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1.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 23(5): 321-334, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910825

ABSTRACT

Natriuretic peptide system (NPS) is a group of peptide hormones or paracrine factors, including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and natriuretic peptide precursor C (NPC), that are structurally related. The physiological effects of NPS include natriuresis, increased glomerular filtration rate, inhibition release of renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone, sympathetic inhibition, vasodilatations, and prevents cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. ANP has immunological effects, as it is produced locally from immune cells; it regulates innate and adaptive immune responses. Metabolism and degradation of ANP are achieved by neutral endopeptidase (NEP), also known as neprilysin. Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic may lead to acute lung injury (ALI) and/or respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The underlying causes of inflammatory and immunological disorders in patients with severe Covid-19 are connected to the immune over-stimulation with the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Covid-19 severity is linked with high ANP serum levels regardless of acute cardiac injury. Inflammatory stimuli appear to be linked with the release of NPs, which anti-inflammatory effects prevent the development of ALI/ARDS in Covid-19. Therefore, neprilysin inhibitors like sacubitril increase endogenous NPs and may reduce the risk of ALI in Covid-19 due to the potentiation of endogenous anti-inflammatory effects of NPs. However, sacubitril increases gastrin-releasing peptide, cathepsin G and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are inactivated by neprilysin. In conclusion, NPs and neprilysin have cardio-pulmonary protective effects against Covid-19-induced ALI/ARDS. Neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril has dual protective and harmful effects regarding metabolizing vasoactive peptides by neprilysin. These findings require potential reevaluation of the effect of neprilysin inhibitors in managing Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aldosterone , Aminobutyrates , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/metabolism , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cathepsin G , Cytokines , Gastrin-Releasing Peptide/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/therapeutic use , Natriuretic Peptides , Neprilysin/metabolism , Neprilysin/therapeutic use , Renin/therapeutic use , Tetrazoles/pharmacology , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use
2.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 280: 121523, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895420

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have reported that using certain antihypertensive therapies such as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blocker (CCBs) is associated with reduction of fatal outcomes and improving clinical characteristics of patients suffering from hypertension during coronavirus pandemic. Thus, in the current work an effective, innovative and eco-friendly spectrophotometric manner namely, parent spectrum extraction (PSE)was established for evaluation of recommended triple antihypertensive combination therapies incorporate valsartan (VAL) as ARBs, amlodipine besylate as CCBs (AML) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT)as diuretic into single-pill in challengeable ratio. PSE manner composed of two complementary steps, auxiliary resolution coupled with data analysis resolution(DAR)and it is characterized by resolving the spectral bands of the drugs and extraction of their discrete parent spectra (D0); accordingly, enabling determination of each analyte at its λmax. Auxiliary resolution of AML in triple mixture was applied to decrease complexity of overlapped spectra via constant multiplication (CM) followed by spectrum subtraction (SS) to obtain resolved mixture of VAL and HCT while data analysis resolution (DAR) of this binary mixture was applied via one of three novel methods namely, absorbance extraction (AE), peak-amplitude extraction (PE) and ratio extraction (RE) along with SS method. The proposed methods had analyzed VAL, AML and HCT in the range of 4.0-44.0 µg/mL, 4.0-40.0 µg/mL and 2.0-24.0 µg/mL, respectively with an excellent correlation coefficient (r ≥ 0.9999). Further, the proposed methods in PSR manner were validated as stated by ICH guidelines and it was found that accuracy and precision results are within the acceptable limit. The suggested procedures were effectively utilized for the concurrent quantification of VAL, AML and HCT in synthetic mixtures and tablets. The greenness of the proposed spectrophotometric methods was evaluated by National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), the Analytical Eco-Scale, the Green Analytical Procedure Index (GAPI) and Analytical greenness metric (AGREE) where the four tools affirmed the eco-friendly nature of the proposed methods. A comparison between the outcomes of the studied methods with the official and reported ones was performed and no statistical difference was arisen between the methods regarding to accuracy and precision.The achieved results along with the simplicity, affordability and low-cost of the proposed methods recommended their appropriateness for the regular quality control examination and analysis of pure materials and pharmaceutical formulations as well as their applicability for the spectralprint recognition of the studied drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Hypertension , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Amlodipine/analysis , Amlodipine/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/analysis , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrochlorothiazide/analysis , Hydrochlorothiazide/therapeutic use , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/chemically induced , Pandemics , Spectrophotometry/methods , Valsartan
3.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(17): 1424-1430, 2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831006

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This review of chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), including new and emerging evidence for treatment of patients with this condition, is intended to offer data supporting the use of specific agents for this patient population. SUMMARY: Chronic heart failure is a major health concern affecting millions of Americans annually and remains a significant burden on the healthcare system. Heart failure is divided into categories based on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Current treatments for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, defined by an LVEF of less than 40%, involve a variety of agents with established morbidity and mortality benefits. This is in stark contrast to directed treatments for patients with HFpEF, defined by an LVEF of greater than 50%. Treatments for this form of heart failure have been elusive until recently, when studies were published with sacubitril/valsartan and empagliflozin. Results of the PARAGON-HF trial suggested benefit from sacubitril/valsartan in patients with an ejection fraction between 45% and 57%, leading to its approval in 2021 as the first medication indicated for treatment of patients with a preserved ejection fraction. Months later, the results of the EMPEROR-Preserved trial demonstrated a statistically significant benefit in the composite outcome of heart failure hospitalizations and cardiovascular death in patients with HFpEF taking empagliflozin. This medication has yet to gain approval for HFpEF; however, these data along with ongoing and future trials will likely impact standard treatment for these patients. CONCLUSION: The PARAGON-HF and EMPEROR-Preserved trials will serve as the foundation for a new era in the treatment of HFpEF.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds , Drug Combinations , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Stroke Volume , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Valsartan , Ventricular Function, Left
4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 24(5): 855-860, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750361

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The present study sought to examine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures on the prescription of sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure (HF) in Italy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) monitoring registries were analysed. The sacubitril/valsartan monitoring registry is based on 6-month prescriptions. A monthly aggregation on new activations throughout the observational period was computed. From March to December 2020, the initiation of new HF patients on sacubitril/valsartan decreased by nearly 40% with prescriptions dropping to values similar to 2018 when the registry was still operated off-line. A slight increase in prescriptions was observed after the lockdown measures were lifted, but prescriptions remained constantly below the pre-lockdown period. CONCLUSION: A marked and worrisome decline during the COVID-19 pandemic in the activation of a life-saving treatment such as sacubitril/valsartan was observed. This decline was clearly linked to the lockdown measures instated to counteract the COVID-19 pandemic. Upcoming studies should analyse the occurrence of new cases of HF as well as the severity of patients admitted to hospitals and their mortality compared to pre-pandemic levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Drug Combinations , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prescriptions , Stroke Volume/physiology , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Valsartan
5.
BMJ ; 375: n2938, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537932

Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Hypertension/drug therapy , Thiazides/adverse effects , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Aminobutyrates/pharmacology , Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , Biphenyl Compounds/pharmacology , Biphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Calcium Channel Blockers/adverse effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cats , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dogs , Drug Combinations , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/adverse effects , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/pharmacology , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/therapeutic use , Heart Sounds/physiology , History, 20th Century , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/statistics & numerical data , Incretins/adverse effects , Incretins/pharmacology , Incretins/therapeutic use , Insulin Glargine/adverse effects , Insulin Glargine/history , Insulin Glargine/pharmacology , Insulin Glargine/therapeutic use , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thiazides/therapeutic use , Valsartan/pharmacology , Valsartan/therapeutic use
6.
N Engl J Med ; 385(20): 1845-1855, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with symptomatic heart failure, sacubitril-valsartan has been found to reduce the risk of hospitalization and death from cardiovascular causes more effectively than an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. Trials comparing the effects of these drugs in patients with acute myocardial infarction have been lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with myocardial infarction complicated by a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary congestion, or both to receive either sacubitril-valsartan (97 mg of sacubitril and 103 mg of valsartan twice daily) or ramipril (5 mg twice daily) in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure (outpatient symptomatic heart failure or heart failure leading to hospitalization), whichever occurred first. RESULTS: A total of 5661 patients underwent randomization; 2830 were assigned to receive sacubitril-valsartan and 2831 to receive ramipril. Over a median of 22 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 338 patients (11.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 373 patients (13.2%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.04; P = 0.17). Death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 308 patients (10.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 335 patients (11.8%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.07); death from cardiovascular causes in 168 (5.9%) and 191 (6.7%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.08); and death from any cause in 213 (7.5%) and 242 (8.5%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.05). Treatment was discontinued because of an adverse event in 357 patients (12.6%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 379 patients (13.4%) in the ramipril group. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan was not associated with a significantly lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure than ramipril among patients with acute myocardial infarction. (Funded by Novartis; PARADISE-MI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02924727.).


Subject(s)
Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Ramipril/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Aged , Aminobutyrates/adverse effects , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Biphenyl Compounds/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypotension/chemically induced , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Ramipril/adverse effects , Stroke Volume , Valsartan/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
7.
JAMA Cardiol ; 7(1): 17-25, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499191

ABSTRACT

Importance: The use of sacubitril/valsartan is not endorsed by practice guidelines for use in patients with New York Heart Association class IV heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction because of limited clinical experience in this population. Objective: To compare treatment with sacubitril/valsartan treatment with valsartan in patients with advanced heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction and recent New York Heart Association class IV symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants: A double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted; a total of 335 patients with advanced heart failure were included. The trial began on March 2, 2017, and was stopped early on March 23, 2020, owing to COVID-19 risk. Intervention: Patients were randomized to receive sacubitril/valsartan (target dose, 200 mg twice daily) or valsartan (target dose, 160 mg twice daily) in addition to recommended therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The area under the curve (AUC) for the ratio of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) compared with baseline measured through 24 weeks of therapy. Results: Of the 335 patients included in the analysis, 245 were men (73%); mean (SD) age was 59.4 (13.5) years. Seventy-two eligible patients (18%) were not able to tolerate sacubitril/valsartan, 100 mg/d, during the short run-in period, and 49 patients (29%) discontinued sacubitril/valsartan during the 24 weeks of the trial. The median NT-proBNP AUC for the valsartan treatment arm (n = 168) was 1.19 (IQR, 0.91-1.64), whereas the AUC for the sacubitril/valsartan treatment arm (n = 167) was 1.08 (IQR, 0.75-1.60). The estimated ratio of change in the NT-proBNP AUC was 0.95 (95% CI 0.84-1.08; P = .45). Compared with valsartan, treatment with sacubitril/valsartan did not improve the clinical composite of number of days alive, out of hospital, and free from heart failure events. Aside from a statistically significant increase in non-life-threatening hyperkalemia in the sacubitril/valsartan arm (28 [17%] vs 15 [9%]; P = .04), there were no observed safety concerns. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this trial showed that, in patients with chronic advanced heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction, there was no statistically significant difference between sacubitril/valsartan and valsartan with respect to reducing NT-proBNP levels. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02816736.


Subject(s)
Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Heart Failure/blood , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Stroke Volume
8.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502528

ABSTRACT

Men are disproportionately affected by the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and face higher odds of severe illness and death compared to women. The vascular effects of androgen signaling and inflammatory cytokines in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-mediated endothelial injury are not defined. We determined the effects of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated endothelial injury under conditions of exposure to androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and tested potentially therapeutic effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism by spironolactone. Circulating endothelial injury markers VCAM-1 and E-selectin were measured in men and women diagnosed with COVID-19. Exposure of endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro to DHT exacerbated spike protein S1-mediated endothelial injury transcripts for the cell adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and anti-fibrinolytic PAI-1 (p < 0.05), and increased THP-1 monocyte adhesion to ECs (p = 0.032). Spironolactone dramatically reduced DHT+S1-induced endothelial activation. TNF-α exacerbated S1-induced EC activation, which was abrogated by pretreatment with spironolactone. Analysis from patients hospitalized with COVID-19 showed concordant higher circulating VCAM-1 and E-Selectin levels in men, compared to women. A beneficial effect of the FDA-approved drug spironolactone was observed on endothelial cells in vitro, supporting a rationale for further evaluation of mineralocorticoid antagonism as an adjunct treatment in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Spironolactone/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/blood , Cells, Cultured , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Characteristics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/physiology , Valsartan/pharmacology
9.
Clin Drug Investig ; 41(10): 907-915, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sacubitril-valsartan is effective in reducing the N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level of hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with a high acquisition cost compared with enalapril treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the cost utility of sacubitril-valsartan compared with enalapril for acute decompensated heart failure treatment. METHODS: A Markov model was constructed to project the total costs, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of early initiation, and a 2-month delay of sacubitril-valsartan treatment and enalapril treatment in hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure over a lifetime horizon from a Thai healthcare system perspective. Clinical inputs were mainly derived from the PIONEER-HF and PARADIGM-HF trials, together with Thai epidemiological data. Cost data were based on the Thai population. All costs and outcomes were discounted at 3% annually. A series of sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Compared with enalapril, sacubitril-valsartan incurred a higher total cost per year (THB 42,994 [US$1367.48] vs THB 19,787 [US$629.37]), and it gained more QALYs (4.969 vs 4.755). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was THB 108,508/QALY (US$3451.26/QALY). Early initiation of sacubitril-valsartan treatment was more cost effective than delayed treatment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that at a level of willingness to pay of THB 160,000/QALY (US$5089/QALY), sacubitril-valsartan was a cost-effective strategy of about 60%. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan is cost effective in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. However, the results are highly dependent on the long-term cardiovascular mortality, and they are applicable only to Thailand or countries with a similarly structured healthcare system. Long-term registries should be pursued to decrease the uncertainty around long-term mortality.


Subject(s)
Enalapril , Heart Failure , Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Combinations , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Stroke Volume , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Thailand , Valsartan
10.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(10): 854-860, 2021 Oct.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441022

ABSTRACT

Sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization and improve symptoms in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction compared to enalapril. After 7 years since the publication of the results of PARADIGM-HF, further insight has been gained with potential new indications. Two prospective randomized multicenter studies (PIONEER-HF and TRANSITION) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) have shown an improved clinical outcome and biomarker profile as compared to enalapril, and good tolerability, safety and feasibility of initiating in-hospital administration of S/V. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the favorable effects of S/V in attenuating adverse myocardial remodeling, supporting an early benefit after treatment. Observational data from non-randomized studies in AHF report that in-hospital and pre-discharge prescription of evidence-based drugs associated with better survival still remains suboptimal. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has also negatively impacted on outpatient activities. Therefore, hospitalization, a real crossroads in the history of heart failure, must become a management and therapeutic opportunity for our patients. The objective of this ANMCO position paper is to encourage and facilitate early S/V administration in stabilized patients during hospitalization after an AHF episode, with the aim of improving care efficiency and clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Aminobutyrates , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Biphenyl Compounds , Drug Combinations , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Tetrazoles , Treatment Outcome , Valsartan
11.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(9): 1423-1426, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses the host's angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a cellular entry point. Therefore, modulating ACE2 might impact SARS-CoV-2 viral replication, shedding, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. Here, it was investigated whether the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker valsartan alters the expression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components, including ACE2, in human adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed, in which 36 participants (BMI 31.0 ± 0.8 kg/m2 ) with impaired glucose metabolism received either valsartan or placebo for 26 weeks. Before and after 26 weeks' treatment, abdominal subcutaneous AT and skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained, and gene expression of RAS components was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Valsartan treatment did not significantly impact the expression of RAS components, including ACE2, in AT and skeletal muscle. CONCLUSIONS: Given the pivotal role of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2 spread and the clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients, the data suggest that the putative beneficial effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers on the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 may not be mediated through altered ACE2 expression in abdominal subcutaneous AT.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , Valsartan , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Valsartan/pharmacology
12.
Mol Pharm ; 18(5): 1970-1984, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164785

ABSTRACT

Physicochemical properties, in particular solubility and the associated bioavailability, are key factors in determining efficacy of poorly water-soluble drugs, which constitute 40% of new drugs in the market, and improving them is an important challenge for modern pharmacy. A recent strategy to achieve this goal is formation of stable co-amorphous solid dispersions with co-formers of low molecular weight. Here, the amorphization strategy was applied for low-soluble anti-hypertensive valsartan (VAL), an angiotensin II receptor blocker, and nicotinamide, which exhibits lung- and cardio-protective effects. Through interactions with the renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system, VAL may be used to treat both hypertension and the current pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using mechanochemical and liquid- and solid-state approaches, solvated co-amorphous solid dispersions of VAL with nicotinamide were obtained. They were characterized by spectroscopic, thermal, and X-ray analyses. The density functional theory, quantum theory of atoms in molecules, and non-covalent interaction index calculations revealed the presence of two types of hydrogen bonds between VAL and NIC (i.e., N-H···O and O-H···O). One of them had a partially covalent character, which caused conformational changes in the flexible VAL molecule, restricting contribution of the tetrazolyl N-H donor and thus limiting the possibility of co-crystal formation. The recognized VAL/NIC1- and VAL/NIC2-type heterodimeric interactions were responsible for the excellent durability of the solid compositions and up to 24-fold better solubility than VAL alone. The synthesized dispersions constitute a new class of dually acting drugs, containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient (VAL) and supporting nutraceutical (nicotinamide).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Niacinamide/chemistry , Valsartan/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemical synthesis , Biological Availability , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Drug Compounding , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Quantum Theory , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , X-Ray Diffraction
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 147: 110486, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014720

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the state of global pandemic caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). To date, no antivirals directed against SARS-CoV-2 or effective vaccines to combat the viral infection are available. Severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 is treated empirically with antivirals, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulants. The approval of an effective vaccine still takes time. In this state, it may be useful to find new therapeutic solutions from drugs already on the market. Recent hypotheses suggest that the use of AT-1 receptor antagonists (ARB) in combination with neprilisin inhibitors (NEPi) could indirectly provide clinical benefits to patients with SARS-CoV-2 and cardiac involvement. In this article we investigate and describe a possible innovative pharmacological approach for the treatment of the most severe stages of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Aminobutyrates/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Tetrazoles/administration & dosage , Valsartan/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Heart Failure/virology , Homeostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Models, Theoretical , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Neprilysin/adverse effects , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/metabolism , World Health Organization
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927673

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) determines the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) down-regulation and related decrease in angiotensin II degradation. Both these events trigger "cytokine storm" leading to acute lung and cardiovascular injury. A selective therapy for COVID-19 has not yet been identified. Clinical trials with remdesivir gave discordant results. Thus, healthcare systems have focused on "multi-targeted" therapeutic strategies aiming at relieving systemic inflammation and thrombotic complications. No randomized clinical trial has demonstrated the efficacy of renin angiotensin system antagonists in reducing inflammation related to COVID-19. Dexamethasone and tocilizumab showed encouraging data, but their use needs to be further validated. The still-controversial efficacy of these treatments highlighted the importance of organ injury prevention in COVID-19. Neprilysin (NEP) might be an interesting target for this purpose. NEP expression is increased by cytokines on lung fibroblasts surface. NEP activity is elevated in acute respiratory distress syndrome and it is conceivable that it is also high in COVID-19. NEP is implicated in the degradation of natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, adrenomedullin, and apelin that account for prevention of organ injury. Thus, NEP/angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan (SAC/VAL) may increase levels of these molecules and block AT1Rs required for ACE2 endocytosis in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, SAC/VAL has a positive impact on acute heart failure that is very frequently observed in deceased COVID-19 patients. The current review aims to summarize actual therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 and to examine the data supporting the potential benefits of SAC/VAL in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Neprilysin/antagonists & inhibitors , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aminobutyrates/administration & dosage , Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Animals , Biphenyl Compounds , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Humans , Neprilysin/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Tetrazoles/administration & dosage , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Valsartan/administration & dosage , Valsartan/therapeutic use
16.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(10): 789-799, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-816609

ABSTRACT

The PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) trial reported that sacubitril/valsartan (S/V), an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, significantly reduced mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalization in HF patients with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, fewer than 1% of patients in the PARADIGM-HF study had New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV symptoms. Accordingly, data that informed the use of S/V among patients with advanced HF were limited. The LIFE (LCZ696 in Hospitalized Advanced Heart Failure) study was a 24-week prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, double-dummy, active comparator trial that compared the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of S/V with those of valsartan in patients with advanced HFrEF. The trial planned to randomize 400 patients ≥18 years of age with advanced HF, defined as an EF ≤35%, New York Heart Association functional class IV symptoms, elevated natriuretic peptide concentration (B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP] ≥250 pg/ml or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] ≥800 pg/ml), and ≥1 objective finding of advanced HF. Following a 3- to 7-day open label run-in period with S/V (24 mg/26 mg twice daily), patients were randomized 1:1 to S/V titrated to 97 mg/103 mg twice daily versus 160 mg of V twice daily. The primary endpoint was the proportional change from baseline in the area under the curve for NT-proBNP levels measured through week 24. Secondary and tertiary endpoints included clinical outcomes and safety and tolerability. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, enrollment in the LIFE trial was stopped prematurely to ensure patient safety and data integrity. The primary analysis consists of the first 335 randomized patients whose clinical follow-up examination results were not severely impacted by COVID-19. (Entresto [LCZ696] in Advanced Heart Failure [LIFE STUDY] [HFN-LIFE]; NCT02816736).


Subject(s)
Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Biphenyl Compounds , COVID-19 , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Transplantation , Heart-Assist Devices , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypotension/chemically induced , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Valsartan
17.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(10): 750-756, 2020 Oct.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-791898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, non-urgent outpatient activities were temporarily suspended. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of this measure on the management of the heart failure outpatient clinic at our institution. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical outcome of 110 chronic heart failure patients (mean age 73 ± 9 years) whose follow-up visit had been delayed. RESULTS: At their last visit before the lockdown, 80.9% was in NYHA class II, had an ejection fraction of 37 ± 7%, and B-type natriuretic peptide level was moderately elevated (266 ± 138 pg/ml). All patients received loop diuretics, 97.2% beta-blockers, 64.9% an aldosterone antagonist, 60.9% sacubitril/valsartan (S/V), and 72.2% of the remaining patients were on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or valsartan therapy. Patients were contacted by phone during and at the end of the lockdown period to fix a new appointment and underwent a structured interview to assess their clinical conditions and ongoing therapy and to verify whether they had contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection. Twelve patients (13.2%) contracted COVID-19. None was hospitalized for worsening heart failure or reported defibrillator shocks and none changed autonomously the prescribed therapy. Overall, 75% of patients reported stable or improved general well-being from the last in-person visit, while 25% described subjective worsening due to the social effect of the pandemic. Unchanged body weight and blood pressure values were reported by 86% and 78.4% of patients, respectively. Lower blood pressure values compared to baseline were recorded in 15.2% of patients on conventional renin-angiotensin system inhibition vs 21% of those on S/V, one of whom had to down-titrate S/V for persistent but asymptomatic hypotension; 4 patients up-titrated S/V to 200 mg/day following phone indications. CONCLUSIONS: Cancellation of scheduled follow-up visits during 3 months did not have significant negative effects in a cohort of stable patients with chronic heart failure on optimized medical therapy. Telephone support was effective in keeping connections with the patients during the lockdown, allowing appropriate management and implementation of drug therapy. In particular, patients who received S/V were not affected by delays in scheduled visits, confirming the tolerability and safety of this novel therapy in terms of both clinical and biohumoral parameters.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Aged , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Continuity of Patient Care/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Progression , Drug Combinations , Female , Heart Failure/blood , Heart Failure/psychology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume , Telephone , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Valsartan , Withholding Treatment
19.
Am Heart J ; 226: 60-68, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-589490

ABSTRACT

There is much debate on the use of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients. Although it has been suggested that ARBs might lead to a higher susceptibility and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection, experimental data suggest that ARBs may reduce acute lung injury via blocking angiotensin-II-mediated pulmonary permeability, inflammation, and fibrosis. However, despite these hypotheses, specific studies on ARBs in SARS-CoV-2 patients are lacking. METHODS: The PRAETORIAN-COVID trial is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled 1:1 randomized clinical trial in adult hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected patients (n = 651). The primary aim is to investigate the effect of the ARB valsartan compared to placebo on the composite end point of admission to an intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, or death within 14 days of randomization. The active-treatment arm will receive valsartan in a dosage titrated to blood pressure up to a maximum of 160 mg bid, and the placebo arm will receive matching placebo. Treatment duration will be 14 days, or until the occurrence of the primary end point or until hospital discharge, if either of these occurs within 14 days. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04335786, 2020). SUMMARY: The PRAETORIAN-COVID trial is a double-blind, placebo-controlled 1:1 randomized trial to assess the effect of valsartan compared to placebo on the occurrence of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and death in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. The results of this study might impact the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 patients globally.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronary Care Units , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Adult , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Drug Administration Schedule , Humans , Inpatients , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Netherlands , Pandemics , Placebos/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Valsartan/administration & dosage
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