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1.
Environ Res ; 213: 113719, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907005

ABSTRACT

Stringent pollution control measures are generally applied to improve air quality, especially in the Spring Festival in China. Meanwhile, human activities are reduced significantly due to nationwide lockdown measures to curtail the COVID-19 spreading in 2020. Herein, to better understand the influence of control measures and meteorology on air pollution, this study compared the variation of pollution source and their health risk during the 2019 and 2020 Spring Festival in Linfen, China. Results revealed that the average concentration of PM2.5 in 2020 decreased by 39.0% when compared to the 2019 Spring Festival. Organic carbon (OC) and SO42- were the primary contributor to PM2.5 with the value of 19.5% (21.1%) and 23.5% (25.5%) in 2019 (2020) Spring Festival, respectively. Based on the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, six pollution sources of PM2.5 were indicated. Vehicle emissions (VE) had the maximum reduction in pollution source concentration (28.39 µg· m-3), followed by dust fall (DF) (11.47 µg· m-3), firework burning (FB) (10.39 µg· m-3), coal combustion (CC) (8.54 µg· m-3), and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) (3.95 µg· m-3). However, the apportionment concentration of biomass burning (BB) increased by 78.7%, indicating a significant increase in biomass combustion under control measures. PAHs-lifetime lung cancer risk (ILCR) of VE, CC, FB, BB, and DF, decreased by 44.6%, 43.2%, 34.1%, 21.3%, and 2.0%, respectively. Additionally, the average contribution of meteorological conditions on PM2.5 in 2020 increased by 20.21% compared to 2019 Spring Festival, demonstrating that meteorological conditions played a crucial role in located air pollution. This study revealed that the existing control measures in Linfen were efficient to reduce air pollution and health risk, whereas more BB emissions were worthy of further attention. Furthermore, the result was conducive to developing more effective control measures and putting more attention into unfavorable meteorological conditions in Linfen.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Coal/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Seasons , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156516, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882498

ABSTRACT

The worldwide restrictions of social contacts that were implemented in spring 2020 to slow down infection rates of the SARS-CoV-2 virus resulted in significant modifications in mobility behaviour of urban residents. We used three-year eddy covariance measurements of size-resolved particle number fluxes from an urban site in Berlin to estimate the effects of reduced traffic intensity on particle fluxes. Similar observations of urban surface-atmosphere exchange of size-resolved particles that focus on COVID-19 lockdown-related effects are not available, yet. Although the site remained a net emission source for ultrafine particles (UFP, Dp < 100 nm), the median upward flux of ultrafine particles (FUFP) decreased from 8.78 × 107 m-2 s-1 in the reference period to 5.44 × 107 m-2 s-1 during the lockdown. This was equivalent to a relative reduction of -38 % for median FUFP, which was similar to -35 % decrease of road traffic intensity in the flux source area during that period. The size-resolved analysis demonstrated that, on average, net deposition of UFP occurred only during night when particle emission source strength by traffic was at its minimum, whereas accumulation mode particles (100 nm < Dp < 200 nm) showed net deposition also during daytime. The results indicate the benefits of traffic reductions as a mitigation strategy to reduce UFP emissions to the urban atmosphere.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Atmosphere , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(6): 2840-2850, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876195

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 lockdown was a typical occurrence of extreme emission reduction, which presented an opportunity to study the influence of control measures on particulate matter. Observations were conducted from January 16 to 31, 2020 using online observation instruments to investigate the characteristics of PM2.5 concentration, particle size distribution, chemical composition, source, and transport before (January 16-23, 2020) and during (January 24-31, 2020) the COVID-19 lockdown in Zhengzhou. The results showed that the atmospheric PM2.5 concentration decreased by 4.8% during the control period compared with that before the control in Zhengzhou. The particle size distribution characteristics indicated that there was a significant decrease in the mass concentration and number concentration of particles in the size range of 0.06 to 1.6 µm during the control period. The chemical composition characteristics of PM2.5 showed that secondary inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) were the dominant component of PM2.5, and the significant increase in PM2.5 was mainly owing to the decrease in NO3- concentration during the control period. The main sources of PM2.5 identified by the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were secondary sources, combustion sources, vehicle sources, industrial sources, and dust sources. The emissions from vehicle sources, industrial sources, and dust sources decreased significantly during the control period. The results of analyses using the backward trajectory method and potential source contribution factor method indicated that the effects of transport from surrounding areas on PM2.5 concentration decreased during the control period. In summary, vehicle and industrial sources should be continuously controlled, and regional combined prevention and control should be strengthened in the future in Zhengzhou.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Communicable Disease Control , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
4.
Chemosphere ; 303(Pt 1): 135069, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866964

ABSTRACT

This study quantifies the change in traffic flow on the M25 motorway in the UK due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Moreover, the impact of the change in traffic flow on non-exhaust PM2.5 and PM10 emissions for different categories of vehicle was explored. During the year of the COVID-19 outbreak (March 2020 to February 2021), the total traffic flows of passenger cars (PCs), light goods vehicles (LGVs), heavy goods vehicles (HGVs), and long HGVs on the M25 motorway decreased by 38.6%, 27.6%, 15.9% and 7.2%, respectively, in comparison to the previous year. Correspondingly, the total mass of non-exhaust emissions (PM2.5 and PM10) of PCs, LGVs, HGVs, and long HGVs reduced by 38.7%, 27.3%, 16.2% and 7%, respectively. The traffic flows per year before and during the COVID-19 outbreak of long HGVs were 87.2% and 80.7% less than those of PCs. Correspondingly, the long HGVs emitted 10.2% less but 36.3% more PM2.5 emissions, as well as 10.9% and 66.7% more PM10 emissions than the latter, indicating that long HGVs contribute much more to non-exhaust particles than PCs. In addition, it was found that resuspension of road dust on the M25 motorway was the largest contributor to air pollution among non-exhaust emissions, followed by road wear, tyre wear, and brake wear particles.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , United Kingdom , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(4): 1747-1755, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776689

ABSTRACT

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the key precursors of the ozone (O3) formation processes in the troposphere and are important control objects for the coordinated governance of O3 and PM2.5. The Spring Festival of 2020 was affected by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia epidemic:companies stopped work and production, and traffic was restricted, providing scientific experimentation opportunities for pollutant emission reduction research. This study analyzed the variety of the composition, chemical reaction activity, and sources of VOCs in the Pearl River Delta during the Spring Festival and the epidemic control period, using real-time online monitoring data of VOCs obtained at four sites(Guangzhou, Dongguan, Zhongshan, and Duanfen)in the Pearl River Delta from January 1, 2020 to February 29, 2020. The results showed that during the Spring Festival and the epidemic control period, the average of φ (VOCs) in the Pearl River Delta was 15.89×10-9, and the maximum hourly average concentration was 45.43×10-9, values that were 44% and 60% lower, respectively, than those before the Spring Festival holiday. Among the VOCs component concentration decreases, the aromatic hydrocarbon component decreased the most, and the decrease in the urban area of the Pearl River Delta (74%) was significantly greater than that in the suburban area (56%). As a result, the contribution rate of aromatic hydrocarbons to the total VOCs was reduced to less than 10%. The analysis of the·OH reaction activity of VOCs(L·OH)and ozone formation potential(OFP)showed that the L·OH and OFP of VOCs decreased significantly in the Pearl River Delta during the Spring Festival and the epidemic control period. Compared with those before the Spring Festival holiday, the total L·OH and total OFP decreased by an average of 60% and 63% in the urban area of the Pearl River Delta, respectively. Additionally, the atmospheric oxidation had also been significantly reduced, which showed a 28% decrease in ρ(Ox). The ratio of toluene/benzene showed that the influence of industrial sources had almost disappeared during the Spring Festival and the epidemic control period, and the total points of the representative components of industrial-related solvent-use sources such as toluene, ethylbenzene, and m/p-xylene dropped by 72% to 91%. The results of this study suggest that solvent-use sources and vehicle exhaust emission sources are the current sources of VOCs that need to be paid attention to in the prevention and control of O3 pollution in the Pearl River Delta region, and the impact of petrochemical sources cannot be ignored in the work of further reducing the background concentration of O3.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Ozone , Volatile Organic Compounds , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Holidays , Humans , Ozone/analysis , Solvents/analysis , Toluene/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
6.
J Environ Manage ; 312: 114902, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757520

ABSTRACT

We have quantified the emissions of Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the Northeast megalopolis of the United States during the COVID-19 lockdown. The measurement of NO2 emission serves as the indicator for the emission of the group of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Approximately 56% of NO2 emissions in the US are from mobile sources, and the remainder is from stationary sources. Since 2002, clean air regulations have resulted in approximately 5% compound annual reduction of NOx emissions in the US (8.2% in the study area). Therefore, when studying the impact of sporadic events like an epidemic on emissions, it is necessary to account for the persistent reduction of emissions due to policy driven emission reduction measures. Using spaceborne sensors, ground monitors, National Emission Inventory data, and the US Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator, we quantified the reduction of total NOx emissions, distinguishing stationary sources from on-road mobile sources (trucks and automobiles). When considering total NOx emissions (stationary and mobile combined), we find that the pandemic restrictions resulted in 3.4% reduction of total NOx emissions in the study area in 2020. This is compared to (and in addition to) the expected 8.2% policy driven reduction of NOx emissions in 2020. This somewhat low reduction of emissions is because most stationary sources (factories, power plants, etc.) were operational during the pandemic. Truck traffic, a significant source of mobile emissions, also did not decline significantly (average 4.8% monthly truck traffic reduction in the study area between March and August 2020), as they were delivering goods during the lockdown. On the other hand, automobile traffic, responsible for 24% of total NOx emissions, dropped significantly, 52% in April, returning to near normal after 5 months. While the reduction of automobile traffic was significant, especially in the early months of the pandemic, its effect on emissions was relatively insignificant.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Nitrogen Oxides/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , United States , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/prevention & control
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(3): 1268-1276, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732501

ABSTRACT

Many restrictive measures were implemented in China from January-February 2020 to control the rapid spread of COVID-19. Many studies reported that the COVID-19 lockdown impacted PM2.5, SO2, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), etc. VOCs play important roles in the production of ozone and PM2.5. Ambient VOCs in Xiong'an were measured from December 25, 2019 to January 24, 2020 (prior to epidemic prevention, P1) and from January 25, 2020 to February 24, 2020 (during epidemic prevention, P2) through a VOCs online instrument. In the study, VOCs characteristics and ozone generation potential (OFP) of ambient VOCs were analyzed, and source apportionment of VOCs were analyzed by using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The results showed that φ(TVOCs) during epidemic prevention and control was 45.1×10-9, which was approximately half of that before epidemic prevention and control (90.5×10-9). The chemical composition of VOCs showed significant changes after epidemic prevention and control, the contribution rate of alkanes increased from 37.6% to 53.8%, and the contribution rate of aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons decreased from 13.3% and 12.0% to 7.5% and 7.8%, respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, and OVOCs decreased by more than 60%. Seven types of the top ten species were the same before and during the epidemic prevention and control, mainly low-carbon alkanes, olefins, aldehydes, and ketones. Dichloromethane, trichloromethane, and BTEXs decreased significantly. The OPP was 566 µg·m-3 and 231 µg·m-3 in P1 and P2, respectively. The OPP of VOCs decreased by more than 30%. The proportion of OFP contribution of aromatic hydrocarbons decreased significantly after the epidemic prevention and control, and the proportion of OFP contribution of alkanes and alkynes increased significantly. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was then applied for VOCs sources apportionment. Six sources were identified, including background sources, oil-gas volatile sources, combustion sources, industrial sources, solvent use sources, and vehicle exhaust sources. The results showed that after the epidemic prevention and control, the contribution rate of solvent use sources to TVOCs decreased from 24% to 9%. The contribution rates of background sources, oil-gas volatile sources, and combustion sources increased from 13%, 34%, and 24% to 6%, 14%, and 13%, respectively. The relative contributions of vehicle exhaust sources before and after epidemic prevention and control were 21% and 18%, respectively. The observation points were affected by the emission of VOCs from paroxysmal industrial sources before the epidemic prevention and control. The emission was stopped after the epidemic prevention and control, and its contribution rate was reduced from 22% before the epidemic prevention and control to 1%. The concentrations of industrial sources, solvent sources, motor vehicle tail gas sources, and combustion sources decreased by 97%, 82%, 61%, and 15%, respectively, after the epidemic prevention and control. The concentration of background sources remained stable, and the concentration of oil and gas volatile sources increased by 7%. The control of production and traffic activities cannot reduce the emission of VOCs from oil and gas volatile sources, which is the focus of VOCs control in Xiong'an.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Ozone , Volatile Organic Compounds , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Ozone/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 959, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699459

ABSTRACT

Record rainfall and severe flooding struck eastern China in the summer of 2020. The extreme summer rainfall occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, which started in China in early 2020 and spread rapidly across the globe. By disrupting human activities, substantial reductions in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols might have affected regional precipitation in many ways. Here, we investigate such connections and show that the abrupt emissions reductions during the pandemic strengthened the summer atmospheric convection over eastern China, resulting in a positive sea level pressure anomaly over northwestern Pacific Ocean. The latter enhanced moisture convergence to eastern China and further intensified rainfall in that region. Modeling experiments show that the reduction in aerosols had a stronger impact on precipitation than the decrease of greenhouse gases did. We conclude that through abrupt emissions reductions, the COVID-19 pandemic contributed importantly to the 2020 extreme summer rainfall in eastern China.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Greenhouse Gases/analysis , Rain , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , China/epidemiology , Floods , Human Activities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 823: 153720, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671137

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown, ambient ozone levels are widely reported to show much smaller decreases or even dramatical increases under substantially reduced precursor NOx levels, yet changes in ambient precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been scarcely reported during the COVID-19 lockdown, which is an opportunity to examine the impacts of dramatically changing anthropogenic emissions on ambient VOC levels in megacities where ozone formation is largely VOC-limited. In this study, ambient VOCs were monitored online at an urban site in Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta region before, during, and after the COVID-19 lockdown. The average total mixing ratios of VOCs became 19.1% lower during the lockdown than before, and those of alkanes, alkenes and aromatics decreased by 19.0%, 24.8% and 38.2%, respectively. The levels of light alkanes (C < 6) decreased by only 13.0%, while those of higher alkanes (C ≥ 6) decreased by 67.8% during the lockdown. Disappeared peak VOC levels in morning rush hours and the drop in toluene to benzene ratios during the lockdown suggested significant reductions in vehicle exhaust and industrial solvent emissions. Source apportioning by positive matrix factorization model revealed that reductions in industrial emissions, diesel exhaust (on-road diesel vehicles and off-road diesel engines) and gasoline-related emissions could account for 48.9%, 42.2% and 8.8%, respectively, of the decreased VOC levels during the lockdown. Moreover, the reduction in industrial emissions could explain 56.0% and 70.0% of the reductions in ambient levels of reactive alkenes and aromatics, respectively. An average increase in O3-1 h by 17% and a decrease in the daily maximum 8-h average ozone by 11% under an average decrease in NOx by 57.0% and a decrease in VOCs by 19.1% during the lockdown demonstrated that controlling emissions of precursors VOCs and NOx to prevent ambient O3 pollution in megacities such as Guangzhou remains a highly challenging task.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Ozone , Volatile Organic Compounds , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Ozone/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(4): 2172-2180, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655412

ABSTRACT

We analyze airborne measurements of atmospheric CO concentration from 70 flights conducted over six years (2015-2020) using an inverse model to quantify the CO emissions from the Washington, DC, and Baltimore metropolitan areas. We found that CO emissions have been declining in the area at a rate of ≈-4.5 % a-1 since 2015 or ≈-3.1 % a-1 since 2016. In addition, we found that CO emissions show a "Sunday" effect, with emissions being lower, on average, than for the rest of the week and that the seasonal cycle is no larger than 16 %. Our results also show that the trend derived from the NEI agrees well with the observed trend, but that NEI daytime-adjusted emissions are ≈50 % larger than our estimated emissions. In 2020, measurements collected during the shutdown in activity related to the COVID-19 pandemic indicate a significant drop in CO emissions of 16 % relative to the expected emissions trend from the previous years, or 23 % relative to the mean of 2016 to February 2020. Our results also indicate a larger reduction in April than in May. Last, we show that this reduction in CO emissions was driven mainly by a reduction in traffic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Baltimore , Carbon Monoxide , District of Columbia , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613770

ABSTRACT

High NO2 concentrations (long term average of 383 µg/m3 in 2016/2017) recorded at Birmingham New Street railway station have resulted in the upgrade of the bi-directional fan system to aid wind dispersion within the enclosed platform environment. This paper attempts to examine how successful this intervention has been in improving air quality for both passengers and workers within the station. New air pollution data in 2020 has enabled comparisons to the 2016/2017 monitoring campaign revealing a 23-42% decrease in measured NO2 concentrations. The new levels of NO2 are below the Occupational Health standards but still well above the EU Public Health Standards. This reduction, together with a substantial decrease (up to 81%) in measured Particulate Matter (PM) concentrations, can most likely be attributed to the new fan system effectiveness. Carbon Monoxide levels were well below Occupational and Public Health Standards at all times. The COVID-19 pandemic "initial lockdown" period has also allowed an insight into the resultant air quality at lower rail-traffic intensities, which produced a further reduction in air pollutants, to roughly half the pre-lockdown concentrations. This study shows the scope of improvement that can be achieved through an engineering solution implemented to improve the ventilation system of an enclosed railway station. Further reduction in air pollution would require additional approaches, such as the removal of diesel engine exhaust emissions via the adoption of electric or diesel-electric hybrid powered services.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
12.
Environ Res ; 206: 112624, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587833

ABSTRACT

China's unprecedented lockdown to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in early 2020, provided a tragic natural experiment to investigate the responses of atmospheric pollution to emission reduction at regional scale. Primarily driven by primary emissions, particulate trace elements is vitally important due to their disproportionally adverse impacts on human health and ecosystem. Here 14 trace elements in PM2.5 were selected for continuous measurement hourly in urban representative site of Shanghai, for three different phases: pre-control period (1-23 January 2020), control period (24 January-10 February 2020; overlapped with Chinese Lunar New Year holiday) and post control period (11-26 February 2020) the city's lockdown measures. The results show that all meteorological parameters (including temperature, RH, mixing layer height et al.) were generally consistent among different periods. Throughout the study period, the concentrations of most species displayed a "V-shaped" trend, suggesting significant effects by the restriction measures imposed during the lockdown period. While this is not the case for species like K, Cu and Ba, indicating their unusual origins. As a case study, the geographical origins of Cu were explored. Seven major sources, i.e., Vehicle-related emission (including road dust; indicative of Ca, Fe, Ba, Mn, Zn, Cu; accounting for 30.1%), shipping (Ni; 5.0%), coal combustion (As, Pb; 4.2%), Se and Cr industry (24.9%), nonferrous metal smelting (Au, Hg; 7.5%) and fireworks burning (K, Cu, Ba; 28.3%) were successfully pinpointed based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. Our source apportionment results also highlight fireworks burning was one of the dominant source of trace elements during the Chinese Lunar New Year holiday. It is worth noting that 56% of the total mass vehicular emissions are affiliated with non-exhaust sources (tire wear, brake wear, and road surface abrasion).


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Trace Elements , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Dust/analysis , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
13.
Indoor Air ; 32(1): e12967, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553741

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the impact of the lockdown restriction measures in the Paris area on the variation of in-vehicle ultrafine particle (UFP) and black carbon (BC) concentrations between the pre- and post-lockdown period and professional drivers' working conditions and practices. The study was conducted with 33 taxi drivers. UFP and BC were measured inside their vehicles with DiSCmini® and microAeth® , respectively, on two typical working days pre- and post-lockdown. Job characteristics were self-reported. Our results showed that post-lockdown, both the number of clients and journey duration significantly decreased. Taxi drivers opened their windows significantly more and reduced the use of air recirculation. UFP decreased significantly by 32% and BC by 31% post-lockdown, with a weaker positive correlation compared to pre-lockdown. The reduction of in-vehicle UFP was due mainly to the reduction of traffic flow and ventilation settings, though the latter probably varied according to traffic conditions. The variation of in-vehicle BC also tended to be related to the decrease in traffic flow post-lockdown. We emphasize the role of traffic emissions on in-vehicle air pollution and that preventive measures such ventilation settings would help to minimize the exposure of professional drivers and passengers to air pollutants.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Paris/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 811: 152036, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550060

ABSTRACT

A recent study by Pini et al. (2021), focusing on year 2018, demonstrated that different strategies should be considered in different Italian cities to mitigate the effects of PM10 pollution produced by circulating cars and commercial vehicles. The current study focuses on year 2020, considering the same ten Italian cities. This new study relies on the estimation of specific indices used to assess the size of the different circulating vehicle fleets (vehicle yearly mileage, diesel-fuel car and LCV fleet dimension, etc.) and their impact on PM10 pollution (Strength of Pollution). Results for 2020, severely affected by vehicular restrictions associated with COVID-19, indicate the need to adopt PM10 pollution reduction strategies for the various cities partially different from those identified earlier. For example, Euro 4 cars is the fleet having the highest impact on PM10 pollution in Rome (emitting 3,3 times more than Euro 6 vehicles), while in Milan the most polluting vehicles are Euro 0 cars (emitting 2 times more than Euro 6 vehicles). In Naples, Euro 0 cars emit 12,5 times more than Euro 6 vehicles. A careful look into the results also reveals that, for all considered cities, the three top fleets in terms of PM10 pollution always include Euro 4 or a higher Euro category fleet and a lower Euro category fleet (Euro 0 or Euro 3). These values were validated based on the use of pollution data from ground monitoring stations, which also allowed estimating the atmospheric mixing layer height. Results from the paper suggest that different incentivization policies have to be considered for the different considered cities. For example, in Naples the allocation of incentives should be ~60% towards new vehicles and ~40% towards recent used (i.e. second-hand) non-diesel vehicles, while in Florence it should be ~90% towards ECVs and ~10% towards recent used non-diesel vehicles.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 834, 2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525554

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric contaminants severely impact air quality in large global urban centers. The emergence of COVID-19 in China in December 2019 and its expansion around the world reduced human activities on account of the implementation of a social isolation policy. In Brazil, COVID-19 arrived in February 2020, and a policy of social isolation was adopted in March by state governments; this work aimed to evaluate pollutant gas emissions in Brazil in the face of the pandemic. In the city of São Paulo, the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were analyzed at three automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Company of the State of São Paulo (CETESB). In this way, reductions in concentrations of these gases were observed after the decree of social isolation on March 24, due to a noticeable drop in vehicle traffic in the city. A reduction in concentrations of NO2, between 53.6 and 73%, and a decrease in concentrations of CO, from 50 to 66.7%, were obtained at the monitoring stations. Another impact caused by COVID-19 was the increase in deforestation and fires was identified in the Brazilian Legal Amazon after social isolation, due to the decrease in the inspection of environmental agencies. The fires produce thermal degradation of the biomass, generating polluting gases and material particulate. These atmospheric contaminants are extremely harmful to the health of Amazonian populations. Summed to the expansion of COVID-19 in this region, all these factors combined cause the public health system to collapse. CO2eq emissions increase estimates, according to the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation System technical report, ranged from 10 to 20% in 2020, compared to those from 2018. If Brazil maintains deforestation at this pace, it will be difficult to meet the emission reduction targets agreed at COP21.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Gases/analysis , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
16.
Environ Int ; 158: 106979, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517151

ABSTRACT

Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) vary with emission rates, meteorology, and chemistry. Conventional positive matrix factorization (PMF) loses information because of dilution variations and chemical losses. Multiply improved PMF incorporates the ventilation coefficient, and total solar radiation or oxidants to reduce the effects of dispersion and chemical loss. These methods were applied to hourly speciated VOC data from November 2019 to March 2020 including during the COVID-19 shutdown. Various comparisons were made to assess the influences of these fluctuation drivers by time of day. Dispersion normalized PMF (DN-PMF) reduced the dispersion variations. Dispersion-radiation normalized PMF (DRN-PMF) reduced the impact of chemical loss, especially at night, which was better than Dispersion-Ox normalized PMF (DON-PMF). The conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF) plots of DRN-PMF results were consist with actual source locations. The DN-PMF, DRN-PMF, and DON-PMF results were consistent between 10:00 and 15:00, suggesting dispersion was significantly more influential than photochemical reactions during these times. The DRN-PMF results indicated that the highest VOC contributors during the COVID-19 shutdown were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) (28.8%), natural gas (25.2%), and pulverized coal boilers emissions (19.6%). Except for petrochemical-related enterprises and LPG, the contribution concentrations of all other sources decreased substantially during the COVID-19 shutdown, by 94.7%, 90.6%, and 86.8% for vehicle emissions, gasoline evaporation, and the mixed source of diesel evaporation and solvent use, respectively. Controlling the use of motor vehicles and related volatilization of diesel fuel and gasoline can be effective in controlling VOCs in the future.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Volatile Organic Compounds , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(11): 6968-6977, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492997

ABSTRACT

Buses constitute a significant source of air pollutant emissions in cities. In this study, we present real-world NOx emissions from 97 diesel-hybrid buses measured using on-board diagnostic systems over 44 months and 6.35 million km in London. Each bus had previously been retrofitted with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). On average, parallel hybrid (PH) and series hybrid (SH) buses emitted 3.80 g of NOx/km [standard deviation (SD) of 1.02] and 2.37 g of NOx/km (SD of 0.51), respectively. The SCR systems reduced engine-out emissions by 79.8% (SD of 5.0) and 87.2% (SD of 2.9) for the PHs and SHs, respectively. Lower ambient temperatures (0-10 °C) increased NOx emissions of the PHs by 24.2% but decreased NOx emissions of the SHs by 27.9% compared to values found at more moderate temperatures (10-20 °C). To improve emissions inventories, we provide new distance-based NOx emissions factors for different ranges of ambient temperature. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the emissions benefits of reduced congestion were largely offset by more frequent route layovers leading to lower SCR temperatures and effectiveness. This study shows that continuous in-service measurements enable quantification of real-world vehicle emissions over a wide range of operations that complements conventional testing approaches.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Gasoline , Humans , London , Motor Vehicles , Pandemics , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
18.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118191, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427873

ABSTRACT

Between 9 March and 18 May 2020, strict lockdown measures were adopted in Italy for containing the COVID-19 pandemic: in Rome, despite vehicular traffic on average was more than halved, it was not observed a evident decrease of the airborne particulate matter (PM) concentrations, as assessed by air quality data. In this study, daily PM10 filters were collected from selected automated stations operated in Rome by the regional network of air quality monitoring: their magnetic properties - including magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters and FORC (first order reversal curves) diagrams - were compared during and after the lockdown, for outlining the impact of the COVID-19 measures on airborne particulate matter. In urban traffic sites, the PM10 concentrations did not significantly change after the end of the lockdown, when vehicular traffic promptly returned to its usual levels; conversely, the average volume and mass magnetic susceptibilities approximately doubled, and the linear correlation between volume magnetic susceptibility and PM10 concentration became significant, pointing out the link between PM10 concentrations and the increasing levels of traffic-related magnetic emissions. Magnetite-like minerals, attributed to non-exhaust brakes emissions, dominated the magnetic fraction of PM10 near urban traffic sites, with natural magnetic components emerging in background sites and during exogenous dusts atmospheric events. Magnetic susceptibility constituted a fast and sensitive proxy of vehicular particulate emissions: the magnetic properties can play a relevant role in the source apportionment of PM10, especially when unsignificant variations in its concentration levels may mask important changes in the traffic-related magnetic fraction. As a further hint, increasing attention should be drawn to the reduction of brake wear emissions, that are overcoming by far fuel exhausts as the main particulate pollutant in traffic contexts.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Italy , Magnetic Phenomena , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Rome , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11119, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328852

ABSTRACT

To analyse the cause of the atmospheric PM2.5 pollution that occurred during the COVID-19 lockdown in Nanning, Guangxi, China, a single particulate aerosol mass spectrometer, aethalometer, and particulate Lidar coupled with monitoring near-surface gaseous pollutants, meteorological conditions, remote fire spot sensing by satellite and backward trajectory models were utilized during 18-24 February 2020. Three haze stages were identified: the pre-pollution period (PPP), pollution accumulation period (PAP) and pollution dissipation period (PDP). The dominant source of PM2.5 in the PPP was biomass burning (BB) (40.4%), followed by secondary inorganic sources (28.1%) and motor vehicle exhaust (11.7%). The PAP was characterized by a large abundance of secondary inorganic sources, which contributed 56.1% of the total PM2.5 concentration, followed by BB (17.4%). The absorption Ångström exponent (2.2) in the PPP was higher than that in the other two periods. Analysis of fire spots monitored by remote satellite sensing indicated that open BB in regions around Nanning City could be one of the main factors. A planetary boundary layer-relative humidity-secondary particle matter-particulate matter positive feedback mechanism was employed to elucidate the atmospheric processes in this study. This study highlights the importance of understanding the role of BB, secondary inorganic sources and meteorology in air pollution formation and calls for policies for emission control strategies.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Gases/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Biomass , COVID-19 , China , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation , Meteorology , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15110, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322504

ABSTRACT

The lockdown measures that were taken to combat the COVID-19 pandemic minimized anthropogenic activities and created natural laboratory conditions for studying air quality. Both observations and WRF-Chem simulations show a 20-50% reduction (compared to pre-lockdown and same period of previous year) in the concentrations of most aerosols and trace gases over Northwest India, the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP), and the Northeast Indian regions. It is shown that this was mainly due to a 70-80% increase in the height of the boundary layer and the low emissions during lockdown. However, a 60-70% increase in the pollutants levels was observed over Central and South India including the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal during this period, which is attributed to natural processes. Elevated (dust) aerosol layers are transported from the Middle East and Africa via long-range transport, and a decrease in the wind speed (20-40%) caused these aerosols to stagnate, enhancing the aerosol levels over Central and Southern India. A 40-60% increase in relative humidity further amplified aerosol concentrations. The results of this study suggest that besides emissions, natural processes including background meteorology and dynamics, play a crucial role in the pollution concentrations over the Indian sub-continent.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Aerosols/analysis , Africa , Bays , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Correlation of Data , Dust/analysis , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Humans , India , Meteorology , Middle East , Oceans and Seas , Pandemics
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