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1.
Nature ; 601(7893): 410-414, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521758

ABSTRACT

The CVnCoV (CureVac) mRNA vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was recently evaluated in a phase 2b/3 efficacy trial in humans1. CV2CoV is a second-generation mRNA vaccine containing non-modified nucleosides but with optimized non-coding regions and enhanced antigen expression. Here we report the results of a head-to-head comparison of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of CVnCoV and CV2CoV in non-human primates. We immunized 18 cynomolgus macaques with two doses of 12 µg lipid nanoparticle-formulated CVnCoV or CV2CoV or with sham (n = 6 per group). Compared with CVnCoV, CV2CoV induced substantially higher titres of binding and neutralizing antibodies, memory B cell responses and T cell responses as well as more potent neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the Delta variant. Moreover, CV2CoV was found to be comparably immunogenic to the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) vaccine in macaques. Although CVnCoV provided partial protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, CV2CoV afforded more robust protection with markedly lower viral loads in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Binding and neutralizing antibody titres were correlated with protective efficacy. These data demonstrate that optimization of non-coding regions can greatly improve the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a non-modified mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in non-human primates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Nucleosides/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , Female , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Male , Nucleosides/genetics , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/standards , Viral Load , /standards
2.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(7): 466-470, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155718

ABSTRACT

Only fifteen months after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, several vaccines are already available for clinical use. While the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 constitutes the main target of all predominant SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, they work by different mechanisms (mRNA-based vaccines vs. vector-based vaccines vs. protein-based vaccines).Though there are slight differences regarding the level of protection against mild COVID-19, all five vaccines that have been through phase 3 trials were nearly 100 % effective in preventing severe or fatal cases of COVID-19. The side effects were of short duration.Patients with chronic kidney disease (or other significant comorbidities) were largely excluded from Phase 3 trials, which makes definite recommendations concerning their vaccination difficult. The vaccine's effectiveness may be reduced in that population due to a uremic immune defect and/or immunosuppressive medication. However, these patients have an increased risk for severe or fatal COVID-19, so that they may particularly benefit from the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/immunology , Uremia/complications , Uremia/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/standards
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