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1.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 71: iii-vi, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788036
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 832533, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705491

ABSTRACT

Immunoproteomics has emerged as a versatile tool for analyzing the antibody repertoire in various disease contexts. Until recently, characterization of antibody molecules in biological fluids was limited to bulk serology, which identifies clinically relevant features of polyclonal antibody responses. The past decade, however, has seen the rise of mass-spectrometry-enabled proteomics methods that have allowed profiling of the antibody response at the molecular level, with the disease-specific serological repertoire elucidated in unprecedented detail. In this review, we present an up-to-date survey of insights into the disease-specific immunological repertoire by examining how quantitative proteomics-based approaches have shed light on the humoral immune response to infection and vaccination in pathogenic illnesses, the molecular basis of autoimmune disease, and the tumor-specific repertoire in cancer. We address limitations of this technology with a focus on emerging potential solutions and discuss the promise of high-resolution immunoproteomics in therapeutic discovery and novel vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/analysis , Immunoproteins/analysis , Proteomics/methods , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Neoplasms/immunology , Vaccines/immunology
4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(8): e222-e233, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595466

ABSTRACT

For the past 20 years, the notion of bioterror has been a source of considerable fear and panic worldwide. In response to the terror attacks of 2001 in the USA, extensive research funding was awarded to investigate bioterror-related pathogens. The global scientific legacy of this funding has extended into the present day, highlighted by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Unsurprisingly, the surge in biodefence-related research and preparedness has been met with considerable apprehension and opposition. Here, we briefly outline the history of modern bioterror threats and biodefence research, describe the scientific legacy of biodefence research by highlighting advances pertaining to specific bacterial and viral pathogens, and summarise the future of biodefence research and its relevance today. We sought to address the sizeable question: have the past 20 years of investment into biodefence research and preparedness been worth it? The legacy of modern biodefence funding includes advancements in biosecurity, biosurveillence, diagnostics, medical countermeasures, and vaccines. In summary, we feel that these advances justify the substantial biodefence funding trend of the past two decades and set a precedent for future funding.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/economics , Bioterrorism/prevention & control , Financial Support , Humans , Investments , Risk Assessment , Vaccines/immunology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572495

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has upended healthcare systems and economies around the world. Rapid understanding of the structural biology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 has allowed the development of emergency use or FDA-approved vaccines and various candidate vaccines. Among the recently developed SARS-CoV-2 candidate vaccines, natural protein-based nanoparticles well suited for multivalent antigen presentation and enhanced immune stimulation to elicit potent humoral and cellular immune responses are currently being investigated. This mini-review presents recent innovations in protein-based nanoparticle vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. The design and strategy of displaying antigenic domains, including spike protein, receptor-binding domain (RBD), and other domains on the surface of various protein-based nanoparticles and the performance of the developed nanoparticle-based vaccines are highlighted. In the final part of this review, we summarize and discuss recent advances in clinical trials and provide an outlook on protein-based nanoparticle vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen Presentation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccines/immunology
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 710375, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518483

ABSTRACT

The unique environment of the lungs is protected by complex immune interactions. Human lung tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) have been shown to position at the pathogen entry points and play an essential role in fighting against viral and bacterial pathogens at the frontline through direct mechanisms and also by orchestrating the adaptive immune system through crosstalk. Recent evidence suggests that TRM cells also play a vital part in slowing down carcinogenesis and preventing the spread of solid tumors. Less beneficially, lung TRM cells can promote pathologic inflammation, causing chronic airway inflammatory changes such as asthma and fibrosis. TRM cells from infiltrating recipient T cells may also mediate allograft immunopathology, hence lung damage in patients after lung transplantations. Several therapeutic strategies targeting TRM cells have been developed. This review will summarize recent advances in understanding the establishment and maintenance of TRM cells in the lung, describe their roles in different lung diseases, and discuss how the TRM cells may guide future immunotherapies targeting infectious diseases, cancers and pathologic immune responses.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Humans , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Mice , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Vaccines/immunology
8.
Infect Genet Evol ; 96: 105101, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506832

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 stalled the world in 2020 and continues to be the greatest health crisis of this generation. While the apparent case fatality rates across fluctuates around ~2% globally, associated mortality/death rate (deaths per million population) varies distinctly across regions from the global average of ~600 per million population. Heterogeneous factors have been linked with COVID-19 associated mortalities and these include age, share of geriatric population, comorbidities, trained immunity and climatic conditions. Apart from direct or indirect role of endemic diseases, dietary factors and host immunity in regulating COVID-19 severity, human behaviour will inevitably control outcome of this pandemic. Comprehensive understanding of these factors will have a bearing on management of future health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diet , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Polymorphism, Genetic , Vaccines/immunology
9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108280, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487771

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a highly virulent and transmissible pathogen, has proven to be devastating to society. Mucosal vaccines that can induce antigen-specific immune responses in both the systemic and mucosal compartments are considered an effective measure to overcome infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microbes. We have recently developed a nasal vaccine system using cationic liposomes composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane and cholesteryl 3ß-N-(dimethylaminoethyl)carbamate in mice. However, the comprehensive molecular mechanism(s), especially the host soluble mediator involved in this process, by which cationic liposomes promote antigen-specific mucosal immune responses, remain to be elucidated. Herein, we show that intranasal administration of cationic liposomes elicited interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression at the site of administration. Additionally, both nasal passages and splenocytes from mice nasally immunized with cationic liposomes plus ovalbumin (OVA) were polarized to produce IL-6 when re-stimulated with OVA in vitro. Furthermore, pretreatment with anti-IL-6R antibody, which blocks the biological activities of IL-6, attenuated the production of OVA-specific nasal immunoglobulin A (IgA) but not OVA-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-6, exerted by nasally administered cationic liposomes, plays a crucial role in antigen-specific IgA induction.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Interleukin-6/immunology , Vaccines/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Antigens/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cations/immunology , Cations/therapeutic use , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/immunology , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/therapeutic use , Female , Immunity, Mucosal/drug effects , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Liposomes/immunology , Liposomes/therapeutic use , Mice , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Ovalbumin/immunology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/immunology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/therapeutic use , Spleen/metabolism , Vaccines/administration & dosage
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258252, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy is a complex, contested social phenomenon and existing research highlights the multifaceted role of trust in strengthening vaccine confidence. However, understanding public engagement with vaccination through the lens of (mis)trust requires more contextual evidence on trust's qualitative determinants. This includes expanding the geographic focus beyond current studies' focus on High Income Countries. Furthermore, obstacles remain in effectively integrating social science findings in the design of vaccine deployment strategies, and in ensuring that those who implement interventions and are affected by them are directly involved in producing knowledge about vaccination challenges. METHODS: We piloted a community-led ethnographic approach, training Community Health Workers (CHWs) in Kambia District, Sierra Leone, in qualitative social science methods. Methods included participant observation, participatory power mapping and rumour tracking, focus group discussions and key stakeholder interviews. CHWs, with the support of public health officials and professional social scientists, conducted research on vaccination challenges, analysed data, tested new community engagement strategies based on their findings and elicited local perspectives on these approaches. RESULTS: Our findings on vaccine confidence in five border communities highlighted three key themes: the impact of prior experiences with the health system on (mis)trust; relevance of livelihood strategies and power dynamics for vaccine uptake and access; and the contextual nature of knowledge around vaccines. Across these themes, we show how expressions of trust centered on social proximity, reliability and respect and the role of structural issues affecting both vaccine access and confidence. The pilot also highlighted the value and practical challenges to meaningfully co-designed research. CONCLUSION: There is scope for broader application of a community-led ethnographic approach will help redesign programming that is responsive to local knowledge and experience. Involving communities and low-cadre service providers in generating knowledge and solutions can strengthen relationships and sustain dialogue to bolster vaccine confidence.


Subject(s)
Anthropology, Cultural , Biomedical Research , Immunization Programs , Residence Characteristics , Social Behavior , Trust , Vaccination , Focus Groups , Health Personnel , Humans , Sierra Leone , Vaccines/immunology
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463712

ABSTRACT

Nanomaterials have found extensive interest in the development of novel vaccines, as adjuvants and/or carriers in vaccination platforms. Conjugation of protein antigens at the particle surface by non-covalent adsorption is the most widely used approach in licensed particulate vaccines. Hence, it is essential to understand proteins' structural integrity at the material interface in order to develop safe-by-design nanovaccines. In this study, we utilized two model proteins, the wild-type allergen Bet v 1 and its hypoallergenic fold variant (BM4), to compare SiO2 nanoparticles with Alhydrogel® as particulate systems. A set of biophysical and functional assays including circular dichroism spectroscopy and proteolytic degradation was used to examine the antigens' structural integrity at the material interface. Conjugation of both biomolecules to the particulate systems decreased their proteolytic stability. However, we observed qualitative and quantitative differences in antigen processing concomitant with differences in their fold stability. These changes further led to an alteration in IgE epitope recognition. Here, we propose a toolbox of biophysical and functional in vitro assays for the suitability assessment of nanomaterials in the early stages of vaccine development. These tools will aid in safe-by-design innovations and allow fine-tuning the properties of nanoparticle candidates to shape a specific immune response.


Subject(s)
Allergens/immunology , Antigens, Plant/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Vaccines/immunology , Allergens/chemistry , Humans , Hydrogels , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
12.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 179: 114000, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458651

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccines have received major attention in the fight against COVID-19. Formulations from companies such as Moderna and BioNTech/Pfizer have allowed us to slowly ease the social distancing measures, mask requirements, and lockdowns that have been prevalent since early 2020. This past year's focused work on mRNA vaccines has catapulted this technology to the forefront of public awareness and additional research pursuits, thus leading to new potential for bionanotechnology principles to help drive further innovation using mRNA. In addition to alleviating the burden of COVID-19, mRNA vaccines could potentially provide long-term solutions all over the world for diseases ranging from influenza to AIDS. Herein, we provide a brief commentary based on the history and development of mRNA vaccines in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, we address current research using the technology and future directions of mRNA vaccine research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Vaccines/immunology , /immunology , Humans
13.
Cell Rep ; 37(2): 109823, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433047

ABSTRACT

Although both infections and vaccines induce memory B cell (MBC) populations that participate in secondary immune responses, the MBCs generated in each case can differ. Here, we compare SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (S1-RBD)-specific primary MBCs that form in response to infection or a single mRNA vaccination. Both primary MBC populations have similar frequencies in the blood and respond to a second S1-RBD exposure by rapidly producing plasmablasts with an abundant immunoglobulin (Ig)A+ subset and secondary MBCs that are mostly IgG+ and cross-react with the B.1.351 variant. However, infection-induced primary MBCs have better antigen-binding capacity and generate more plasmablasts and secondary MBCs of the classical and atypical subsets than do vaccine-induced primary MBCs. Our results suggest that infection-induced primary MBCs have undergone more affinity maturation than vaccine-induced primary MBCs and produce more robust secondary responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Plasma Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization/methods , Immunologic Memory , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines/immunology
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17626, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392887

ABSTRACT

Antigen identification is an important step in the vaccine development process. Computational approaches including deep learning systems can play an important role in the identification of vaccine targets using genomic and proteomic information. Here, we present a new computational system to discover and analyse novel vaccine targets leading to the design of a multi-epitope subunit vaccine candidate. The system incorporates reverse vaccinology and immuno-informatics tools to screen genomic and proteomic datasets of several pathogens such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium falciparum, and Vibrio cholerae to identify potential vaccine candidates (PVC). Further, as a case study, we performed a detailed analysis of the genomic and proteomic dataset of T. cruzi (CL Brenner and Y strain) to shortlist eight proteins as possible vaccine antigen candidates using properties such as secretory/surface-exposed nature, low transmembrane helix (< 2), essentiality, virulence, antigenic, and non-homology with host/gut flora proteins. Subsequently, highly antigenic and immunogenic MHC class I, MHC class II and B cell epitopes were extracted from top-ranking vaccine targets. The designed vaccine construct containing 24 epitopes, 3 adjuvants, and 4 linkers was analysed for its physicochemical properties using different tools, including docking analysis. Immunological simulation studies suggested significant levels of T-helper, T-cytotoxic cells, and IgG1 will be elicited upon administration of such a putative multi-epitope vaccine construct. The vaccine construct is predicted to be soluble, stable, non-allergenic, non-toxic, and to offer cross-protection against related Trypanosoma species and strains. Further, studies are required to validate safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/methods , Vaccines/immunology , Vaccinology/methods , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Chagas Disease/immunology , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Cholera/immunology , Cholera/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Vibrio cholerae/immunology
15.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390786

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection continues to spread around the world. Vaccines that elicit protective immunity have reduced infection and mortality, however new viral variants are arising that may evade vaccine-induced immunity or cause disease in individuals who are unable to develop robust vaccine-induced responses. Investigating the role of viral variants in causing severe disease, evading vaccine-elicited immunity, and infecting vulnerable individuals is important for developing strategies to control the pandemic. Here, we report fourteen breakthrough infections of SARS-CoV-2 in vaccinated individuals with symptoms ranging from asymptomatic/mild (6/14) to severe disease (8/14). High viral loads with a median Ct value of 19.6 were detected in the nasopharyngeal specimens from subjects regardless of disease severity. Sequence analysis revealed four distinct virus lineages, including alpha and gamma variants of concern. Immunosuppressed individuals were more likely to be hospitalized after infection (p = 0.047), however no specific variant was associated with severe disease. Our results highlight the high viral load that can occur in asymptomatic breakthrough infections and the vulnerability of immunosuppressed individuals to post-vaccination infections by diverse variants of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Immunocompromised Host , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Genome, Viral , Genomics/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccines/immunology , Viral Load
16.
J Autoimmun ; 121: 102662, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385817

ABSTRACT

Herein, we consider venous immunothrombotic mechanisms in SARS-CoV-2 infection and anti-SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccination. Primary SARS-CoV-2 infection with systemic viral RNA release (RNAaemia) contributes to innate immune coagulation cascade activation, with both pulmonary and systemic immunothrombosis - including venous territory strokes. However, anti-SARS-CoV-2 adenoviral-vectored-DNA vaccines -initially shown for the ChAdOx1 vaccine-may rarely exhibit autoimmunity with autoantibodies to Platelet Factor-4 (PF4) that is termed Vaccine-Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT), an entity pathophysiologically similar to Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT). The PF4 autoantigen is a polyanion molecule capable of independent interactions with negatively charged bacterial cellular wall, heparin and DNA molecules, thus linking intravascular innate immunity to both bacterial cell walls and pathogen-derived DNA. Crucially, negatively charged extracellular DNA is a powerful adjuvant that can break tolerance to positively charged nuclear histone proteins in many experimental autoimmunity settings, including SLE and scleroderma. Analogous to DNA-histone interactons, positively charged PF4-DNA complexes stimulate strong interferon responses via Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 9 engagement. A chain of events following intramuscular adenoviral-vectored-DNA vaccine inoculation including microvascular damage; microbleeding and platelet activation with PF4 release, adenovirus cargo dispersement with DNA-PF4 engagement may rarely break immune tolerance, leading to rare PF4-directed autoimmunity. The VITT cavernous sinus cerebral and intestinal venous territory immunothrombosis proclivity may pertain to venous drainage of shared microbiotal-rich areas of the nose and in intestines that initiates local endovascular venous immunity by PF4/microbiotal engagement with PF4 autoantibody driven immunothrombosis reminiscent of HIT. According to the proposed model, any adenovirus-vectored-DNA vaccine could drive autoimmune VITT in susceptible individuals and alternative mechanism based on molecular mimicry, vaccine protein contaminants, adenovirus vector proteins, EDTA buffers or immunity against the viral spike protein are secondary factors. Hence, electrochemical DNA-PF4 interactions and PF4-heparin interactions, but at different locations, represent the common denominator in HIT and VITT related autoimmune-mediated thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Platelet Activation/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/pathology , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/pathology , Vaccines/immunology
17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 624411, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389173

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is wreaking havoc around the world. To get the world back on track, hundreds of vaccines are under development. A deeper understanding of how the immune system responds to SARS-CoV-2 re-infection will certainly help. Studies have highlighted various aspects of T cell response in resolving acute infection and preventing re-infections. Lung resident memory T (TRM) cells are sentinels in the secondary immune response. They are mostly differentiated from effector T cells, construct specific niches and stay permanently in lung tissues. If the infection recurs, locally activated lung TRM cells can elicit rapid immune response against invading pathogens. In addition, they can significantly limit tumor growth or lead to pathologic immune responses. Vaccines targeting TRM cells are under development, with the hope to induce stable and highly reactive lung TRM cells through mucosal administration or "prime-and-pull" strategy. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in lung TRM cell generation and maintenance, explore their roles in different diseases and discuss how these cells may guide the development of future vaccines targeting infectious disease, cancer, and pathologic immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Lung/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocyte Activation , T-Lymphocytes/transplantation
19.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 179: 113919, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347010

ABSTRACT

Vaccine administration by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection is the most commonly prescribed route for inoculation, however, it is often associated with some deficiencies such as low compliance, high professionalism, and risk of infection. Therefore, the application of microneedles for vaccine delivery has gained widespread interests in the past few years due to its high compliance, minimal invasiveness, and convenience. This review focuses on recent advances in the development and application of microneedles for vaccination based on different delivery strategies, and introduces the current status of microneedle-mediated vaccination in clinical translation. The prospects for its application including opportunities and challenges are further discussed.


Subject(s)
Needles , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Nanoparticles , Skin/metabolism
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15431, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332853

ABSTRACT

Currently, no approved vaccine is available against the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which causes severe respiratory disease. The spike glycoprotein is typically considered a suitable target for MERS-CoV vaccine candidates. A computational strategy can be used to design an antigenic vaccine against a pathogen. Therefore, we used immunoinformatics and computational approaches to design a multi-epitope vaccine that targets the spike glycoprotein of MERS-CoV. After using numerous immunoinformatics tools and applying several immune filters, a poly-epitope vaccine was constructed comprising cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL)-, helper T-cell lymphocyte (HTL)-, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-inducing epitopes. In addition, various physicochemical, allergenic, and antigenic profiles were evaluated to confirm the immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine. Molecular interactions, binding affinities, and the thermodynamic stability of the vaccine were examined through molecular docking and dynamic simulation approaches, during which we identified a stable and strong interaction with Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In silico immune simulations were performed to assess the immune-response triggering capabilities of the vaccine. This computational analysis suggested that the proposed vaccine candidate would be structurally stable and capable of generating an effective immune response to combat viral infections; however, experimental evaluations remain necessary to verify the exact safety and immunogenicity profile of this vaccine.


Subject(s)
Epitopes/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines/immunology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Vaccines/pharmacology , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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