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1.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100528, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649494

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused an ongoing global health crisis. Here, we present as a vaccine candidate synthetic SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein-coated lipid vesicles that resemble virus-like particles. Soluble S glycoprotein trimer stabilization by formaldehyde cross-linking introduces two major inter-protomer cross-links that keep all receptor-binding domains in the "down" conformation. Immunization of cynomolgus macaques with S coated onto lipid vesicles (S-LVs) induces high antibody titers with potent neutralizing activity against the vaccine strain, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma variants as well as T helper (Th)1 CD4+-biased T cell responses. Although anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibody responses are initially predominant, the third immunization boosts significant non-RBD antibody titers. Challenging vaccinated animals with SARS-CoV-2 shows a complete protection through sterilizing immunity, which correlates with the presence of nasopharyngeal anti-S immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA titers. Thus, the S-LV approach is an efficient and safe vaccine candidate based on a proven classical approach for further development and clinical testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Liposomes , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Th1 Cells/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Vero Cells
2.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(2): 222-233, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607212

ABSTRACT

Although antivirals are important tools to control severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, effective vaccines are essential to control the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Plant-derived virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates have previously demonstrated immunogenicity and efficacy against influenza. Here, we report the immunogenicity and protection induced in rhesus macaques by intramuscular injections of a VLP bearing a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (CoVLP) vaccine candidate formulated with or without Adjuvant System 03 (AS03) or cytidine-phospho-guanosine (CpG) 1018. Although a single dose of the unadjuvanted CoVLP vaccine candidate stimulated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, booster immunization (at 28 days after priming) and adjuvant administration significantly improved both responses, with higher immunogenicity and protection provided by the AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP. Fifteen micrograms of CoVLP adjuvanted with AS03 induced a polyfunctional interleukin-2 (IL-2)-driven response and IL-4 expression in CD4 T cells. Animals were challenged by multiple routes (i.e., intratracheal, intranasal, and ocular) with a total viral dose of 106 plaque-forming units of SARS-CoV-2. Lower viral replication in nasal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as fewer SARS-CoV-2-infected cells and immune cell infiltrates in the lungs concomitant with reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemotactic factors in the BALF were observed in animals immunized with the CoVLP adjuvanted with AS03. No clinical, pathologic, or virologic evidence of vaccine-associated enhanced disease was observed in vaccinated animals. The CoVLP adjuvanted with AS03 was therefore selected for vaccine development and clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Polysorbates/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Squalene/adverse effects , Tobacco/metabolism , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/adverse effects , alpha-Tocopherol/adverse effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Combinations , Drug Compounding/methods , Immunity, Humoral , Macaca mulatta , Male , Polysorbates/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Squalene/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , alpha-Tocopherol/administration & dosage
3.
Reprod Toxicol ; 107: 69-80, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531737

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection resulting in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has afflicted tens of millions of people in a worldwide pandemic. A recently developed recombinant Plant-Derived Virus-Like Particle Vaccine candidate for COVID-19 (CoVLP) formulated with AS03 has been shown to be well-tolerated and highly immunogenic in healthy adults. Since the target population for the vaccine includes women of childbearing potential, the objective of the study was to evaluate any untoward prenatal and postnatal effects of AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP administered intramuscularly to Sprague-Dawley female rats before cohabitation for mating (22 and 8 days prior) and during gestation (Gestation Days [GD] 6 and 19). The embryo-fetal development (EFD) cohort was subjected to cesarean on GD 21 and the pre/post-natal (PPN) cohort was allowed to naturally deliver. Effects of AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP was evaluated on pregnant rats, embryo-fetal development (EFD), during parturition, lactation and the development of the F1 offspring up to weaning Vaccination with AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP induced an antibody response in F0 females and anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific maternal antibodies were detected in the offspring at the end of the gestation and lactation periods. Overall, there was no evidence of untoward effects of AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP on the fertility or reproductive performance of the vaccinated F0 females. There was no evidence of untoward effects on embryo-fetal development (including teratogenicity), or early (pre-weaning) development of the F1 offspring. These results support the acceptable safety profile of the AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP vaccine for administration to women of childbearing potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Embryonic Development/drug effects , Fertility/drug effects , Fetal Development/drug effects , Polysorbates/administration & dosage , Squalene/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , alpha-Tocopherol/administration & dosage , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Drug Combinations , Female , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Pregnancy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Tobacco/genetics
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(43)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481965

ABSTRACT

Self-amplifying RNA replicons are promising platforms for vaccine generation. Their defects in one or more essential functions for viral replication, particle assembly, or dissemination make them highly safe as vaccines. We previously showed that the deletion of the envelope (E) gene from the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) produces a replication-competent propagation-defective RNA replicon (MERS-CoV-ΔE). Evaluation of this replicon in mice expressing human dipeptidyl peptidase 4, the virus receptor, showed that the single deletion of the E gene generated an attenuated mutant. The combined deletion of the E gene with accessory open reading frames (ORFs) 3, 4a, 4b, and 5 resulted in a highly attenuated propagation-defective RNA replicon (MERS-CoV-Δ[3,4a,4b,5,E]). This RNA replicon induced sterilizing immunity in mice after challenge with a lethal dose of a virulent MERS-CoV, as no histopathological damage or infectious virus was detected in the lungs of challenged mice. The four mutants lacking the E gene were genetically stable, did not recombine with the E gene provided in trans during their passage in cell culture, and showed a propagation-defective phenotype in vivo. In addition, immunization with MERS-CoV-Δ[3,4a,4b,5,E] induced significant levels of neutralizing antibodies, indicating that MERS-CoV RNA replicons are highly safe and promising vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , RNA, Viral/administration & dosage , Replicon , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Defective Viruses/genetics , Defective Viruses/immunology , Female , Gene Deletion , Genes, env , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/immunology , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/genetics , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virulence/genetics , Virulence/immunology
5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 597, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236095

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to wreak havoc as worldwide SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death rates climb unabated. Effective vaccines remain the most promising approach to counter SARS-CoV-2. Yet, while promising results are emerging from COVID-19 vaccine trials, the need for multiple doses and the challenges associated with the widespread distribution and administration of vaccines remain concerns. Here, we engineered the coat protein of the MS2 bacteriophage and generated nanoparticles displaying multiple copies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. The use of these nanoparticles as vaccines generated high neutralizing antibody titers and protected Syrian hamsters from a challenge with SARS-CoV-2 after a single immunization with no infectious virus detected in the lungs. This nanoparticle-based vaccine platform thus provides protection after a single immunization and may be broadly applicable for protecting against SARS-CoV-2 and future pathogens with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems , Female , Humans , Immunization/methods , Levivirus/genetics , Levivirus/immunology , Mesocricetus , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Models, Animal , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Nanotechnology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Engineering , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Combined/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Combined/genetics , Vaccines, Combined/immunology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/genetics , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology
6.
Nat Med ; 27(6): 1071-1078, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233716

ABSTRACT

Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are being deployed, but the global need greatly exceeds the supply, and different formulations might be required for specific populations. Here we report Day 42 interim safety and immunogenicity data from an observer-blinded, dose escalation, randomized controlled study of a virus-like particle vaccine candidate produced in plants that displays the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (CoVLP: NCT04450004 ). The co-primary outcomes were the short-term tolerability/safety and immunogenicity of CoVLP formulations assessed by neutralizing antibody (NAb) and cellular responses. Secondary outcomes in this ongoing study include safety and immunogenicity assessments up to 12 months after vaccination. Adults (18-55 years, n = 180) were randomized at two sites in Quebec, Canada, to receive two intramuscular doses of CoVLP (3.75 µg, 7.5 µg, and 15 µg) 21 d apart, alone or adjuvanted with AS03 or CpG1018. All formulations were well tolerated, and adverse events after vaccination were generally mild to moderate, transient and highest in the adjuvanted groups. There was no CoVLP dose effect on serum NAbs, but titers increased significantly with both adjuvants. After the second dose, NAbs in the CoVLP + AS03 groups were more than tenfold higher than titers in Coronavirus 2019 convalescent sera. Both spike protein-specific interferon-γ and interleukin-4 cellular responses were also induced. This pre-specified interim analysis supports further evaluation of the CoVLP vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Canada , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/immunology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/virology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/adverse effects , Young Adult
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1009064, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197395

ABSTRACT

Vaccines of outstanding efficiency, safety, and public acceptance are needed to halt the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Concerns include potential side effects caused by the antigen itself and safety of viral DNA and RNA delivery vectors. The large SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein is the main target of current COVID-19 vaccine candidates but can induce non-neutralizing antibodies, which might cause vaccination-induced complications or enhancement of COVID-19 disease. Besides, encoding of a functional S in replication-competent virus vector vaccines may result in the emergence of viruses with altered or expanded tropism. Here, we have developed a safe single round rhabdovirus replicon vaccine platform for enhanced presentation of the S receptor-binding domain (RBD). Structure-guided design was employed to build a chimeric minispike comprising the globular RBD linked to a transmembrane stem-anchor sequence derived from rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G). Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and RABV replicons encoding the minispike not only allowed expression of the antigen at the cell surface but also incorporation into the envelope of secreted non-infectious particles, thus combining classic vector-driven antigen expression and particulate virus-like particle (VLP) presentation. A single dose of a prototype replicon vaccine complemented with VSV G, VSVΔG-minispike-eGFP (G), stimulated high titers of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in mice, equivalent to those found in COVID-19 patients, and protected transgenic K18-hACE2 mice from COVID-19-like disease. Homologous boost immunization further enhanced virus neutralizing activity. The results demonstrate that non-spreading rhabdovirus RNA replicons expressing minispike proteins represent effective and safe alternatives to vaccination approaches using replication-competent viruses and/or the entire S antigen.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
8.
Virology ; 557: 70-85, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108783

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged into the human population in late 2019 and caused the global COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 has spread to more than 215 countries and infected many millions of people. Despite the introduction of numerous governmental and public health measures to control disease spread, infections continue at an unabated pace, suggesting that effective vaccines and antiviral drugs will be required to curtail disease, end the pandemic, and restore societal norms. Here, we review the current developments in antibody and vaccine countermeasures to limit or prevent disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Subunit , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/biosynthesis , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology
9.
Virus Res ; 288: 198141, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725473

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has become a significant concern to public health care worldwide. As of August 19, 2020, more than 22,140,472 people are infected, and over 781,135 people have died due to this deadly virus. In the USA alone, over 5,482,602 people are currently infected, and more than 171,823 people have died. SARS-CoV-2 has shown a higher infectivity rate and a more extended incubation period as compared to previous coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 binds much more strongly than SARS-CoV to the same host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Previously, several methods to develop a vaccine against SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV have been tried with limited success. Since SARS-CoV-2 uses the spike (S) protein for entry to the host cell, it is one of the most preferred targets for making vaccines or therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we have summarised the characteristics of the S protein, as well as the different approaches being used for the development of vaccines and/or therapeutics based on the S protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Patient Safety , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Subunit , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/biosynthesis , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
10.
Virus Res ; 288: 198114, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709007

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has urged the scientific community internationally to find answers in terms of therapeutics and vaccines to control SARS-CoV-2. Published investigations mostly on SARS-CoV and to some extent on MERS has taught lessons on vaccination strategies to this novel coronavirus. This is attributed to the fact that SARS-CoV-2 uses the same receptor as SARS-CoV on the host cell i.e. human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (hACE2) and is approximately 79% similar genetically to SARS-CoV. Though the efforts on COVID-19 vaccines started very early, initially in China, as soon as the outbreak of novel coronavirus erupted and then world-over as the disease was declared a pandemic by WHO. But we will not be having an effective COVID-19 vaccine before September, 2020 as per very optimistic estimates. This is because a successful COVID-19 vaccine will require a cautious validation of efficacy and adverse reactivity as the target vaccinee population include high-risk individuals over the age of 60, particularly those with chronic co-morbid conditions, frontline healthcare workers and those involved in essentials industries. Various platforms for vaccine development are available namely: virus vectored vaccines, protein subunit vaccines, genetic vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization which are under evaluations for SARS-CoV-2, with each having discrete benefits and hindrances. The COVID-19 pandemic which probably is the most devastating one in the last 100 years after Spanish flu mandates the speedy evaluation of the multiple approaches for competence to elicit protective immunity and safety to curtail unwanted immune-potentiation which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this virus. This review is aimed at providing an overview of the efforts dedicated to an effective vaccine for this novel coronavirus which has crippled the world in terms of economy, human health and life.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Patient Safety , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Subunit , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/biosynthesis , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
11.
Theranostics ; 10(13): 5932-5942, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-501783

ABSTRACT

On the 30th of January 2020, the World Health Organization fired up the sirens against a fast spreading infectious disease caused by a newly discovered Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and gave this disease the name COVID-19. While there is currently no specific treatment for COVID-19, several off label drugs approved for other indications are being investigated in clinical trials across the globe. In the last decade, theranostic nanoparticles were reported as promising tool for efficiently and selectively deliver therapeutic moieties (i.e. drugs, vaccines, siRNA, peptide) to target sites of infection. In addition, they allow monitoring infectious sides and treatment responses using noninvasive imaging modalities. While intranasal delivery was proposed as the preferred administration route for therapeutic agents against viral pulmonary diseases, NP-based delivery systems offer numerous benefits to overcome challenges associated with mucosal administration, and ensure that these agents achieve a concentration that is many times higher than expected in the targeted sites of infection while limiting side effects on normal cells. In this article, we have shed light on the promising role of nanoparticles as effective carriers for therapeutics or immune modulators to help in fighting against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Theranostic Nanomedicine/methods , Administration, Intranasal , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA, Small Interfering/administration & dosage , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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