilic Janus dendrimers and glycodendrimers developed in our laboratory. Amphiphilic Janus dendrimers consist of functional hydrophilic dendrons conjugated to hydrophobic dendrons. Co-assembly of IAJDs with mRNA into dendrimersome nanoparticles (DNPs) occurs by simple injection in acetate buffer, rather than by microfluidic devices, and provides a very efficient system for delivery of mRNA to lung. Here we report the replacement of most of the hydrophilic fragment of the dendron from IAJDs, maintaining only its ionizable amine, while changing its interconnecting group to the hydrophobic dendron from amide to ester. The resulting IAJDs demonstrated that protonated ionizable amines play dual roles of hydrophilic fragment and binding ligand for mRNA, changing delivery from lung to spleen and/or liver. Replacing the interconnecting ester with the amide switched the delivery back to lung. Delivery predominantly to liver is favored by pairs of odd and even alkyl groups in the hydrophobic dendron. This simple structural change transformed the targeted delivery of mRNA mediated with IAJDs, from lung to liver and spleen, and expands the utility of DNPs from therapeutics to vaccines.


Subject(s)
Dendrimers/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , Amines/chemistry , Animals , Esters/chemistry , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Ions/chemistry , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/metabolism
20.
Cell ; 184(23): 5699-5714.e11, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466093

ABSTRACT

Extension of the interval between vaccine doses for the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was introduced in the United Kingdom to accelerate population coverage with a single dose. At this time, trial data were lacking, and we addressed this in a study of United Kingdom healthcare workers. The first vaccine dose induced protection from infection from the circulating alpha (B.1.1.7) variant over several weeks. In a substudy of 589 individuals, we show that this single dose induces severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses and a sustained B and T cell response to the spike protein. NAb levels were higher after the extended dosing interval (6-14 weeks) compared with the conventional 3- to 4-week regimen, accompanied by enrichment of CD4+ T cells expressing interleukin-2 (IL-2). Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection amplified and accelerated the response. These data on dynamic cellular and humoral responses indicate that extension of the dosing interval is an effective immunogenic protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Priming/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Reference Standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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