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3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 476, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is a key intervention to prevent COVID-19. Many vaccines are administered globally, yet there is not much evidence regarding their safety and adverse effects. Iran also faces this challenge, especially as data regarding the Sputnik V vaccine is sparse. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the adverse effects of the most commonly used vaccines in Iran. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort study design, 6600 subjects aged 18 years or older who had received two doses of any of the three COVID-19 vaccines (Sinopharm, AstraZeneca, and Sputnik V) were selected using a random sampling method between March and August 2021. Subjects were asked about any adverse effects of the vaccines by trained interviewers via telephone interview. Vaccine-related adverse effects in individuals during the first 72 h and subsequently following both doses of the vaccines were determined. The demographic variables, type of administered vaccine, adverse effects, and history of the previous infection with COVID-19 were collected. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) and analytical statistics (Chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests) were performed at a 95% significance level using STATA software version 15 (STATA Corp, College Station, TX, USA). RESULTS: From 6600 participants, 4775 responded (response rate = 72.3%). Of the participants, 1460 (30.6%) received the AstraZeneca vaccine, 1564 (32.8%) received the Sinopharm vaccine and 1751 (36.7%) received the Sputnik V vaccine. 2653 participants (55.56%) reported adverse effects after the first dose and 1704 (35.7%) after the second dose. Sputnik V caused the most adverse effects with 1449 (82.7%) vaccine recipients reporting symptoms after the first or second dose, compared with 1030 (70.5%) for AstraZeneca and only 585 (37.4%) for the Sinopharm vaccine. The most common adverse effects after the first dose were fatigue (28.37%), chill/fever (26.86%), and skeletal pain (22.38%). These three adverse effects were the same for the second dose, although their prevalence was lower. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we demonstrate that the Sputnik V vaccine has the highest rate of adverse effects, followed by the AstraZeneca and Sinopharm vaccines. COVID-19 vaccines used in Iran are safe and there were no reports of serious adverse effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use
4.
N Engl J Med ; 387(3): 227-236, 2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence is available on the real-world effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and specifically against infection with the omicron variant among children 5 to 11 years of age. METHODS: Using data from the largest health care organization in Israel, we identified a cohort of children 5 to 11 years of age who were vaccinated on or after November 23, 2021, and matched them with unvaccinated controls to estimate the vaccine effectiveness of BNT162b2 among newly vaccinated children during the omicron wave. Vaccine effectiveness against documented severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and symptomatic Covid-19 was estimated after the first and second vaccine doses. The cumulative incidence of each outcome in the two study groups through January 7, 2022, was estimated with the use of the Kaplan-Meier estimator, and vaccine effectiveness was calculated as 1 minus the risk ratio. Vaccine effectiveness was also estimated in age subgroups. RESULTS: Among 136,127 eligible children who had been vaccinated during the study period, 94,728 were matched with unvaccinated controls. The estimated vaccine effectiveness against documented infection was 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7 to 25) at 14 to 27 days after the first dose and 51% (95% CI, 39 to 61) at 7 to 21 days after the second dose. The absolute risk difference between the study groups at days 7 to 21 after the second dose was 1905 events per 100,000 persons (95% CI, 1294 to 2440) for documented infection and 599 events per 100,000 persons (95% CI, 296 to 897) for symptomatic Covid-19. The estimated vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic Covid-19 was 18% (95% CI, -2 to 34) at 14 to 27 days after the first dose and 48% (95% CI, 29 to 63) at 7 to 21 days after the second dose. We observed a trend toward higher vaccine effectiveness in the youngest age group (5 or 6 years of age) than in the oldest age group (10 or 11 years of age). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that as omicron was becoming the dominant variant, two doses of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine provided moderate protection against documented SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptomatic Covid-19 in children 5 to 11 years of age. (Funded by the European Union through the VERDI project and others.).


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine Efficacy , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vaccine Efficacy/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
7.
Thyroid ; 32(5): 505-514, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852890

ABSTRACT

Background: Thyroiditis and Graves' disease have been reported after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. We evaluated the risks of adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination among patients treated for hypothyroidism. Methods: In this retrospective population-based cohort study of Hong Kong Hospital Authority electronic health records with the Department of Health vaccination records linkage, levothyroxine (LT4) users were categorized into unvaccinated, vaccinated with BNT162b2 (mRNA vaccine), or CoronaVac (inactivated vaccine) between February 23, 2021, and September 9, 2021. Study outcomes were dosage reduction or escalation in LT4, emergency department (ED) visit, unscheduled hospitalization, adverse events of special interest (AESI) according to the World Health Organization's Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, and all-cause mortality. Inverse probability of treatment weighting for propensity score was applied to balance baseline patient characteristics among the three groups. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression models. Patients were observed from the index date until the occurrence of study outcome, death, or censored on September 30, 2021, whichever came first. Results: In total, 47,086 LT4 users were identified (BNT162b2: n = 12,310; CoronaVac: n = 11,353; and unvaccinated: n = 23,423). COVID-19 vaccination was not associated with increased risks of LT4 dosage reduction (BNT162b2: HR = 0.971 [confidence interval; CI 0.892-1.058]; CoronaVac: HR = 0.968 [CI 0.904-1.037]) or escalation (BNT162b2: HR = 0.779 [CI 0.519-1.169]; CoronaVac: HR = 0.715 [CI 0.481-1.062]). Besides, COVID-19 vaccination was not associated with a higher risk of ED visits (BNT162b2: HR = 0.944 [CI 0.700-1.273]; CoronaVac: HR = 0.851 [CI 0.647-1.120]) or unscheduled hospitalization (BNT162b2: HR = 0.905 [CI 0.539-1.520]; CoronaVac: HR = 0.735 [CI 0.448-1.207]). There were two (0.016%) deaths and six (0.062%) AESI recorded for BNT162b2 recipients, and one (0.009%) and three (0.035%) for CoronaVac recipients, respectively. Conclusions: BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccination is not associated with unstable thyroid status or an increased risk of adverse outcomes among patients treated for hypothyroidism in general. These reassuring data should encourage them to get vaccinated against COVID-19 for protection from potentially worse COVID-19-related outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hypothyroidism , /adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Humans , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Hypothyroidism/etiology , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use
8.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(5): 100631, 2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799660

ABSTRACT

Two doses of Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine elicit robust severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-neutralizing antibodies with frequent adverse events. Here, by applying a high-dimensional immune profiling on 92 vaccinees, we identify six vaccine-induced immune dynamics that correlate with the amounts of neutralizing antibodies, the severity of adverse events, or both. The early dynamics of natural killer (NK)/monocyte subsets (CD16+ NK cells, CD56high NK cells, and non-classical monocytes), dendritic cell (DC) subsets (DC3s and CD11c- Axl+ Siglec-6+ [AS]-DCs), and NKT-like cells are revealed as the distinct cell correlates for neutralizing-antibody titers, severity of adverse events, and both, respectively. The cell correlates for neutralizing antibodies or adverse events are consistently associated with elevation of interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-inducible chemokines, but the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CXCR3 are expressed in distinct manners between the two correlates: vaccine-induced expression on the neutralizing-antibody correlate and constitutive expression on the adverse-event correlate. The finding may guide vaccine strategies that balance immunogenicity and reactogenicity.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
9.
N Engl J Med ; 386(20): 1899-1909, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant, which led to increased U.S. hospitalizations for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), generated concern about immune evasion and the duration of protection from vaccines in children and adolescents. METHODS: Using a case-control, test-negative design, we assessed vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 leading to hospitalization and against critical Covid-19 (i.e., leading to receipt of life support or to death). From July 1, 2021, to February 17, 2022, we enrolled case patients with Covid-19 and controls without Covid-19 at 31 hospitals in 23 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of antecedent full vaccination (two doses of BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine) at least 14 days before illness among case patients and controls, according to time since vaccination for patients 12 to 18 years of age and in periods coinciding with circulation of B.1.617.2 (delta) (July 1, 2021, to December 18, 2021) and omicron (December 19, 2021, to February 17, 2022) among patients 5 to 11 and 12 to 18 years of age. RESULTS: We enrolled 1185 case patients (1043 [88%] of whom were unvaccinated, 291 [25%] of whom received life support, and 14 of whom died) and 1627 controls. During the delta-predominant period, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization for Covid-19 among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89 to 95) 2 to 22 weeks after vaccination and was 92% (95% CI, 80 to 97) at 23 to 44 weeks. Among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age (median interval since vaccination, 162 days) during the omicron-predominant period, vaccine effectiveness was 40% (95% CI, 9 to 60) against hospitalization for Covid-19, 79% (95% CI, 51 to 91) against critical Covid-19, and 20% (95% CI, -25 to 49) against noncritical Covid-19. During the omicron period, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization among children 5 to 11 years of age was 68% (95% CI, 42 to 82; median interval since vaccination, 34 days). CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 vaccination reduced the risk of omicron-associated hospitalization by two thirds among children 5 to 11 years of age. Although two doses provided lower protection against omicron-associated hospitalization than against delta-associated hospitalization among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age, vaccination prevented critical illness caused by either variant. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use
10.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 23, 2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised (IC) patients are at higher risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, morbidity, and mortality compared to the general population. They should be prioritized for primary prevention through vaccination. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in IC patients through a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. METHOD: PubMed-MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for original articles reporting the immunogenicity of two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in adult patients with IC condition between June 1, 2020 and September 1, 2021. Meta-analysis was performed using either random or fixed effect according to the heterogeneity of the studies. Subgroup analysis was performed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 26 studies on 3207 IC patients and 1726 healthy individuals were included. The risk of seroconversion in IC patients was 48% lower than those in controls (RR = 0.52 [0.42, 0.65]). IC patients with autoimmune conditions were 54%, and patients with malignancy were 42% more likely to have positive seroconversion than transplant recipients (P < 0.01). Subgroup meta-analysis based on the type of malignancy, revealed significantly higher proportion of positive seroconversion in solid organ compared to hematologic malignancies (RR = 0.88 [0.85, 0.92] vs. 0.61 [0.44, 0.86], P = 0.03). Subgroup meta-analysis based on type of transplantation (kidney vs. others) showed no statistically significant between-group difference of seroconversion (P = 0.55). CONCLUSIONS: IC patients, especially transplant recipients, developed lower immunogenicity with two-dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Among patients with IC, those with autoimmune conditions and solid organ malignancies are mostly benefited from COVID-19 vaccination. Findings from this meta-analysis could aid healthcare policymakers in making decisions regarding the importance of the booster dose or more strict personal protections in the IC patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Neoplasms/immunology , Organ Transplantation , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 384-391, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615765

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the key outcomes of the above WHO informal consultation with global stakeholders including regulatory authorities, vaccine developers and manufacturers, academia and other international health organizations and institutions involved in the development, evaluation and use of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines. The aim of the consultation was to further clarify the main principles to be presented in an upcoming WHO guidance document on the regulatory considerations in evaluating the quality, safety and efficacy of mRNA prophylactic vaccines for infectious diseases. This WHO guidance document is intended to facilitate global mRNA vaccine development and regulatory convergence in the assessment of such vaccines. The urgent need to develop such a document as a new WHO written standard is outlined in this report along with the key scientific and regulatory challenges. A number of key conclusions are provided at the end of this report along with an update on the steps taken following this meeting.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Vaccine Potency , World Health Organization
13.
JCI Insight ; 6(24)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598468

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have shown exceptional clinical efficacy, providing robust protection against severe disease. However, our understanding of transcriptional and repertoire changes following full vaccination remains incomplete. We used scRNA-Seq and functional assays to compare humoral and cellular responses to 2 doses of mRNA vaccine with responses observed in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic disease. Our analyses revealed enrichment of spike-specific B cells, activated CD4+ T cells, and robust antigen-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses following vaccination. On the other hand, although clonally expanded CD8+ T cells were observed following both vaccination and natural infection, CD8+ T cell responses were relatively weak and variable. In addition, TCR gene usage was variable, reflecting the diversity of repertoires and MHC polymorphism in the human population. Natural infection induced expansion of CD8+ T cell clones that occupy distinct clusters compared to those induced by vaccination and likely recognize a broader set of viral antigens of viral epitopes presented by the virus not seen in the mRNA vaccine. Our study highlights a coordinated adaptive immune response in which early CD4+ T cell responses facilitate the development of the B cell response and substantial expansion of effector CD8+ T cells, together capable of contributing to future recall responses.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , /therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, Viral , B-Lymphocytes , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Carrier State , Convalescence , Epitopes , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Memory , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells , Th17 Cells , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Young Adult , /therapeutic use
14.
Bioconjug Chem ; 32(12): 2497-2506, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517581

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune responses toward viral infection will be useful for potential therapeutic intervention and offer insights into the design of prophylactic vaccines. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. To understand the complex immune responses toward SARS-CoV-2 infection, here we developed a method to express and purify the recombinant and engineered viral receptor-binding domain (RBD) to more than 95% purity. We could encapsulate RNA molecules into the interior of a virion-sized liposome. We conjugated the purified RBD proteins onto the surface of the liposome in an orientation-specific manner with defined spatial densities. Both the encapsulation of RNAs and the chemical conjugation of the RBD protein on liposome surfaces were stable under physiologically relevant conditions. In contrast to soluble RBD proteins, a single injection of RBD-conjugated liposomes alone, in the absence of any other adjuvants, elicited RBD-specific B cell responses in BALB/c mice, and the resulting animal sera could potently neutralize HIV-1 pseudovirions that displayed the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. These results validate these supramolecular structures as a novel and effective tool to mimic the structure of enveloped viruses, the use of which will allow systematic dissection of the complex B cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Liposomes/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/therapeutic use , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Female , Humans , Immunization , Liposomes/chemistry , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use
15.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(9)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: MVA-BN-brachyury-TRICOM is a recombinant vector-based therapeutic cancer vaccine designed to induce an immune response against brachyury. Brachyury, a transcription factor overexpressed in advanced cancers, has been associated with treatment resistance, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and metastatic potential. MVA-BN-brachyury-TRICOM has demonstrated immunogenicity and safety in previous clinical trials of subcutaneously administered vaccine. Preclinical studies have suggested that intravenous administration of therapeutic vaccines can induce superior CD8+ T cell responses, higher levels of systemic cytokine release, and stronger natural killer cell activation and proliferation. This is the first-in-human study of the intravenous administration of MVA-BN-brachyury-TRICOM. METHODS: Between January 2020 and March 2021, 13 patients were treated on a phase 1, open-label, 3+3 design, dose-escalation study at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. The study population was adults with advanced solid tumors and was enriched for chordoma, a rare sarcoma of the notochord that overexpresses brachyury. Vaccine was administered intravenously at three DLs on days 1, 22, and 43. Blood samples were taken to assess drug pharmacokinetics and immune activation. Imaging was conducted at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months post-treatment. The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability as determined by the frequency of dose-limiting toxicities; a secondary endpoint was determination of the recommended phase 2 dose. RESULTS: No dose-limiting toxicities were observed and no serious adverse events were attributed to the vaccine. Vaccine-related toxicities were consistent with class profile (ie, influenza-like symptoms). Cytokine release syndrome up to grade 2 was observed with no adverse outcomes. Dose-effect trend was observed for fever, chills/rigor, and hypotension. Efficacy analysis of objective response rate per RECIST 1.1 at the end of study showed one patient with a partial response, four with stable disease, and eight with progressive disease. Three patients with stable disease experienced clinical benefit in the form of improvement in pain. Immune correlatives showed T cell activation against brachyury and other tumor-associated cascade antigens. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous administration of MVA-BN-brachyury-TRICOM vaccine was safe and tolerable. Maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The maximum administered dose was 109 infectious units every 3 weeks for three doses. This dose was selected as the recommended phase 2 dose. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04134312.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous/methods , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Fetal Proteins/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Neoplasms/drug therapy , T-Box Domain Proteins/therapeutic use , Cancer Vaccines/pharmacology , Female , Fetal Proteins/pharmacology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , T-Box Domain Proteins/pharmacology , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use
16.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 144: 107994, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499650

ABSTRACT

Gene therapies are revolutionizing medicine by providing a way to cure hitherto incurable diseases. The scientific and technological advances have enabled the first gene therapies to become clinically approved. In addition, with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we are witnessing record speeds in the development and distribution of gene-based vaccines. For gene therapy to take effect, the therapeutic nucleic acids (RNA or DNA) need to overcome several barriers before they can execute their function of producing a protein or silencing a defective or overexpressing gene. This includes the barriers of the interstitium, the cell membrane, the cytoplasmic barriers and (in case of DNA) the nuclear envelope. Gene electrotransfer (GET), i.e., transfection by means of pulsed electric fields, is a non-viral technique that can overcome these barriers in a safe and effective manner. GET has reached the clinical stage of investigations where it is currently being evaluated for its therapeutic benefits across a wide variety of indications. In this review, we formalize our current understanding of GET from a biophysical perspective and critically discuss the mechanisms by which electric field can aid in overcoming the barriers. We also identify the gaps in knowledge that are hindering optimization of GET in vivo.


Subject(s)
Electroporation , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Therapy , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Electroporation/instrumentation , Electroporation/methods , Equipment Design , Gene Transfer Techniques/instrumentation , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , /genetics , /therapeutic use
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6222, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493103

ABSTRACT

The importance of breastmilk in postnatal life lies in the strong association between breastfeeding and the reduction in the risk of infection and infection-related infant mortality. However, data regarding the induction and dynamics of breastmilk antibodies following administration of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is scarce, as pregnant and lactating women were not included in the initial vaccine clinical trials. Here, we investigate the dynamics of the vaccine-specific antibody response in breastmilk and serum in a prospective cohort of ten lactating women who received two doses of the mRNA vaccine. We show that the antibody response is rapid and highly synchronized between breastmilk and serum, reaching stabilization 14 days after the second dose. The response in breastmilk includes both IgG and IgA with neutralization capacity.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , RNA, Messenger/blood , Adult , Animals , Antibody Formation/genetics , Antibody Formation/physiology , Female , Humans , Milk/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use
18.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438749

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) pandemic is a great threat to human society and now is still spreading. Although several vaccines have been authorized for emergency use, only one recombinant subunit vaccine has been permitted for widespread use. More subunit vaccines for COVID-19 should be developed in the future. The receptor binding domain (RBD), located at the S protein of SARS-CoV-2, contains most of the neutralizing epitopes. However, the immunogenicity of RBD monomers is not strong enough. In this study, we fused the RBD-monomer with a modified Fc fragment of human IgG1 to form an RBD-Fc fusion protein. The recombinant vaccine candidate based on the RBD-Fc protein could induce high levels of IgG and neutralizing antibody in mice, and these could last for at least three months. The secretion of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10 in the RBD-stimulated splenocytes of immunized mice also increased significantly. Our results first showed that the RBD-Fc vaccine could induce both humoral and cellular immune responses and might be an optional strategy to control COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/immunology
19.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 961-976, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428320

ABSTRACT

Children usually present with milder symptoms of COVID-19 as compared with adults. Supportive care alone is appropriate for most children with COVID-19. Antiviral therapy may be required for those with severe or critical diseases. Currently there has been a rapid development of vaccines globally to prevent COVID-19 and several vaccines are being evaluated in children and adolescents. Currently, only the Pfizer-BioNTech messenger RNA vaccine is approved for emergency authorization use in the pediatric population ages 16 years and older.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/prevention & control , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Safety , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects
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