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1.
Vaccine ; 40(9): 1246-1252, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Between May 2005 and March 2007, three vaccines were recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for routine use in adolescents in the United States: quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY), tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap), and human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV). Understanding historical adolescent vaccination patterns may inform future vaccination coverage efforts for these and emerging adolescent vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: This was a descriptive, retrospective cohort study. All vaccines administered to adolescents aged 11 through 18 years in the Vaccine Safety Datalink population between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2016 were examined. Vaccination coverage was assessed by study year for ≥1 dose Tdap or Td, ≥1 dose Tdap, ≥1 dose MenACWY, ≥1 dose HPV, and ≥3 dose HPV. The proportion of vaccine visits with concurrent vaccination (≥2 vaccines administered at the same visit) was calculated by sex and study year. The most common vaccine combinations administered in the study population were described by sex for two time periods: 2007-2010 and 2011-2016. RESULTS: The number of 11-18-year-olds in the study population averaged 522,565 males and 503,112 females per study year. Between January 2007 and December 2016 there were 4,884,553 vaccine visits in this population (45% among males). The overall proportion of concurrent vaccine visits among males was 43% (33-61% by study year). Among females, 39% of all vaccine visits included concurrent vaccination (32-48% by study year). Vaccine coverage for Tdap, MenACWY, and 1- and 3-dose HPV increased across the study period. A wide variety of vaccine combinations were administered among both sexes and in both time periods. CONCLUSIONS: The high vaccine uptake and multitude of vaccine combinations administered concurrently in the adolescent population of the Vaccine Safety Datalink provide historical patterns with which to compare future adolescent vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
Vaccination , Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Meningococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Meningococcal Vaccines/adverse effects , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/trends , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/adverse effects
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261236, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581757

ABSTRACT

In the past year, the global epidemic situation is still not optimistic, showing a trend of continuous expansion. With the research and application of vaccines, there is an urgent need to develop some optimal vaccination strategies. How to make a reasonable vaccination strategy to determine the priority of vaccination under the limited vaccine resources to control the epidemic and reduce human casualties? We build a dynamic model with vaccination which is extended the classical SEIR model. By fitting the epidemic data of three countries-China, Brazil, Indonesia, we have evaluated age-specific vaccination strategy for the number of infections and deaths. Furthermore, we have evaluated the impact of age-specific vaccination strategies on the number of the basic reproduction number. At last, we also have evaluated the different age structure of the vaccination priority. It shows that giving priority to vaccination of young people can control the number of infections, while giving priority to vaccination of the elderly can greatly reduce the number of deaths in most cases. Furthermore, we have found that young people should be mainly vaccinated to reduce the number of infections. When the emphasis is on reducing the number of deaths, it is important to focus vaccination on the elderly. Simulations suggest that appropriate age-specific vaccination strategies can effectively control the epidemic, both in terms of the number of infections and deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Priorities/trends , Age Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/trends , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/therapeutic use
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261286, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581754

ABSTRACT

The Government of Pakistan has established Adult Vaccination Counters (AVCs) to immunize general population with COVID-19 vaccine. Different brands of COVID-19 vaccines have different protocols. It is important that the knowledge and skills of the vaccination staff at AVCs should be accurate. To assess this, a cross-sectional study was conducted in all 15 AVCs at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's provincial capital in May 2021, using the simulated client approach. Structured open-ended and simulated scenario-based questions were used to collect data from the vaccination staff of AVCs. This study showed that 53.3% of the AVCs had at most three out of four brands of COVID-19 vaccines. 60% of the AVCs did not have the mechanism to track client's vaccine first dose, date, and brand. Only 66.7% of the AVCs had a complete knowledge of all the available vaccines. 86.7% and 80% of the AVCs knew the correct duration and administration of the same brand of COVID-19 vaccine's second dose respectively. At the client's end, 6.7% were aware about the brand of administered COVID-19 vaccine. 46.7% were advised about the date of the second shot of vaccination. Only 13.3% of the clients were informed about the procedure of getting an official vaccination certificate. It was concluded that the knowledge and skill of the vaccination staff at AVCs is inadequate. Every vaccine has a different protocol in terms of number of doses and duration. AVCs must have a tracking system to inoculate the second dose with the same brand as the first dose. There is a need for rigorous monitoring and training of the COVID-19 vaccination staff on various protocols of vaccine to prevent losing public's trust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/education , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination , Vaccines/administration & dosage
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 313, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547767

ABSTRACT

For 15 years, the Annual African Vaccinology Course (AAVC) hosted by the Vaccines for Africa Initiative, has been at the forefront of vaccinology training in Africa. The AAVC was developed in 2005 in response to the growing demand for vaccinology training in Africa. To date, 958 policy makers, immunization managers, public and private health practitioners, scientists, postgraduate and postdoctoral students have been trained. These participants are from 44 of the 54 African countries. The course content covers diverse topics such as considerations for new vaccine introduction, mathematical modelling, and emerging and re-emerging vaccine preventable diseases. As the landscape of vaccinology continues to evolve, the AAVC aims to expand the reach of vaccinology training using blended learning approaches which will incorporate online and face-to-face formats, while expanding access to this popular course. Ultimately, the AAVC endeavours to develop a big pool of vaccinology expertise in Africa and to strengthen regional ownership for immunization programmes.


Subject(s)
Vaccination/methods , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccinology/education , Africa , Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 134, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547728

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: no one can deny that vaccination against several serious diseases in the world, and particularly in Morocco, has given very satisfactory protective results. The extension of the COVID-19 pandemic in our country has led to a significant decline in childhood immunization, which could have severe repercussions increasing the risk of future outbreaks. Hence, the measures of the Ministry of Health to correct the situation. The purpose of this study was to highlight the extent of vaccine release during COVID-19 pandemic and to make recommendations to restore vaccination programmes. METHODS: we conducted a cross-sectional study of the effect of containment measures during this pandemic on the monitoring of children´s vaccinations. We conducted a national survey of pediatricians using an electronic questionnaire administered via Google Forms. We collected, analyzed and interpreted the results. RESULTS: one hundred and three Moroccan pediatricians answered the questionnaire. More than 2-thirds (78.6%) of pediatricians practiced in the private sector and delivered vaccines in the immunization schedule. The majority of pediatricians (95%) were asked about parental vaccine concerns. We noted that 82.5% of parents were reluctant to go to the local health department and 5.8% refused to take vaccination during COVID-19 pandemic. About 22% of pediatricians completely stopped immunization services and 72.8% delayed immunizations from 3 to 4 weeks. Vaccination stoppage involved older children in two thirds of cases. CONCLUSION: it is essential to maintain public confidence in vaccination. Ongoing and timely assessment of vaccine coverage as well as clear recommendations and broad public awareness are essential to respond to vaccine changes during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Male , Middle Aged , Morocco , Parents , Pediatricians/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Coverage
8.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(1): 135-143, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine childhood vaccination delay, explore the association between vaccination delay and parental vaccine hesitancy, and assess childhood vaccination delays during the coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Wuxi City. Participants were recruited from local vaccination clinics. Questionnaires were used to collect information about socio-demographics, vaccine hesitancy, and immunization clinic evaluations. Vaccination records were obtained from the Jiangsu Information Management System of Vaccination Cases. RESULTS: Overall, 2728 participants were included. The coverage for seven category A vaccines (Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI)) was more than 95% at 24 months. The proportion of children vaccinated in a timely manner was the highest for the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine (91.6%) and the lowest for the Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin vaccine (44.6%). More than 50% of the planned vaccinations were delayed in February and March 2020. The Vaccine Hesitancy Scale scores were not associated with vaccination delay (P = 0.842). Children's vaccination delays were negatively associated with parents who reported convenient access to clinics and satisfaction with immunization services (P = 0.020, P = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: EPI is highly successful in China. Despite vaccination delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic, coverage was recovered after lockdown restrictions were eased.


Subject(s)
Parents , Vaccination , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(43): 1495-1500, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498052

ABSTRACT

Endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2020, the Immunization Agenda 2030 (IA2030) strives to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases across the life course (1). This report, which updates a previous report (2), presents global, regional,* and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends as of 2020. Changes are described in vaccination coverage and the numbers of unvaccinated and undervaccinated children as measured by receipt of the first and third doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP) in 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic began, compared with 2019. Global estimates of coverage with the third dose of DTP (DTP3) and a polio vaccine (Pol3) decreased from 86% in 2019 to 83% in 2020. Similarly, coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) dropped from 86% in 2019 to 84% in 2020. The last year that coverage estimates were at 2020 levels was 2009 for DTP3 and 2014 for both MCV1 and Pol3. Worldwide, 22.7 million children (17% of the target population) were not vaccinated with DTP3 in 2020 compared with 19.0 million (14%) in 2019. Children who did not receive the first DTP dose (DTP1) by age 12 months (zero-dose children) accounted for 95% of the increased number. Among those who did not receive DTP3 in 2020, approximately 17.1 million (75%) were zero-dose children. Global coverage decreased in 2020 compared with 2019 estimates for the completed series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV), and rubella-containing vaccine (RCV). Full recovery from COVID-19-associated disruptions will require targeted, context-specific strategies to identify and catch up zero-dose and undervaccinated children, introduce interventions to minimize missed vaccinations, monitor coverage, and respond to program setbacks (3).


Subject(s)
Global Health , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/administration & dosage , Goals , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Infant , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , World Health Organization
11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108280, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487771

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a highly virulent and transmissible pathogen, has proven to be devastating to society. Mucosal vaccines that can induce antigen-specific immune responses in both the systemic and mucosal compartments are considered an effective measure to overcome infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microbes. We have recently developed a nasal vaccine system using cationic liposomes composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane and cholesteryl 3ß-N-(dimethylaminoethyl)carbamate in mice. However, the comprehensive molecular mechanism(s), especially the host soluble mediator involved in this process, by which cationic liposomes promote antigen-specific mucosal immune responses, remain to be elucidated. Herein, we show that intranasal administration of cationic liposomes elicited interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression at the site of administration. Additionally, both nasal passages and splenocytes from mice nasally immunized with cationic liposomes plus ovalbumin (OVA) were polarized to produce IL-6 when re-stimulated with OVA in vitro. Furthermore, pretreatment with anti-IL-6R antibody, which blocks the biological activities of IL-6, attenuated the production of OVA-specific nasal immunoglobulin A (IgA) but not OVA-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-6, exerted by nasally administered cationic liposomes, plays a crucial role in antigen-specific IgA induction.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Interleukin-6/immunology , Vaccines/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Antigens/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cations/immunology , Cations/therapeutic use , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/immunology , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/therapeutic use , Female , Immunity, Mucosal/drug effects , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Liposomes/immunology , Liposomes/therapeutic use , Mice , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Ovalbumin/immunology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/immunology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/therapeutic use , Spleen/metabolism , Vaccines/administration & dosage
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(41): 1435-1440, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468852

ABSTRACT

Immunization is a safe and cost-effective means of preventing illness in young children and interrupting disease transmission within the community.* The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends vaccination of children against 14 diseases during the first 24 months of life (1). CDC uses National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) data to monitor routine coverage with ACIP-recommended vaccines in the United States at the national, regional, state, territorial, and selected local levels.† CDC assessed vaccination coverage by age 24 months among children born in 2017 and 2018, with comparisons to children born in 2015 and 2016. Nationally, coverage was highest for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (92.7%); ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.9%); ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.6%); and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (VAR) (90.9%). Coverage was lowest for ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine (60.6%). Coverage among children born in 2017-2018 was 2.1-4.5 percentage points higher than it was among those born in 2015-2016 for rotavirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), the HepB birth dose, and ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine. Only 1.0% of children had received no vaccinations by age 24 months. Disparities in coverage were seen for race/ethnicity, poverty status, and health insurance status. Coverage with most vaccines was lower among children who were not privately insured. The largest disparities between insurance categories were among uninsured children, especially for ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine, the combined 7-vaccine series, § and rotavirus vaccination. Reported estimates reflect vaccination opportunities that mostly occurred before disruptions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Extra efforts are needed to ensure that children who missed vaccinations, including those attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic, receive them as soon as possible to maintain protection against vaccine-preventable illnesses.


Subject(s)
Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , /statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Infant , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , United States
13.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(12): 1661-1666, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted health services, including vaccination demand. We describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine pediatric vaccination in Brazil. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all vaccine doses provided to children aged 0-6 years from January 2019 to December 2020. We obtained data stratified by age group (0 to 2 years and >2 to 6 years) and Brazilian region. Difference-in-difference (DiD) analyses were performed to compare vaccine uptake in the pre-pandemic (January-February), stay-at-home (March-June), and reopening (July-December) periods. RESULTS: The number of vaccine doses administered declined in the stay-at-home period. For children aged 0 to 2 years, the highest reductions were recorded in the North (-25.3%), Northeast (-16.8%) and Central-West (-10.2%) regions. For children aged >2 to 6 years, the highest decline was observed in the North (DiD = -27.2%) and South (DiD = -14.0%) regions. The number of vaccine doses administered in the reopening period has slightly increased in all regions. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the number of doses recovered in part during the reopening phase, additional strategies, such as increased public awareness and vaccination booster campaigns are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination , Vaccines , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage
14.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(1): 68-77, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453520

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected routine vaccine delivery in the US and globally. The magnitude of these disruptions and their association with childhood vaccination coverage are unclear. Objectives: To compare trends in pediatric vaccination before and during the pandemic and to evaluate the proportion of children up to date (UTD) with vaccinations by age, race, and ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This surveillance study used a prepandemic-postpandemic control design with data from 8 health systems in California, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, Minnesota, and Wisconsin in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Children from age groups younger than 24 months and 4 to 6, 11 to 13, and 16 to 18 years were included if they had at least 1 week of health system enrollment from January 5, 2020, through October 3, 2020, over periods before the US COVID-19 pandemic (January 5, 2020, through March 14, 2020), during age-limited preventive care (March 15, 2020, through May 16, 2020), and during expanded primary care (May 17, 2020, through October 3, 2020). These individuals were compared with those enrolled during analogous weeks in 2019. Exposures: This study evaluated UTD status among children reaching specific ages in February, May, and September 2020, compared with those reaching these ages in 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Weekly vaccination rates for routine age-specific vaccines and the proportion of children UTD for all age-specific recommended vaccines. Results: Of 1 399 708 children in 2019 and 1 402 227 in 2020, 1 371 718 were female (49.0%) and 1 429 979 were male (51.0%); 334 216 Asian individuals (11.9%), 900 226 were Hispanic individuals (32.1%), and 201 619 non-Hispanic Black individuals (7.2%). Compared with the prepandemic period and 2019, the age-limited preventive care period was associated with lower weekly vaccination rates, with ratios of rate ratios of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.80-0.85) among those younger than 24 months, 0.18 (95% CI, 0.16-0.20) among those aged 4 to 6 years, 0.16 (95% CI, 0.14-0.17) among those aged 11 to 13 years, and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.08-0.13) among those aged 16 to 18 years. Vaccination rates during expanded primary care remained lower for most ages (ratios of rate ratios: <24 months, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-0.98]; 11-13 years, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.76-0.86]; 16-18 years, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.51-0.63]). In September 2020, 74% (95% CI, 73%-76%) of infants aged 7 months and 57% (95% CI, 56%-58%) of infants aged 18 months were UTD vs 81% (95% CI, 80%-82%) and 61% (95% CI, 60%-62%), respectively, in September 2019. The proportion UTD was lowest in non-Hispanic Black children across most age groups, both during and prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (eg, in May 2019, 70% [95% CI, 64%-75%] of non-Hispanic Black infants aged 7 months were UTD vs 82% [95% CI, 81%-83%] in all infants aged 7 months combined). Conclusions and Relevance: As of September 2020, childhood vaccination rates and the proportion who were UTD remained lower than 2019 levels. Interventions are needed to promote catch-up vaccination, particularly in populations at risk for underimmunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child Health Services/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Male , Time Factors
15.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 177: 113928, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355523

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases continue to inflict a high global disease burden. The consensus is that vaccination is the most effective option against infectious diseases. Oral vaccines have unique advantages in the prevention of global pandemics due to their ease of use, high compliance, low cost, and the ability to induce both systemic and mucosal immune responses. However, challenges of adapting vaccines for oral administration remain significant. Foremost among these are enzymatic and pH-dependent degradation of antigens in the stomach and intestines, the low permeability of mucus barrier, the nonspecific uptake of antigens at the intestinal mucosal site, and the immune suppression result from the elusive immune tolerance mechanisms. Innovative delivery techniques promise great potential for improving the flexibility and efficiency of oral vaccines. A better understanding of the delivery approaches and the immunological mechanisms of oral vaccine delivery systems may provide new scientific insight and tools for developing the next-generation oral vaccine. Here, an overview of the advanced technologies in the field of oral vaccination is proposed, including mucus-penetrating nanoparticle (NP), mucoadhesive delivery vehicles, targeting antigen-presenting cell (APC) nanocarriers and enhanced paracellular delivery strategies and so on. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of delivery vectors interact with mucosal barriers are discussed.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems , Immunity, Mucosal , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Animals , Humans
17.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 54: 90-99, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401472

ABSTRACT

Bipolar disorder (BD) might be associated with higher infection rates of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which in turn could result in worsening the clinical course and outcome. This may be due to a high prevalence of somatic comorbidities and an increased risk of delays in and poorer treatment of somatic disease in patients with severe mental illness in general. Vaccination is the most important public health intervention to tackle the ongoing pandemic. We undertook a systematic review regarding the data on vaccinations in individuals with BD. Proportion of prevalence rates, efficacy and specific side effects of vaccinations and in individuals with BD were searched. Results show that only five studies have investigated vaccinations in individuals with BD, which substantially limits the interpretation of overall findings. Studies on antibody production after vaccinations in BD are very limited and results are inconsistent. Also, the evidence-based science on side effects of vaccinations in individuals with BD so far is poor.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/adverse effects
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 278-280, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371037

ABSTRACT

As the fight against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, the necessity for wide-scale, global vaccine rollout to reduce the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and slow its mutation rate remains unassailable. The COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access (COVAX) initiative's campaign involves a proportional framework to finance and distribute SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in low- and middle-income countries. However, the COVAX framework has critical limitations, including limited funding and the failure to account for the special epidemic risks and needs of its participating nations, as recommended by the World Health Organization's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization framework. These drawbacks disproportionately impact Africa, where many nations rely on COVAX as their main source of vaccines. The current plan to vaccinate only up to 20% of participating nations' populations is short-sighted from both epidemiologic and moral perspectives. COVAX must commit to vaccinating all of Africa and its initiative must be modified to account for the health and economic infrastructures in these countries. Lessons learned from successful vaccination campaigns, including the West African Ebola outbreak, have shown that vaccinating all of Africa is possible and feasible, and that infrastructure and human resources can support mass vaccination. To halt this global pandemic, global responsibility must be accepted to finance and equitably distribute SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to African nations. We urge COVAX to act swiftly to prevent Africa from becoming the new face of a persisting pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health , Mass Vaccination/standards , Vaccines/supply & distribution , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , World Health Organization
19.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 179: 113919, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347010

ABSTRACT

Vaccine administration by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection is the most commonly prescribed route for inoculation, however, it is often associated with some deficiencies such as low compliance, high professionalism, and risk of infection. Therefore, the application of microneedles for vaccine delivery has gained widespread interests in the past few years due to its high compliance, minimal invasiveness, and convenience. This review focuses on recent advances in the development and application of microneedles for vaccination based on different delivery strategies, and introduces the current status of microneedle-mediated vaccination in clinical translation. The prospects for its application including opportunities and challenges are further discussed.


Subject(s)
Needles , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Nanoparticles , Skin/metabolism
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013706, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are a major cause of illness and death among older adults. Vaccines can prevent infectious diseases, including against seasonal influenza, pneumococcal diseases, herpes zoster and COVID-19. However, the uptake of vaccination among older adults varies across settings and groups. Communication with healthcare workers can play an important role in older people's decisions to vaccinate. To support an informed decision about vaccination, healthcare workers should be able to identify the older person's knowledge gaps, needs and concerns. They should also be able to share and discuss information about the person's disease risk and disease severity; the vaccine's effectiveness and safety; and practical information about how the person can access vaccines. Therefore, healthcare workers need good communication skills and to actively keep up-to-date with the latest evidence. An understanding of their perceptions and experiences of this communication can help us train and support healthcare workers and design good communication strategies. OBJECTIVES: To explore healthcare workers' perceptions and experiences of communicating with older adults about vaccination. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL and Scopus on 21 March 2020. We also searched Epistemonikos for related reviews, searched grey literature sources, and carried out reference checking and citation searching to identify additional studies. We searched for studies in any language. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included qualitative studies and mixed-methods studies with an identifiable qualitative component. We included studies that explored the perceptions and experiences of healthcare workers and other health system staff towards communication with adults over the age of 50 years or their informal caregivers about vaccination. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using a data extraction form designed for this review. We assessed methodological limitations using a list of predefined criteria. We extracted and assessed data regarding study authors' motivations for carrying out their study. We used a thematic synthesis approach to analyse and synthesise the evidence. We used the GRADE-CERQual (Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research) approach to assess our confidence in each finding. We examined each review finding to identify factors that may influence intervention implementation and we developed implications for practice. MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 studies in our review. Most studies explored healthcare workers' views and experiences about vaccination of older adults more broadly but also mentioned communication issues specifically. All studies were from high-income countries. The studies focused on doctors, nurses, pharmacists and others working in hospitals, clinics, pharmacies and nursing homes. These healthcare workers discussed different types of vaccines, including influenza, pneumococcal and herpes zoster vaccines. The review was carried out before COVID-19 vaccines were available. We downgraded our confidence in several of the findings from high confidence to moderate, low or very low confidence. One reason for this was that some findings were based on only small amounts of data. Another reason was that the findings were based on studies from only a few countries, making us unsure about the relevance of these findings to other settings. Healthcare workers reported that older adults asked about vaccination to different extents, ranging from not asking about vaccines at all, to great demand for information (high confidence finding). When the topic of vaccination was discussed, healthcare workers described a lack of information, and presence of misinformation, fears and concerns about vaccines among older adults (moderate confidence). The ways in which healthcare workers discussed vaccines with older adults appeared to be linked to what they saw as the aim of vaccination communication. Healthcare workers differed among themselves in their perceptions of this aim and about their own roles and the roles of older adults in vaccine decisions. Some healthcare workers thought it was important to provide information but emphasised the right and responsibility of older adults to decide for themselves. Others used information to persuade and convince older adults to vaccinate in order to increase 'compliance' and 'improve' vaccination rates, and in some cases to gain financial benefits. Other healthcare workers tailored their approach to what they believed the older adult needed or wanted (moderate confidence). Healthcare workers believed that older adults' decisions could be influenced by several factors, including the nature of the healthcare worker-patient relationship, the healthcare worker's status, and the extent to which healthcare workers led by example (low confidence). Our review also identified factors that are likely to influence how communication between healthcare workers and older adults take place. These included issues tied to healthcare workers' views and experiences regarding the diseases in question and the vaccines; as well as their views and experiences of the organisational and practical implementation of vaccine services. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is little research focusing specifically on healthcare workers' perceptions and experiences of communication with older adults about vaccination. The studies we identified suggest that healthcare workers differed among themselves in their perceptions about the aim of this communication and about the role of older adults in vaccine decisions. Based on these findings and the other findings in our review, we have developed a set of questions or prompts that may help health system planners or programme managers when planning or implementing strategies for vaccination communication between healthcare workers and older adults.


Subject(s)
Communication , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Age Factors , Aged , Caregivers , Decision Making , Herpes Zoster Vaccine/administration & dosage , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Persuasive Communication , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Professional-Family Relations , Qualitative Research , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
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