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1.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 35(6): 1145-1160, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314268

ABSTRACT

This paper reports the proceedings of a virtual meeting convened by the European Interdisciplinary Council on Ageing (EICA), to discuss the involvement of infectious disorders in the pathogenesis of dementia and neurological disorders leading to dementia. We recap how our view of the infectious etiology of dementia has changed over the last 30 years in light of emerging evidence, and we present evidence in support of the implication of infection in dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). The bacteria and viruses thought to be responsible for neuroinflammation and neurological damage are reviewed. We then review the genetic basis for neuroinflammation and dementia, highlighting the genes that are currently the focus of investigation as potential targets for therapy. Next, we describe the antimicrobial hypothesis of dementia, notably the intriguing possibility that amyloid beta may itself possess antimicrobial properties. We further describe the clinical relevance of the gut-brain axis in dementia, the mechanisms by which infection can move from the intestine to the brain, and recent findings regarding dysbiosis patterns in patients with AD. We review the involvement of specific pathogens in neurological disorders, i.e. SARS-CoV-2, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), and influenza. Finally, we look at the role of vaccination to prevent dementia. In conclusion, there is a large body of evidence supporting the involvement of various infectious pathogens in the pathogenesis of dementia, but large-scale studies with long-term follow-up are needed to elucidate the role that infection may play, especially before subclinical or clinical disease is present.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Vaccines/therapeutic use
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 119: 110210, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299449

ABSTRACT

Substance Use Disorder (SUD) is one of the major mental illnesses that is terrifically intensifying worldwide. It is becoming overwhelming due to limited options for treatment. The complexity of addiction disorders is the main impediment to understanding the pathophysiology of the illness. Hence, unveiling the complexity of the brain through basic research, identification of novel signaling pathways, the discovery of new drug targets, and advancement in cutting-edge technologies will help control this disorder. Additionally, there is a great hope of controlling the SUDs through immunotherapeutic measures like therapeutic antibodies and vaccines. Vaccines have played a cardinal role in eliminating many diseases like polio, measles, and smallpox. Further, vaccines have controlled many diseases like cholera, dengue, diphtheria, Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib), human papillomavirus, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, etc. Recently, COVID-19 was controlled in many countries by vaccination. Currently, continuous effort is done to develop vaccines against nicotine, cocaine, morphine, methamphetamine, and heroin. Antibody therapy against SUDs is another important area where serious attention is required. Antibodies have contributed substantially against many serious diseases like diphtheria, rabies, Crohn's disease, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and bladder cancer. Antibody therapy is gaining immense momentum due to its success rate in cancer treatment. Furthermore, enormous advancement has been made in antibody therapy due to the generation of high-efficiency humanized antibodies with a long half-life. The advantage of antibody therapy is its instant outcome. This article's main highlight is discussing the drug targets of SUDs and their associated mechanisms. Importantly, we have also discussed the scope of prophylactic measures to eliminate drug dependence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diphtheria , Influenza, Human , Substance-Related Disorders , Vaccines , Humans , Diphtheria/drug therapy , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy
4.
Pharm Res ; 40(5): 1015-1036, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299091

ABSTRACT

With the rapid outbreak of respiratory viral infections, various biological (e.g. vaccines, peptides, recombinant proteins, antibodies and genes) and antiviral agents (e.g. ribavirin, palivizumab and valaciclovir) have been successfully developed for the treatment of respiratory virus infections such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and SARS-CoV-2 infections. These therapeutics are conventionally delivered via oral, intramuscular or injection route and are associated with several adverse events due to systemic toxicity. The inherent in vivo instability of biological therapeutics may hinder them from being administered without proper formulations. Therefore, we have witnessed a boom in nanotechnology coupled with a needle-free administration approach such as the inhalation route for the delivery of complex therapeutics to treat respiratory infections. This review discussed the recent advances in the inhalation strategies of nanoformulations that target virus respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Vaccines , Humans , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines/therapeutic use
5.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e065306, 2023 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to: (1) examine the experience of nine global jurisdictions that engaged primary care providers (PCPs) to administer COVID-19 vaccines during the pandemic; (2) describe how vaccine hesitancy and principles of equity were incorporated in the COVID-19 vaccine roll-out strategies and (3) identify the barriers and facilitators to the vaccine roll-out. DESIGN: Rapid scoping review. DATA SOURCES: Searches took place in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, the Cochrane Library, SCOPUS and PsycINFO, Google, and the websites of national health departments. Searches and analyses took place from May 2021 to July 2021. RESULTS: Sixty-two documents met the inclusion criteria (35=grey literature; 56% and 27=peer reviewed; 44%). This review found that the vaccine distribution approach started at hospitals in almost all jurisdictions. In some jurisdictions, PCPs were engaged at the beginning, and the majority included PCPs over time. In many jurisdictions, equity was considered in the prioritisation policies for various marginalised communities. However, vaccine hesitancy was not explicitly considered in the design of vaccine distribution approaches. The barriers to the roll-out of vaccines included personal, organisational and contextual factors. The vaccine roll-out strategy was facilitated by establishing policies and processes for pandemic preparedness, well-established and coordinated information systems, primary care interventions, adequate supply of providers, education and training of providers, and effective communications strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Empirical evidence is lacking on the impact of a primary care-led vaccine distribution approach on vaccine hesitancy, adoption and equity. Future vaccine distribution approaches need to be informed by further research evaluating vaccine distribution approaches and their impact on patient and population outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Primary Health Care
6.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 65(12): 1244-1250, 2022 Dec.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280369

ABSTRACT

The Paul-Ehrlich Institute (PEI) plays a central role in the release of vaccines in Germany as well as Europe. The experimental testing and release of each vaccine batch is carried out according to the procedures and regulations of the Official Control Authority Batch Release (OCABR) and the German medicine act paragraph 32. The independent testing aims to demonstrate the conformity of quality criteria set in the marketing authorization for each lot produced. This article illustrates both the batch release procedure in general and specifically for the newly developed and approved COVID-19 vaccines during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Germany , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines/therapeutic use
7.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3): 100551, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285121

ABSTRACT

The term "vaccine equity" primarily points to the enormous imbalance in global COVID-19 vaccine distribution. Vaccine equity should adopt a normative approach toward "health equity," and various stakeholders across the vaccine life cycle must practice it. The momentum gathered during this pandemic must be used to correct these structural imbalances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccines/therapeutic use
8.
Arch Med Res ; 54(3): 168-175, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283588

ABSTRACT

The field of vaccine development has seen an increase in the number of rationally designed technologies that increase effectiveness against vaccine-resistant pathogens, while not compromising safety. Yet, there is still an urgent need to expand and further understand these platforms against complex pathogens that often evade protective responses. Nanoscale platforms have been at the center of new studies, especially in the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with the aim of deploying safe and effective vaccines in a short time period. The intrinsic properties of protein-based nanoparticles, such as biocompatibility, flexible physicochemical characteristics, and variety have made them an attractive platform against different infectious disease agents. In the past decade, several studies have tested both lumazine synthase-, ferritin-, and albumin-based nanoplatforms against a wide range of complex pathogens in pre-clinical studies. Owed to their success in pre-clinical studies, several studies are undergoing human clinical trials or are near an initial phase. In this review we highlight the different protein-based platforms, mechanisms of synthesis, and effectiveness of these over the past decade. In addition, some challenges, and future directions to increase their effectiveness are also highlighted. Taken together, protein-based nanoscaffolds have proven to be an effective means to design rationally designed vaccines, especially against complex pathogens and emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Nanoparticles , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Immunity, Cellular
9.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1524(1): 65-86, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253448

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us many things, among the most important of which is that vaccines are one of the cornerstones of public health that help make modern longevity possible. While several different vaccines have been successful at stemming the morbidity and mortality associated with various infectious diseases, many pathogens/diseases remain recalcitrant to the development of effective vaccination. Recent advances in vaccine technology, immunology, structural biology, and other fields may yet yield insight that will address these diseases; they may also help improve societies' preparedness for future pandemics. On June 1-4, 2022, experts in vaccinology from academia, industry, and government convened for the Keystone symposium "Progress in Vaccine Development for Infectious Diseases" to discuss state-of-the-art technologies, recent advancements in understanding vaccine-mediated immunity, and new aspects of antigen design to aid vaccine effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Vaccine Development
10.
N Engl J Med ; 388(7): 621-634, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are urgently needed in young children. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 dose-finding study and are conducting an ongoing phase 2-3 safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy trial of the BNT162b2 vaccine in healthy children 6 months to 11 years of age. We present results for children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and those 2 to 4 years of age through the data-cutoff dates (April 29, 2022, for safety and immunogenicity and June 17, 2022, for efficacy). In the phase 2-3 trial, participants were randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) to receive two 3-µg doses of BNT162b2 or placebo. On the basis of preliminary immunogenicity results, a third 3-µg dose (≥8 weeks after dose 2) was administered starting in January 2022, which coincided with the emergence of the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant. Immune responses at 1 month after doses 2 and 3 in children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and those 2 to 4 years of age were immunologically bridged to responses after dose 2 in persons 16 to 25 years of age who received 30 µg of BNT162b2 in the pivotal trial. RESULTS: During the phase 1 dose-finding study, two doses of BNT162b2 were administered 21 days apart to 16 children 6 months to less than 2 years of age (3-µg dose) and 48 children 2 to 4 years of age (3-µg or 10-µg dose). The 3-µg dose level was selected for the phase 2-3 trial; 1178 children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and 1835 children 2 to 4 years of age received BNT162b2, and 598 and 915, respectively, received placebo. Immunobridging success criteria for the geometric mean ratio and seroresponse at 1 month after dose 3 were met in both age groups. BNT162b2 reactogenicity events were mostly mild to moderate, with no grade 4 events. Low, similar incidences of fever were reported after receipt of BNT162b2 (7% among children 6 months to <2 years of age and 5% among those 2 to 4 years of age) and placebo (6 to 7% among children 6 months to <2 years of age and 4 to 5% among those 2 to 4 years of age). The observed overall vaccine efficacy against symptomatic Covid-19 in children 6 months to 4 years of age was 73.2% (95% confidence interval, 43.8 to 87.6) from 7 days after dose 3 (on the basis of 34 cases). CONCLUSIONS: A three-dose primary series of 3-µg BNT162b2 was safe, immunogenic, and efficacious in children 6 months to 4 years of age. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04816643.).


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Young Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Treatment Outcome , Vaccine Efficacy
11.
Bioengineered ; 13(4): 9435-9454, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222482

ABSTRACT

Betacoronaviruses (ß-CoVs) have caused major viral outbreaks in the last two decades in the world. The mutation and recombination abilities in ß-CoVs resulted in zoonotic diseases in humans. Proteins responsible for viral attachment and replication are highly conserved in ß-CoVs. These conserved proteins have been extensively studied as targets for preventing infection and the spread of ß-CoVs. Peptides are among the most promising candidates for developing vaccines and therapeutics against viral pathogens. The immunostimulatory and viral inhibitory potential of natural and synthetic peptides has been extensively studied since the SARS-CoV outbreak. Food-derived peptides demonstrating high antiviral activity can be used to develop effective therapeutics against ß-CoVs. Specificity, tolerability, and customizability of peptides can be explored to develop potent drugs against ß-CoVs. However, the proteolytic susceptibility and low bioavailability of peptides pose challenges for the development of therapeutics. This review illustrates the potential role of peptides in eliciting an adaptive immune response and inhibiting different stages of the ß-CoV life cycle. Further, the challenges and future directions associated with developing peptide-based therapeutics and vaccines against existing and future ß-CoV pathogens have been discussed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Vaccines , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Mutation , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/therapeutic use , Vaccines/therapeutic use
12.
Epidemiology ; 34(2): 216-224, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212952

ABSTRACT

Results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) help determine vaccination strategies and related public health policies. However, defining and identifying estimands that can guide policies in infectious disease settings is difficult, even in an RCT. The effects of vaccination critically depend on characteristics of the population of interest, such as the prevalence of infection, the number of vaccinated, and social behaviors. To mitigate the dependence on such characteristics, estimands, and study designs, that require conditioning or intervening on exposure to the infectious agent have been advocated. But a fundamental problem for both RCTs and observational studies is that exposure status is often unavailable or difficult to measure, which has made it impossible to apply existing methodology to study vaccine effects that account for exposure status. In this study, we present new results on this type of vaccine effects. Under plausible conditions, we show that point identification of certain relative effects is possible even when the exposure status is unknown. Furthermore, we derive sharp bounds on the corresponding absolute effects. We apply these results to estimate the effects of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine on SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) conditional on postvaccine exposure to the virus, using data from a large RCT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Public Policy
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(6): 1485-1496, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159175

ABSTRACT

Treatment with immune-modifying biologics has positively impacted disease control and quality of life in many patients with immune-mediated disorders. However, the higher susceptibility to common and opportunistic pathogens is of concern. Thus, immunization strategies to control vaccine-preventable diseases represent a critical issue in this population. However, limited data exist on the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of available vaccines in patients on biologics, particularly in children. Here, according to published literature and real-life experience and practice, we report the interim indications of the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) Vaccine Committee and of the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network (IPINet) Centers on immunization of children and adolescents receiving biologics. Our aim is to provide a practical guidance for the clinician to ensure optimal protection for patients and the community.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Vaccines , Adolescent , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Child , Humans , Immunization , Quality of Life , Vaccination , Vaccines/therapeutic use
16.
In Vivo ; 36(6): 2780-2789, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: To prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of the BNT162b2 vaccine in solid cancer patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy (n=63). PATIENTS AND METHODS: COVID-19 anti-spike protein antibody levels were measured before the first BNT162b2 vaccination, just before the second BNT162b2 vaccination, one month after the second BNT162b2 vaccination, and 3 months after the second BNT162b2 vaccination. Anti-spike protein antibody seropositivity was set at ≥0.8 U/ml. RESULTS: Colorectal cancer was the most commonly observed primary disease (36.5%). ECOG-PS 0 was observed in the majority (52.4%) of patients. The overall response rate and the median (range) anti-spike protein antibody levels in the whole cohort at 3 months after the second BNT162b2 vaccination were 98.4% (62/63) and 206 (0.4-3,813) U/ml. None of the patients required postponement or discontinuation of systemic chemotherapy because of an adverse reaction. CONCLUSION: The BNT162b vaccine in solid cancer patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy is effective and safe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Vaccines , Humans , Prospective Studies , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral
17.
JAMA ; 328(14): 1389-1390, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084918
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1010899, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080156

ABSTRACT

Data regarding the willingness of patients affected by inborn errors of immunity to accept vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are limited. Therefore, this study assessed SARS-CoV-2 vaccination coverage and hesitancy in immunodeficient patients by surveying adults with primary immune deficiencies and autoinflammatory and rheumatic diseases on biologic therapy. The study was conducted from September 20, 2021, to January 22, 2022, when the primary coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations were available to all adults in Poland. We included 207 participants consecutively recruited from five referral centers (57% female; median age: 42.6 [range: 18-76, standard deviation ± 14.70] years). Overall, 55% (n = 114), 17% (n = 36), and 28% (n = 57) of the patients had primary immune deficiencies, autoinflammatory diseases, and rheumatic diseases, respectively. Among the entire cohort, 168 patients (81%) were vaccinated, and 82% were willing to receive a booster dose. Patients with autoinflammatory diseases had the highest vaccination rate (94.4%). A strong conviction that it was the correct decision (72%), fear of getting COVID-19 (38%), and expert opinions (34%) influenced the decision to vaccinate. Among the unvaccinated patients, 33.3% had primary or vocational education (p <0.001). Furthermore, only 33% believed they were at risk of a severe course of COVID-19 (p = 0.014), and 10% believed in vaccine efficacy (p <0.001). They also doubted the safety of the vaccine (p <0.001) and feared a post-vaccination flare of their disease (p <0.001). Half of the unvaccinated respondents declared that they would consider changing their decision. Vaccination coverage in immunodeficient patients was higher than in the general Polish population. However, the hesitant patients doubted the vaccine's safety, feared a post-vaccination disease flare, and had primary or vocational education. Therefore, vaccination promotion activities should stress personal safety and the low risk of disease flares due to vaccination. Furthermore, all evidence must be communicated in patient-friendly terms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases , Rheumatic Diseases , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome , Vaccination/adverse effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccines/therapeutic use
19.
AAPS J ; 24(6): 101, 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054053

ABSTRACT

This publication provides some industry reflections on experiences from the Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) development and manufacture and supply of vaccines and therapies in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It integrates these experiences with the outcomes from the collaborative work between industry and regulators in recent years on innovative science- and risk-based CMC strategies to the development of new, high-quality products for unmet medical needs. The challenges for rapid development are discussed and various approaches to facilitate accelerated development and global supply are collated for consideration. Relevant regulatory aspects are reviewed, including the role of Emergency Use/Conditional Marketing Authorizations, the dialogue between sponsors and agencies to facilitate early decision-making and alignment, and the value of improving reliance/collaborative assessment and increased collaboration between regulatory authorities to reduce differences in global regulatory requirements. Five areas are highlighted for particular consideration in the implementation of strategies for the quality-related aspects of accelerated development and supply: (1) the substantial need to advance reliance or collaborative assessment; (2) the need for early decision making and streamlined engagement between industry and regulatory authorities on CMC matters; (3) the need to further facilitate 'post-approval' changes; (4) fully exploiting prior and platform knowledge; and (5) review and potential revision of legal frameworks. The recommendations in this publication are intended to contribute to the discussion on approaches that can result in earlier and greater access to high-quality pandemic vaccines and therapies for patients worldwide but could also be useful in general for innovative medicines addressing unmet medical needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccines/therapeutic use
20.
Vaccine ; 40(43): 6295-6304, 2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050056

ABSTRACT

The development of vaccines against infectious diseases requires a different approach from that of therapeutics, because vaccines are inoculated into healthy individuals and have a preventive effect by activating the immunity of the inoculated human. In Japan, "The Guideline for Clinical Trials of Vaccines for the Prevention of Infectious Diseases" was published in 2010 before changes occurred in the vaccine development environment in Japan, such as the introductions of foreign vaccines and simultaneous global development. This study aimed to identify current challenges in vaccine development through a questionnaire-based survey of pharmaceutical companies in Japan and by comparing the domestic and international guidelines and surveying review reports of 35 vaccines approved in Japan between April 2010 and December 2020. Identified challenges included the requirement for protective efficacy trials, efficacy evaluation of combination vaccines, development of multiregional and foreign clinical trials, and immunization of older adults and immunocompromised patients. We propose that new vaccines against infectious diseases should be evaluated for the protective efficacy, preferably through multiregional clinical trials. Additionally, differences in the incidence of infectious diseases or in epidemic virus strains between regions may affect the trials, when multiregional clinical trials are conducted, but immunogenicity-based studies can be conducted if a correlation between protective efficacy and immunogenicity has been established. We suggest that licensed combination vaccines can be used as comparators when an antigen is added to a licensed combination vaccine. We also proposed that the efficacy of a vaccine in non-major subjects, such as older adults or immunocompromised patients could be evaluated by comparing immunogenicity in major subjects with the confirmed protective effects of the vaccine. It is expected that these revisions will lead to the rapid advancement of vaccine development, which should contribute to the improvement of public health.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Vaccines , Aged , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Drug Industry , Humans , Japan , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Combined
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