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2.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 48-61, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478423

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding COVID-19 help to identify erroneous concepts and inadequate practices related to the disease. This baseline information is essential to design effective strategies and improve adherence to prevention measures. OBJECTIVE: To identify the COVID-19-related KAP in Venezuelan patients screened at the Hospital Universitario de Caracas triage tent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 215 patients between April 25th and May 25th, 2020, with in-person interviews using a KAP survey. RESULTS: Most surveyed patients (53.5%) were asymptomatic. Most of them, both from the symptomatic and the asymptomatic groups, had adequate knowledge about the symptoms and transmission of the disease and the majority said they were practicing quarantine, frequent handwashing, and the use of face masks in public areas. However, the daily replacement of cloth face masks was more frequent in the asymptomatic group whereas replacement every three days was more frequent in the symptomatic group. Finally, more than half of the participants admitted having been in crowded places, a common practice among the symptomatic compared to the asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first KAP study in Venezuela about COVID-19. Knowledge and practices among Venezuelans could be improved by strengthening education and training programs. This information from the early phase of the pandemic in Venezuela may contribute to the design of COVID-19 promotion and prevention strategies.


Introducción: Los estudios sobre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP) sobre COVID-19 ayudan a identificar conceptos erróneos y prácticas inadecuadas relacionadas con la enfermedad. Esta información de referencia es fundamental para diseñar estrategias efectivas y mejorar la adherencia a las medidas de prevención. Objetivo: Identificar la CAP relacionada con COVID-19 en pacientes venezolanos cribados en la carpa de triaje del Hospital Universitario de Caracas. Materiales y métodos: Realizamos un estudio transversal entre 215 pacientes entre el 25 de abril y el 25 de mayo de 2020, con entrevistas en persona utilizando una encuesta KAP. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes encuestados (53,5%) se encontraban asintomáticos. La mayoría de ellos, tanto del grupo sintomático como asintomático, tenían un conocimiento adecuado sobre los síntomas y la transmisión de la enfermedad y la mayoría dijo que practicaban la cuarentena, el lavado frecuente de manos y el uso de mascarillas en las áreas públicas. Sin embargo, el reemplazo diario de mascarillas de tela fue más frecuente en el grupo asintomático, mientras que el reemplazo cada tres días fue más frecuente en el grupo sintomático. Finalmente, más de la mitad de los participantes admitieron haber estado en lugares concurridos, una práctica común entre los sintomáticos en comparación con los asintomáticos. Conclusiones: Este es el primer estudio CAP en Venezuela sobre COVID-19. El conocimiento y las prácticas entre los venezolanos podrían mejorarse fortaleciendo los programas de educación y capacitación. Esta información de la fase inicial de la pandemia en Venezuela puede contribuir al diseño de estrategias de promoción y prevención del COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Female , Hand Disinfection , Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Symptom Assessment , Triage , Venezuela/epidemiology
5.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 48-61, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337812

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding COVID-19 help to identify erroneous concepts and inadequate practices related to the disease. This baseline information is essential to design effective strategies and improve adherence to prevention measures. OBJECTIVE: To identify the COVID-19-related KAP in Venezuelan patients screened at the Hospital Universitario de Caracas triage tent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 215 patients between April 25th and May 25th, 2020, with in-person interviews using a KAP survey. RESULTS: Most surveyed patients (53.5%) were asymptomatic. Most of them, both from the symptomatic and the asymptomatic groups, had adequate knowledge about the symptoms and transmission of the disease and the majority said they were practicing quarantine, frequent handwashing, and the use of face masks in public areas. However, the daily replacement of cloth face masks was more frequent in the asymptomatic group whereas replacement every three days was more frequent in the symptomatic group. Finally, more than half of the participants admitted having been in crowded places, a common practice among the symptomatic compared to the asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first KAP study in Venezuela about COVID-19. Knowledge and practices among Venezuelans could be improved by strengthening education and training programs. This information from the early phase of the pandemic in Venezuela may contribute to the design of COVID-19 promotion and prevention strategies.


Introducción: Los estudios sobre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP) sobre COVID-19 ayudan a identificar conceptos erróneos y prácticas inadecuadas relacionadas con la enfermedad. Esta información de referencia es fundamental para diseñar estrategias efectivas y mejorar la adherencia a las medidas de prevención. Objetivo: Identificar la CAP relacionada con COVID-19 en pacientes venezolanos cribados en la carpa de triaje del Hospital Universitario de Caracas. Materiales y métodos: Realizamos un estudio transversal entre 215 pacientes entre el 25 de abril y el 25 de mayo de 2020, con entrevistas en persona utilizando una encuesta KAP. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes encuestados (53,5%) se encontraban asintomáticos. La mayoría de ellos, tanto del grupo sintomático como asintomático, tenían un conocimiento adecuado sobre los síntomas y la transmisión de la enfermedad y la mayoría dijo que practicaban la cuarentena, el lavado frecuente de manos y el uso de mascarillas en las áreas públicas. Sin embargo, el reemplazo diario de mascarillas de tela fue más frecuente en el grupo asintomático, mientras que el reemplazo cada tres días fue más frecuente en el grupo sintomático. Finalmente, más de la mitad de los participantes admitieron haber estado en lugares concurridos, una práctica común entre los sintomáticos en comparación con los asintomáticos. Conclusiones: Este es el primer estudio CAP en Venezuela sobre COVID-19. El conocimiento y las prácticas entre los venezolanos podrían mejorarse fortaleciendo los programas de educación y capacitación. Esta información de la fase inicial de la pandemia en Venezuela puede contribuir al diseño de estrategias de promoción y prevención del COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Female , Hand Disinfection , Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Symptom Assessment , Triage , Venezuela/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 threatens health systems worldwide, but Venezuela's system is particularly vulnerable. To prevent the spread of COVID-19, individuals must adopt preventive behaviors. However, to encourage behavior change, we must first understand current knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) that inform response to this health threat. METHODS: We explored KAPs among Venezuelans using a cross-sectional, internet-based questionnaire. The questionnaire explored individuals' knowledge about COVID-19; their attitudes toward the world's and the Venezuelan authorities' abilities to control it; and their self-reported practices. We also collected demographic data. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to predict the adoption of preventive behaviors based on demographic variables, individual knowledge level, and individual attitudes. RESULTS: 3122 individuals completed the questionnaire. Participants had a high level of knowledge about COVID-19. They expressed high levels of optimism that the world would eventually control COVID-19, but they were very pessimistic about the public authorities in Venezuela. Most participants adopted preventive practices. Binomial regression suggests younger people, less educated people, and manual laborers hold lower levels of knowledge, and these groups, as well as men, were less likely to adopt preventive practices. Knowledge, by itself, had no association with optimism and little association with self-reported practices. CONCLUSIONS: As other KAP studies in Latin America found, knowledge is not sufficient to prompt behavior change. Venezuelans' pessimism about their own country's ability should be explored in greater depth. Health promotion in Venezuela may wish to target the most at risk groups: men, younger people, less educated people, and manual laborers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Venezuela/epidemiology
9.
Global Health ; 16(1): 118, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since 2016 Venezuela has seen a collapse in its economy and public health infrastructure resulting in a humanitarian crisis and massive outward migration. With the emergence of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019, the public health emergency within its borders and in neighboring countries has become more severe and as increasing numbers of Venezuelans migrants return home or get stuck along migratory routes, new risks are emerging in the region. RESULTS: Despite clear state obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the rights to health and related economic, social, civil and political rights of its population, in Venezuela, co-occurring malaria and COVID-19 epidemics are propelled by a lack of public investment in health, weak governance, and violations of human rights, especially for certain underserved populations like indigenous groups. COVID-19 has put increased pressure on Venezuelan and regional actors and healthcare systems, as well as international public health agencies, to deal with a domestic and regional public health emergency. CONCLUSIONS: International aid and cooperation for Venezuela to deal with the re-emergence of malaria and the COVID-19 spread, including lifting US-enforced economic sanctions that limit Venezuela's capacity to deal with this crisis, is critical to protecting rights and health in the country and region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emigration and Immigration/statistics & numerical data , Human Rights/standards , Malaria/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , Economic Recession/statistics & numerical data , Human Rights/trends , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Refugees/statistics & numerical data , Venezuela/epidemiology
10.
AIDS Rev ; 22(3): 148-150, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895865

ABSTRACT

Venezuela has been experiencing a humanitarian emergency for much of the past decade, and its health system is widely recognized to be in a state of collapse. The political and economic crisis that gave rise to this situation has been accompanied by myriad human rights violations. With the national government's response to HIV so severely weakened by the ongoing humanitarian emergency, Venezuelan civil society organizations and international allies have stepped in to fill the void. The three prongs of their agenda have been community-led service delivery, health system monitoring, and advocacy. Our long experience in the HIV field tells us that the Venezuelan HIV community's capacity to respond to the collapse of the health system is not exceptional. HIV civil society organizations and networks of people living with HIV in countries worldwide are well-suited to help maintain health system functionality in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, and it is imperative for the global community to capitalize on their skills.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergencies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Government , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Venezuela/epidemiology
12.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(2): e486366, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-819367

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos Dimensionar la migración humana en la frontera sur entre Colombia y Venezuela (Departamento de Guainía), y caracterizar las condiciones sociales, de acceso y de atención en salud frente a la pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos Estudio mixto, epidemiológico y etnográfico. Se calcularon: tasa de migrantes venezolanos (según Migración Colombia al 31 de diciembre de 2019), acceso efectivo a atención médica y dotación en puestos de salud (según datos recolectados entre junio de 2017 y julio de 2019, en todos los puestos de salud de Guainía, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas, observación participante y el uso de Google Earth™ y Wikiloc™). Los tiempos medianos se calcularon y graficaron en Stata™. Se describieron dinámicas culturales y de atención en salud a partir del trabajo de campo y de una permanente revisión documental. Resultados Guainía ocupa el puesto 23 en número total de venezolanos, pero es el cuarto departamento en densidad de venezolanos (14,4%). En ausencia del centro de salud de San José, en el río Guainía los tiempos medianos hasta la institución de referencia real son de 8,7 horas en invierno y 12,3 en verano y los casos complejos requieren remisión aérea. En el río Inírida, sin el centro de Chorro Bocón, los tiempos reales son de 11,9 horas en invierno y 16,1 en verano. Solo el 57% de los puestos de salud tenía insumos para manejar infección respiratoria aguda. Conclusiones Ante la llegada de COVID-19 a territorios sur-fronterizos, es necesario fortalecer inmediatamente servicios médicos y de salud pública para evitar elevadas tasas de letalidad.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objectives To size human migration on the southern border between Colombia and Venezuela (Guainía department), and characterize the social, access and health care conditions relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Mixed epidemiological and ethnographic study. Rate of Venezuelan migrants was calculated according to Migration Colombia data until December 31st, 2019, also effective access to medical care, and provision of health posts were calculated, with information from each Guainía health post collected from June 2017 to June 2019, through semi-structured interviews, participant observations, Google Earth™ and Wikiloc™. Stata™ was used to calculate and graph median times of effective access. Cultural dynamics and health care conditions were described by the field work information and a permanent documentary review. Results Guainía is the 23rd department, according to the total number of Venezuelans, but the fourth in Venezuelans density (14,4%). In the Guainía river, the median times to the real reference health institution were 8,7 hours in winter and 12,3 in summer, and complex cases require air referrals. In the Inírida river, the median times to the real reference health institution were 11,9 hours in winter and 16,1 in summer. Only 57% of the health posts had supplies for acute respiratory infections. Conclusions Facing COVID-19 in south border territories, it is necessary to immediately strengthen medical and public health services to avoid high fatality rates.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Infrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emigration and Immigration , Effective Access to Health Services/organization & administration , Venezuela/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Health Services, Indigenous/organization & administration , Anthropology, Cultural
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