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1.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(8): 543-549, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Enterococcus species account for most of the human enterococcal HAI and multidrug-resistant infections and have become a major threat to modern public health. We examine the rise in the number of vancomycin resistant E. faecium blood stream and urinary tract infections in a COVID-19 department during an epidemiologic outbreak investigation to detect and eliminate nosocomial clusters of the bacteria. METHODS:  Strain identification was performed by classical isolation and biochemical and cultivation methods. Antibiotic testing results were interpreted according to European committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (EUCAST) guidelines. Six isolated samples underwent the whole genome sequencing (WGS) during the outbreak investigation. Isolate relatedness was determined using the core genome multi-locus sequence typing. RESULTS:  WGS revealed two genotypically distinct VRE clusters, one of which had genetically closely related patients and environmental isolates. The cluster was terminated by enhanced infection control strategies. CONCLUSIONS:  This study provides the first description of an outbreak caused by vanB-ST117 and vanA-ST17 E. faecium strains among COVID-19 patients in Slovakia. This study can help to raise the awareness about the need for strict adherence to infection control measures and the implementation of rational antimicrobial stewardship as a routine part of COVID-19 management (Tab. 3, Fig. 3, Ref. 27). Text in PDF www.elis.sk Keywords: vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, antibiotic resistant, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, bacterial outbreak, healthcare-associated infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Enterococcus faecium , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Disease Outbreaks , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Multilocus Sequence Typing , SARS-CoV-2 , Slovakia/epidemiology , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/genetics
2.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0251727, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) has alarmed the global community due to its tendency for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients are colonized by vancomycin resistant Enterococci than other groups. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of vancomycin resistant Enterococci and its associated factors among HIV infected patients on Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART). METHODS: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among HIV infected patients on ART at from June 1 to August 30, 2020. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected by pre-tested structured questionnaire. Stool sample was collected and processed by standard microbiological techniques. Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion method was used to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Data were entered by Epi data version 4.6.0.2 and analyzed by SPSS version 25. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between dependent and independent variables. P-values in the multivariable analysis, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to determine the strength of association. P-value ≤0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: Enterococci spp was isolated on 123/200 (61.50%) patients. Among these isolates, the incidence of vancomycin resistant Enterococci was 11.4% [95% CI: (6.0-17.0)]. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns against Enterococci showed highest rate of resistance to ampicillin (69.9%). Multidrug resistances were observed in 49.59% of Enterococci isolates. Study participants who had prior antibioticexposurer more than two weeks [AOR = 7.35; 95% CI: (1.2144.64)] and hospitalization for the last six months [AOR = 5.68; 95% CI: (1.09 29.74)] were significantly associated with vancomycin resistant Enterococci. CONCLUSIONS: In our study high incidence of vancomycin resistant Enterococci was found. Previous exposure to antibiotics for more than two weeks and hospitalization for more than six months were significantly associated with vancomycin resistant Enterococci. The isolated Enterococci had variable degrees of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Therefore, periodic surveillance on antimicrobial resistance pattern, adhering to rational use of antibiotics and implementing infection prevention protocols may reduce colonization by VRE.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV/isolation & purification , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/microbiology , HIV Infections/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
3.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(2): 215-224, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia and other invasive diseases, and is a leading cause of mortality in the elderly population. The present study aimed to provide current antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 252 nonduplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients admitted to 16 hospitals in Taiwan between January 2017 and December 2019, and were analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was determined using the Vitek 2 automated system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Furthermore, epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the strains analyzed, 88% were recognized as invasive pneumococcal strains. According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria for non-meningitis, the prevalence of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae demonstrated a declining trend from 43.6% in 2017 to 17.2% in 2019. However, the rate of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 85.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Furthermore, the prevalence of ceftriaxone-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 62.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Isolates demonstrated higher susceptibility toward doripenem and ertapenem than toward meropenem and imipenem. An increased rate of non-susceptibility toward levofloxacin was observed in southern Taiwan (15.1%) and elderly patients (≥65 years; 11.4%). Most isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with ceftriaxone monotherapy for pneumococcal meningitis should be carefully monitored owing to its high non-susceptibility rate. The susceptibility rates of most isolates to penicillin (used for treating non-meningitis pneumococcal diseases), carbapenems (ertapenem and doripenem), respiratory quinolones (moxifloxacin and levofloxacin), vancomycin, and linezolid suggested the potential of these antibiotics in treating pneumococcal diseases in Taiwan.


Subject(s)
Meningitis, Pneumococcal , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Doripenem/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Ertapenem/therapeutic use , Humans , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vancomycin/pharmacology
4.
Adv Mater ; 33(8): e2005477, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039151

ABSTRACT

Besides the pandemic caused by the coronavirus outbreak, many other pathogenic microbes also pose a devastating threat to human health, for instance, pathogenic bacteria. Due to the lack of broad-spectrum antibiotics, it is urgent to develop nonantibiotic strategies to fight bacteria. Herein, inspired by the localized "capture and killing" action of bacteriophages, a virus-like peroxidase-mimic (V-POD-M) is synthesized for efficient bacterial capture (mesoporous spiky structures) and synergistic catalytic sterilization (metal-organic-framework-derived catalytic core). Experimental and theoretical calculations show that the active compound, MoO3 , can serve as a peroxo-complex-intermediate to reduce the free energy for catalyzing H2 O2 , which mainly benefits the generation of •OH radicals. The unique virus-like spikes endow the V-POD-M with fast bacterial capture and killing abilities (nearly 100% at 16 µg mL-1 ). Furthermore, the in vivo experiments show that V-POD-M possesses similar disinfection treatment and wound skin recovery efficiencies to vancomycin. It is suggested that this inexpensive, durable, and highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) catalytic active V-POD-M provides a promising broad-spectrum therapy for nonantibiotic disinfection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis , Biomimetic Materials/chemical synthesis , Oxides/chemical synthesis , Peroxidase/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Biomimetic Materials/pharmacology , Catalysis , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Metal-Organic Frameworks/chemistry , Metal-Organic Frameworks/pharmacology , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molybdenum/pharmacology , Oxides/pharmacology , Peroxidase/metabolism , Sterilization , Vancomycin/pharmacology
5.
Anal Chem ; 92(19): 13396-13404, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933642

ABSTRACT

Rapid, accurate, reliable, and risk-free tracking of pathogenic microorganisms at the single-cell level is critical to achieve efficient source control and prevent outbreaks of microbial infectious diseases. For the first time, we report a promising approach for integrating the concepts of a remarkably large Stokes shift and dual-recognition into a single matrix to develop a pathogenic microorganism stimuli-responsive ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe with speed, cost efficiency, stability, ultrahigh specificity, and sensitivity. As a proof-of-concept, we selected the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as the target analyte model, which easily bound to its recognition aptamer and the broad-spectrum glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin (Van). To improve the specificity and short sample-to-answer time, we employed classic noncovalent π-π stacking interactions as a driving force to trigger the binding of Van and aptamer dual-functionalized near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent Apt-Van-QDs to the surface of an unreported blue fluorescent π-rich electronic carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), achieving S. aureus stimuli-responsive ratiometric nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs. In the assembly of Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs, the blue CNPs (energy donor) and NIR Apt-Van-QDs (energy acceptor) became close to allow the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process, leading to a remarkable blue fluorescence quenching for the CNPs at ∼465 nm and a clear NIR fluorescence enhancement for Apt-Van-QDs at ∼725 nm. In the presence of S. aureus, the FRET process from CNPs to Apt-Van-QDs was disrupted, causing the nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs to display a ratiometric fluorescent response to S. aureus, which exhibited a large Stokes shift of ∼260 nm and rapid sample-to-answer detection time (∼30.0 min). As expected, the nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs showed an ultrahigh specificity for ratiometric fluorescence detection of S. aureus with a good detection limit of 1.0 CFU/mL, allowing the assay at single-cell level. Moreover, we also carried out the precise analysis of S. aureus in actual samples with acceptable results. We believe that this work offers new insight into the rational design of efficient ratiometric nanoprobes for rapid on-site accurate screening of pathogenic microorganisms at the single-cell level in the early stages, especially during the worldwide spread of COVID-19 today.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/chemistry , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Fluorescent Dyes/chemical synthesis , Nanotechnology/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Aptamers, Nucleotide , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Fluorescence , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Food Microbiology/methods , Humans , Nanoparticles , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/chemistry , Vancomycin/pharmacology
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