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1.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(4): e252-e264, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937379

ABSTRACT

Background: COH04S1, a synthetic attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector co-expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antigens, was tested for safety and immunogenicity in healthy adults. Methods: This combined open-label and randomised, phase 1 trial was done at the City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center (Duarte, CA, USA). We included participants aged 18-54 years with a negative SARS-CoV-2 antibody and PCR test, normal haematology and chemistry panels, a normal electrocardiogram and troponin concentration, negative pregnancy test if female, body-mass index of 30 kg/m2 or less, and no modified vaccinia virus Ankara or poxvirus vaccine in the past 12 months. In the open-label cohort, 1·0 × 107 plaque-forming units (PFU; low dose), 1·0 × 108 PFU (medium dose), and 2·5 × 108 PFU (high dose) of COH04S1 were administered by intramuscular injection on day 0 and 28 to sentinel participants using a queue-based statistical design to limit risk. In a randomised dose expansion cohort, additional participants were randomly assigned (3:3:1), using block size of seven, to receive two placebo vaccines (placebo group), one low-dose COH04S1 and one placebo vaccine (low-dose COH04S1 plus placebo group), or two low-dose COH04S1 vaccines (low-dose COH04S1 group). The primary outcome was safety and tolerability, with secondary objectives assessing vaccine-specific immunogenicity. The primary immunological outcome was a four times increase (seroconversion) from baseline in spike-specific or nucleocapsid-specific IgG titres within 28 days of the last injection, and seroconversion rates were compared with participants who received placebo using Fisher's exact test. Additional secondary outcomes included assessment of viral neutralisation and cellular responses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT046339466. Findings: Between Dec 13, 2020, and May 24, 2021, 56 participants initiated vaccination. On day 0 and 28, 17 participants received low-dose COH04S1, eight received medium-dose COH04S1, nine received high-dose COH04S1, five received placebo, 13 received low-dose COH04S1 followed by placebo, and four discontinued early. Grade 3 fever was observed in one participant who received low-dose COH04S1 and placebo, and grade 2 anxiety or fatigue was seen in one participant who received medium-dose COH04S1. No severe adverse events were reported. Seroconversion was observed in all 34 participants for spike protein and 32 (94%) for nucleocapsid protein (p<0·0001 vs placebo for each comparison). Four times or more increase in SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies within 56 days was measured in nine of 17 participants in the low-dose COH04S1 group, all eight participants in the medium-dose COH04S1 group, and eight of nine participants in the high-dose COH04S1 group (p=0·0035 combined dose levels vs placebo). Post-prime and post-boost four times increase in spike-specific or nucleocapsid-specific T cells secreting interferon-γ was measured in 48 (98%; 95% CI 89-100) of 49 participants who received at least one dose of COH04S1 and provided a sample for immunological analysis. Interpretation: COH04S1 was well tolerated and induced spike-specific and nucleocapsid-specific antibody and T-cell responses. Future evaluation of this COVID-19 vaccine candidate as a primary or boost vaccination is warranted. Funding: The Carol Moss Foundation and City of Hope Integrated Drug Development Venture programme.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Young Adult
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(24): e2202069119, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890415

ABSTRACT

Current vaccines have greatly diminished the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, even though they do not entirely prevent infection and transmission, likely due to insufficient immunity in the upper respiratory tract. Here, we compare intramuscular and intranasal administration of a live, replication-deficient modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) vaccine to raise protective immune responses in the K18-hACE2 mouse model. Using a recombinant MVA expressing firefly luciferase for tracking, live imaging revealed luminescence of the respiratory tract of mice within 6 h and persisting for 3 d following intranasal inoculation, whereas luminescence remained at the site of intramuscular vaccination. Intramuscular vaccination induced S-binding-Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing antibodies in the lungs, whereas intranasal vaccination also induced Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and higher levels of antigen-specific CD3+CD8+IFN-γ+ T cells. Similarly, IgG and neutralizing antibodies were present in the blood of mice immunized intranasally and intramuscularly, but IgA was detected only after intranasal inoculation. Intranasal boosting increased IgA after intranasal or intramuscular priming. While intramuscular vaccination prevented morbidity and cleared SARS-CoV-2 from the respiratory tract within several days after challenge, intranasal vaccination was more effective as neither infectious virus nor viral messenger (m)RNAs were detected in the nasal turbinates or lungs as early as 2 d after challenge, indicating prevention or rapid elimination of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, we determined that neutralizing antibody persisted for more than 6 mo and that serum induced to the Wuhan S protein neutralized pseudoviruses expressing the S proteins of variants, although with less potency, particularly for Beta and Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin A , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccinia virus , Administration, Intranasal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Respiratory System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Vaccinia virus/immunology
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 845969, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775680

ABSTRACT

To control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the emergence of different variants of concern (VoCs), novel vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are needed. In this study, we report the potent immunogenicity and efficacy induced in hamsters by a vaccine candidate based on a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector expressing a human codon optimized full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein (MVA-S). Immunization with one or two doses of MVA-S elicited high titers of S- and receptor-binding domain (RBD)-binding IgG antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against parental SARS-CoV-2 and VoC alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and omicron. After SARS-CoV-2 challenge, MVA-S-vaccinated hamsters showed a significantly strong reduction of viral RNA and infectious virus in the lungs compared to the MVA-WT control group. Moreover, a marked reduction in lung histopathology was also observed in MVA-S-vaccinated hamsters. These results favor the use of MVA-S as a potential vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2 in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccinia virus/genetics
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 845887, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775679

ABSTRACT

Novel safe, immunogenic, and effective vaccines are needed to control the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we describe the safety, robust immunogenicity, and potent efficacy elicited in rhesus macaques by a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector expressing a full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein (MVA-S). MVA-S vaccination was well tolerated and induced S and receptor-binding domain (RBD)-binding IgG antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and several variants of concern. S-specific IFNγ, but not IL-4, -producing cells were also elicited. After SARS-CoV-2 challenge, vaccinated animals showed a significant strong reduction of virus loads in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and decreased levels in throat and nasal mucosa. Remarkably, MVA-S also protected macaques from fever and infection-induced cytokine storm. Computed tomography and histological examination of the lungs showed reduced lung pathology in MVA-S-vaccinated animals. These findings favor the use of MVA-S as a potential vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccinia virus , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccinia virus/genetics
5.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0150421, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546442

ABSTRACT

In the age of COVID, nucleic acid vaccines have garnered much attention, at least in part, because of the simplicity of construction, production, and flexibility to adjust and adapt to an evolving outbreak. Orthopoxviruses remain a threat on multiple fronts, especially as emerging zoonoses. In response, we developed a DNA vaccine, termed 4pox, that protected nonhuman primates against monkeypox virus (MPXV)-induced severe disease. Here, we examined the protective efficacy of the 4pox DNA vaccine delivered by intramuscular (i.m.) electroporation (EP) in rabbits challenged with aerosolized rabbitpox virus (RPXV), a model that recapitulates the respiratory route of exposure and low dose associated with natural smallpox exposure in humans. We found that 4pox-vaccinated rabbits developed immunogen-specific antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, and did not develop any clinical disease, indicating protection against aerosolized RPXV. In contrast, unvaccinated animals developed significant signs of disease, including lesions, and were euthanized. These findings demonstrate that an unformulated, nonadjuvanted DNA vaccine delivered i.m. can protect against an aerosol exposure. IMPORTANCE The eradication of smallpox and subsequent cessation of vaccination have left a majority of the population susceptible to variola virus or other emerging poxviruses. This is exemplified by human monkeypox, as evidenced by the increase in reported endemic and imported cases over the past decades. Therefore, a malleable vaccine technology that can be mass produced and does not require complex conditions for distribution and storage is sought. Herein, we show that a DNA vaccine, in the absence of a specialized formulation or adjuvant, can protect against a lethal aerosol insult of rabbitpox virus.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Orthopoxvirus/immunology , Poxviridae Infections/prevention & control , Vaccinia virus/immunology , Vaccinia/prevention & control , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Electroporation , Female , Immunization/methods , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/administration & dosage , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/immunology , Rabbits , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
6.
Nat Immunol ; 23(1): 50-61, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545628

ABSTRACT

NP105-113-B*07:02-specific CD8+ T cell responses are considered among the most dominant in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. We found strong association of this response with mild disease. Analysis of NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cell clones and single-cell sequencing were performed concurrently, with functional avidity and antiviral efficacy assessed using an in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection system, and were correlated with T cell receptor usage, transcriptome signature and disease severity (acute n = 77, convalescent n = 52). We demonstrated a beneficial association of NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cells in COVID-19 disease progression, linked with expansion of T cell precursors, high functional avidity and antiviral effector function. Broad immune memory pools were narrowed postinfection but NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cells were maintained 6 months after infection with preserved antiviral efficacy to the SARS-CoV-2 Victoria strain, as well as Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta variants. Our data show that NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cell responses associate with mild disease and high antiviral efficacy, pointing to inclusion for future vaccine design.


Subject(s)
HLA-B7 Antigen/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line, Transformed , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Vaccinia virus/immunology , Vaccinia virus/metabolism
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412845

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 in humans is caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that belongs to the beta family of coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 causes severe respiratory illness in 10-15% of infected individuals and mortality in 2-3%. Vaccines are urgently needed to prevent infection and to contain viral spread. Although several mRNA- and adenovirus-based vaccines are highly effective, their dependence on the "cold chain" transportation makes global vaccination a difficult task. In this context, a stable lyophilized vaccine may present certain advantages. Accordingly, establishing additional vaccine platforms remains vital to tackle SARS-CoV-2 and any future variants that may arise. Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been used to eradicate smallpox disease, and several attenuated viral strains with enhanced safety for human applications have been developed. We have generated two candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on two vaccinia viral strains, MVA and v-NY, that express full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Whereas MVA is growth-restricted in mammalian cells, the v-NY strain is replication-competent. We demonstrate that both candidate recombinant vaccines induce high titers of neutralizing antibodies in C57BL/6 mice vaccinated according to prime-boost regimens. Furthermore, our vaccination regimens generated TH1-biased immune responses in mice. Most importantly, prime-boost vaccination of a Syrian hamster infection model with MVA-S and v-NY-S protected the hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 infection, supporting that these two vaccines are promising candidates for future development. Finally, our vaccination regimens generated neutralizing antibodies that partially cross-neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Female , Immunization, Secondary , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2099: 53-68, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292546

ABSTRACT

Over the past two decades, several coronavirus (CoV) infectious clones have been engineered, allowing for the manipulation of their large viral genomes (~30 kb) using unique reverse genetic systems. These reverse genetic systems include targeted recombination, in vitro ligation, vaccinia virus vectors, and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). Quickly after the identification of Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV), both in vitro ligation and BAC-based reverse genetic technologies were engineered for MERS-CoV to study its basic biological properties, develop live-attenuated vaccines, and test antiviral drugs. Here, I will describe how lambda red recombination can be used with the MERS-CoV BAC to quickly and efficiently introduce virtually any type of genetic modification (point mutations, insertions, deletions) into the MERS-CoV genome and recover recombinant virus.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophage lambda/genetics , Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Deoxyribonuclease I/genetics , Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism , Genetic Engineering , Homologous Recombination , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Mutation , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccinia virus/genetics
9.
J Immunol ; 206(11): 2596-2604, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224288

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health emergency, and the development of a successful vaccine will ultimately be required to prevent the continued spread and seasonal recurrence of this disease within the human population. However, very little is known about either the quality of the adaptive immune response or the viral Ag targets that will be necessary to prevent the spread of the infection. In this study, we generated recombinant Vaccinia virus expressing the full-length spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 (VacV-S) to evaluate the cellular and humoral immune response mounted against this viral Ag in mice. Both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells specific to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein underwent robust expansion, contraction, and persisted for at least 40 d following a single immunization with VacV-S. Vaccination also caused the rapid emergence of spike-specific IgG-neutralizing Abs. Interestingly, both the cellular and humoral immune responses strongly targeted the S1 domain of spike following VacV-S immunization. Notably, immunization with VacV-expressing spike conjugated to the MHC class II invariant chain, a strategy previously reported by us and others to enhance the immunogenicity of antigenic peptides, did not promote stronger spike-specific T cell or Ab responses in vivo. Overall, these findings demonstrate that an immunization approach using VacV or attenuated versions of VacV expressing the native, full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein could be used for further vaccine development to prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccinia virus , Animals , Cell Line , Immunization , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Vaccinia virus/immunology
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125261

ABSTRACT

Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a replication-restricted smallpox vaccine, and numerous clinical studies of recombinant MVAs (rMVAs) as vectors for prevention of other infectious diseases, including COVID-19, are in progress. Here, we characterize rMVAs expressing the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Modifications of full-length S individually or in combination included two proline substitutions, mutations of the furin recognition site, and deletion of the endoplasmic retrieval signal. Another rMVA in which the receptor binding domain (RBD) is flanked by the signal peptide and transmembrane domains of S was also constructed. Each modified S protein was displayed on the surface of rMVA-infected cells and was recognized by anti-RBD antibody and soluble hACE2 receptor. Intramuscular injection of mice with the rMVAs induced antibodies, which neutralized a pseudovirus in vitro and, upon passive transfer, protected hACE2 transgenic mice from lethal infection with SARS-CoV-2, as well as S-specific CD3+CD8+IFNγ+ T cells. Antibody boosting occurred following a second rMVA or adjuvanted purified RBD protein. Immunity conferred by a single vaccination of hACE2 mice prevented morbidity and weight loss upon intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2 3 wk or 7 wk later. One or two rMVA vaccinations also prevented detection of infectious SARS-CoV-2 and subgenomic viral mRNAs in the lungs and greatly reduced induction of cytokine and chemokine mRNAs. A low amount of virus was found in the nasal turbinates of only one of eight rMVA-vaccinated mice on day 2 and none later. Detection of low levels of subgenomic mRNAs in turbinates indicated that replication was aborted in immunized animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunization , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/genetics
11.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(7): 827-838, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a respiratory disease with a case fatality rate of up to 35%. Given its potential to cause a public health emergency and the absence of efficacious drugs or vaccines, MERS is one of the WHO priority diseases warranting urgent research and development of countermeasures. We aimed to assess safety and tolerability of an anti-MERS-CoV modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine candidate that expresses the MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein, MVA-MERS-S, in healthy adults. METHODS: This open-label, phase 1 trial was done at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Hamburg, Germany). Participants were healthy men and women aged 18-55 years with no clinically significant health problems as determined during medical history and physical examination, a body-mass index of 18·5-30·0 kg/m2 and weight of more than 50 kg at screening, and a negative pregnancy test for women. A key exclusion criterion was a previous MVA vaccination. For the prime immunisation, participants received doses of 1 × 107 plaque-forming unit (PFU; low-dose group) or 1 × 108 PFU (high-dose group) MVA-MERS-S intramuscularly. A second identical dose was administered intramuscularly as a booster immunisation 28 days after first injection. As a control group for immunogenicity analyses, blood samples were drawn at identical study timepoints from six healthy adults, who did not receive any injections. The primary objectives of the study were safety and tolerability of the two dosage levels and reactogenicity after administration. Immunogenicity was assessed as a secondary endpoint by ELISA and neutralisation tests. T-cell immunity was evaluated by interferon-γ-linked enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot assay. All participants who were vaccinated at least once were included in the safety analysis. Immunogenicity was analysed in the participants who completed 6 months of follow-up. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03615911, and EudraCT, 2014-003195-23 FINDINGS: From Dec 17, 2017, to June 5, 2018, 26 participants (14 in the low-dose group and 12 in the high-dose group) were enrolled and received the first dose of the vaccine according to their group allocation. Of these, 23 participants (12 in the low-dose group and 11 in the high-dose group) received a second dose of MVA-MERS-S according to their group allocation after a 28-day interval and completed follow-up. Homologous prime-boost immunisation with MVA-MERS-S revealed a benign safety profile with only transient mild-to-moderate reactogenicity. Participants had no severe or serious adverse events. 67 vaccine-related adverse events were reported in ten (71%) of 14 participants in the low-dose group, and 111 were reported in ten (83%) of 12 participants in the high-dose group. Solicited local reactions were the most common adverse events: pain was observed in 17 (65%; seven in the low-dose group vs ten in the high-dose group) participants, swelling in ten (38%; two vs eight) participants, and induration in ten (38%; one vs nine) participants. Headaches (observed in seven participants in the low-dose group vs nine in the high-dose group) and fatigue or malaise (ten vs seven participants) were the most common solicited systemic adverse events. All adverse events resolved swiftly (within 1-3 days) and without sequelae. Following booster immunisation, nine (75%) of 12 participants in the low-dose group and 11 (100%) participants in the high-dose group showed seroconversion using a MERS-CoV S1 ELISA at any timepoint during the study. Binding antibody titres correlated with MERS-CoV-specific neutralising antibodies (Spearman's correlation r=0·86 [95% CI 0·6960-0·9427], p=0·0001). MERS-CoV spike-specific T-cell responses were detected in ten (83%) of 12 immunised participants in the low-dose group and ten (91%) of 11 immunised participants in the high-dose group. INTERPRETATION: Vaccination with MVA-MERS-S had a favourable safety profile without serious or severe adverse events. Homologous prime-boost immunisation induced humoral and cell-mediated responses against MERS-CoV. A dose-effect relationship was demonstrated for reactogenicity, but not for vaccine-induced immune responses. The data presented here support further clinical testing of MVA-MERS-S in larger cohorts to advance MERS vaccine development. FUNDING: German Center for Infection Research.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Genetic Vectors , Germany , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Vaccines, DNA , Young Adult
12.
Immunity ; 54(3): 542-556.e9, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101300

ABSTRACT

A combination of vaccination approaches will likely be necessary to fully control the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Here, we show that modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectors expressing membrane-anchored pre-fusion stabilized spike (MVA/S) but not secreted S1 induced strong neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in mice. In macaques, the MVA/S vaccination induced strong neutralizing antibodies and CD8+ T cell responses, and conferred protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and virus replication in the lungs as early as day 2 following intranasal and intratracheal challenge. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of lung cells on day 4 after infection revealed that MVA/S vaccination also protected macaques from infection-induced inflammation and B cell abnormalities and lowered induction of interferon-stimulated genes. These results demonstrate that MVA/S vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and CD8+ T cells in the blood and lungs and is a potential vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Gene Order , Immunophenotyping , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, DNA/genetics
13.
Viral Immunol ; 33(6): 434-443, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165137

ABSTRACT

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) is a highly contagious cause of serious and often fatal disease in young dogs. Despite the widespread availability of attenuated vaccines, safer, more stable, and more effective CPV2 vaccine candidates are still under exploration. Vaccinia virus (VV) has already been proved to be a safe, stable, and effective vaccine vector. In this study, we generated a VV-based CPV2 vaccine candidate (VV-CPV-VP2) and then evaluated its immunogenicity in mice and dogs. The exogenous vp2 gene of CPV2, which replaced the major virulence gene hemagglutinin (ha) of VV, expressed efficiently and stably in vitro. Subsequently, intramuscular immunization of mice induced robust and lasting systemic immune responses, including neutralizing antibody against both CPV2a and CPV2b, and CPV2-VP2-specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secreting T cell. In addition, administration with a high-dose of VV-CPV-VP2 did not cause significant side effects for mice, thus indicating marked safety of this vaccine candidate. Most importantly, a single-dose vaccination of VV-CPV2-VP2 elicited substantial antibody responses and provided comparable protection for dogs with attenuated CPV2 vaccine. Collectively, this study demonstrated that VV-CPV2-VP2 could be used as a promising vaccine candidate preventing CPV2 from infection for dogs.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins/immunology , Parvoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Parvoviridae Infections/veterinary , Parvovirus, Canine/genetics , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Female , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Parvovirus, Canine/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccinia virus/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/genetics
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