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1.
World Neurosurg ; 157: e357-e363, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior studies demonstrated reduced risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in neurosurgical patients secondary to prophylaxis with both heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin. The ability to monitor low-molecular-weight heparin by obtaining anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) serum levels provides an opportunity to evaluate safety and efficacy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics of patients who have anti-Xa levels outside of the goal range (0.2-0.4/0.5 IU/mL) and investigate incidence of major bleeding and VTE. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective, observational study was conducted on neurosurgical patients receiving enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis between August 2019 and December 2020. Significance testing was conducted via Fisher exact test and independent samples t test. RESULTS: The study included 85 patients. Patients were less likely to have an anti-Xa level in the goal range if they were male, had a higher weight, or were morbidly obese. Three neuroendovascular patients (3.5%) experienced a major bleed. Serum anti-Xa levels were significantly higher in patients who experienced major bleeds compared with patients who did not (0.45 ± 0.16 IU/mL vs. 0.28 ± 0.09 IU/mL, P = 0.003). Patients with a supraprophylactic anti-Xa level (>0.5 IU/mL) were more likely to experience a major bleed (P = 0.005). One VTE event occurred: the patient experienced a pulmonary embolism with anti-Xa level at goal. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-Xa-guided enoxaparin dosing for VTE prophylaxis in neurosurgical patients may help prevent major bleeding. These data suggest that a higher anti-Xa level may predispose patients to major bleeding. Further evaluation is needed to identify the goal anti-Xa level for VTE prophylaxis in this population.


Subject(s)
Enoxaparin/blood , Factor Xa Inhibitors/blood , Hemorrhage/blood , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/trends , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/blood , Drug Monitoring/methods , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity, Morbid/blood , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
3.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(11): 1314-1323, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439655

ABSTRACT

Importance: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) has been reported after vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson). Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination with and without TTS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from an international registry of consecutive patients with CVST within 28 days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination included between March 29 and June 18, 2021, from 81 hospitals in 19 countries. For reference, data from patients with CVST between 2015 and 2018 were derived from an existing international registry. Clinical characteristics and mortality rate were described for adults with (1) CVST in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, (2) CVST after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination not fulling criteria for TTS, and (3) CVST unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Exposures: Patients were classified as having TTS if they had new-onset thrombocytopenia without recent exposure to heparin, in accordance with the Brighton Collaboration interim criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics and mortality rate. Results: Of 116 patients with postvaccination CVST, 78 (67.2%) had TTS, of whom 76 had been vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCov-19; 38 (32.8%) had no indication of TTS. The control group included 207 patients with CVST before the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 63 of 78 (81%), 30 of 38 (79%), and 145 of 207 (70.0%) patients, respectively, were female, and the mean (SD) age was 45 (14), 55 (20), and 42 (16) years, respectively. Concomitant thromboembolism occurred in 25 of 70 patients (36%) in the TTS group, 2 of 35 (6%) in the no TTS group, and 10 of 206 (4.9%) in the control group, and in-hospital mortality rates were 47% (36 of 76; 95% CI, 37-58), 5% (2 of 37; 95% CI, 1-18), and 3.9% (8 of 207; 95% CI, 2.0-7.4), respectively. The mortality rate was 61% (14 of 23) among patients in the TTS group diagnosed before the condition garnered attention in the scientific community and 42% (22 of 53) among patients diagnosed later. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with CVST, a distinct clinical profile and high mortality rate was observed in patients meeting criteria for TTS after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/mortality , Registries , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/mortality , Thrombocytopenia/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Sex Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/blood , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Young Adult
4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(11): 1976-1985, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432359

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The clinical relevance of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) in COVID-19 is controversial. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of conventional and nonconventional aPLs in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective observational study in a French cohort of patients hospitalized with suspected COVID-19. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-nine patients were hospitalized with suspected COVID-19, in whom COVID-19 was confirmed in 154 and not confirmed in 95. We found a significant increase in lupus anticoagulant (LAC) positivity among patients with COVID-19 compared to patients without COVID-19 (60.9% versus 23.7%; P < 0.001), while prevalence of conventional aPLs (IgG and IgM anti-ß2 -glycoprotein I and IgG and IgM anticardiolipin isotypes) and nonconventional aPLs (IgA isotype of anticardiolipin, IgA isotype of anti-ß2 -glycoprotein I, IgG and IgM isotypes of anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin, and IgG and IgM isotypes of antiprothrombin) was low in both groups. Patients with COVID-19 who were positive for LAC, as compared to patients with COVID-19 who were negative for LAC, had higher levels of fibrinogen (median 6.0 gm/liter [interquartile range 5.0-7.0] versus 5.3 gm/liter [interquartile range 4.3-6.4]; P = 0.028) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (median 115.5 mg/liter [interquartile range 66.0-204.8] versus 91.8 mg/liter [interquartile range 27.0-155.1]; P = 0.019). Univariate analysis did not show any association between LAC positivity and higher risks of venous thromboembolism (VTE) (odds ratio 1.02 [95% confidence interval 0.44-2.43], P = 0.95) or in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 1.80 [95% confidence interval 0.70-5.05], P = 0.24). With and without adjustment for CRP level, age, and sex, Kaplan-Meier survival curves according to LAC positivity confirmed the absence of an association with VTE or in-hospital mortality (unadjusted P = 0.64 and P = 0.26, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio 1.13 [95% confidence interval 0.48-2.60] and 1.80 [95% confidence interval 0.67-5.01], respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 have an increased prevalence of LAC positivity associated with biologic markers of inflammation. However, LAC positivity at the time of hospital admission is not associated with VTE risk and/or in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Venous Thromboembolism/blood
5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1743-1746, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy is a common abnormality in patients with COVID-19. However, the exact incidence of venous thromboembolic event is unknown in anticoagulated, severe COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVES: Systematic assessment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) using complete duplex ultrasound (CDU) in anticoagulated COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in 2 French intensive care units (ICU) where CDU is performed as a standard of care. A CDU from thigh to ankle at selected sites with Doppler waveforms and images was performed early during ICU stay in patients admitted with COVID-19. Anticoagulation dose was left to the discretion of the treating physician based on the individual risk of thrombosis. Patients were classified as treated with prophylactic anticoagulation or therapeutic anticoagulation. Pulmonary embolism was systematically searched in patients with persistent hypoxemia or secondary deterioration. RESULTS: From March 19 to April 11, 2020, 26 consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 were screened for VTE. Eight patients (31%) were treated with prophylactic anticoagulation, whereas 18 patients (69%) were treated with therapeutic anticoagulation. The overall rate of VTE in patients was 69%. The proportion of VTE was significantly higher in patients treated with prophylactic anticoagulation when compared with the other group (100% vs 56%, respectively, P = .03). Surprisingly, we found a high rate of thromboembolic events in COVID-19 patients treated with therapeutic anticoagulation, with 56% of VTE and 6 pulmonary embolisms. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest considering both systematic screening of VTE and early therapeutic anticoagulation in severe ICU COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/virology
6.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(2): 277-286, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310348

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidences prove that the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strictly linked to coagulopathy even if pneumonia appears as the major clinical manifestation. The exact incidence of thromboembolic events is largely unknown, so that a relative significant number of studies have been performed in order to explore thrombotic risk in COVID-19 patients. Cytokine storm, mediated by pro-inflammatory interleukins, tumor necrosis factor α and elevated acute phase reactants, is primarily responsible for COVID-19-associated hypercoagulopathy. Also comorbidities, promoting endothelial dysfunction, contribute to a higher thromboembolic risk. In this review we aim to investigate epidemiology and clarify the pathophysiological pathways underlying hypercoagulability in COVID-19 patients, providing indications on the prevention of thromboembolic events in COVID-19. Furthermore we aim to reassume the pathophysiological paths involved in COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/virology
7.
Shock ; 55(3): 316-320, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304005

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has threatened millions of lives worldwide with severe systemic inflammation, organ dysfunction, and thromboembolic disease. Within our institution, many critically ill COVID-19-positive patients suffered major thrombotic events, prompting our clinicians to evaluate hypercoagulability outside of traditional coagulation testing.We determined the prevalence of fibrinolysis shutdown via rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM, Instrumentation Laboratories, Bedford, Mass) in patients admitted to the intensive care unit over a period of 3 weeks. In 25 patients who had a ROTEM test, we found that 11 (44%) met criteria for fibrinolysis shutdown. Eight of 9 (73%) of the VTE patients met criteria for fibrinolysis shutdown.Given the high rate of fibrinolysis shutdown in these patients, our data support using viscoelastic testing to evaluate for the presence of impaired fibrinolysis. This may help identify patient subsets who might benefit from the administration of fibrinolytics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis , Intensive Care Units , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
8.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211013104, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282217

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with VTE, to help develop preventive measures for venous thromboembolism (VTE in COVID-19) cases. COVID-19 patients admitted to Henan Provincial People's Hospital were retrospectively analyzed, including 23, 4 and 8 cases with mild to moderate, severe and critical symptoms, respectively. VTE incidence, age at onset, relevant laboratory parameters and prognosis were analyzed. Overall, VTE incidence in the 35 patients was 20.0%, occurring in severe (n = 1) and critical (n = 6) cases. D-dimer showed statistical significance in laboratory examination, representing except a diagnostic index and especial can be a prognostic factor in VTE among COVID-19 patients. Severe and critical COVID-19 cases had significantly reduced platelet counts, with a risk of hemorrhage. During treatment, the risk of both hemorrhage and thrombosis should be considered. VTE occurs in COVID-19 cases, affecting individuals with severe and critical symptoms. Significant D-dimer increase is of great significance in the risk assessment of death in critical cases of COVID-19. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent VTE during treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Young Adult
9.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 10(1): 8-13, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281479

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Plasma D-dimer levels >5000 ng/mL are encountered in a number of conditions other than venous thromboembolism (VTE). Recent studies have used plasma D-dimer levels as a prognostic indicator for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. The implications of abnormal levels are less clear for patients diagnosed with COVID-19 with a baseline elevation in plasma D-dimer levels. In the present study, we reviewed the occurrence of plasma D-dimer levels >5000 ng/mL and investigated the clinical significance of this finding before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Inpatient records for a 4-year period were screened for laboratory results of plasma D-dimer levels >5000 ng/mL. The patient data were reviewed for the clinical identifiers commonly associated with elevated plasma D-dimer levels, including VTE, cancer, sepsis, pneumonia, other infection, bleeding, and trauma. The patients were then categorized into groups stratified by the plasma D-dimer level to allow for comparisons between the various clinical diagnoses. RESULTS: A total of 671 patients were included in the present study. VTE was the most common diagnosis for patients with a plasma D-dimer level >5000 ng/mL, followed by cancer and pneumonia. Multiple clinical diagnoses were present in 61% of the patients. No clear cause for the ultra-high plasma D-dimer level could be identified in 11.3% of the patients. Among the patients lacking a clinical diagnosis at discharge, mortality was 24% in the 5000- to 10,000-ng/mL group, 28.6% in the 10,000- to 15,000-ng/mL group, and 75% in the >15,000-ng/mL group. CONCLUSIONS: VTE, cancer, and pneumonia were frequently present when ultra-high plasma D-dimer levels were encountered, and mortality was high when the levels were >15,000 ng/mL. The results from our study from a pre-COVID-19 patient population suggest that ultra-high plasma D-dimer levels indicate the presence of severe underlying disease. This should be considered when using the plasma D-dimer level as a screening tool or prognostic indicator for COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Ohio/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(5): 639-345, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262631

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents an important clinical complication of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and high plasma D-dimer levels could suggest a higher risk of hypercoagulability. We aimed to analyse if laboratory exams, risk assessment scores, comorbidity scores were useful in predicting the VTE in SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted in internal medicine (IM). We evaluated 49 older adults with suspected VTE analysing history and blood chemistry, besides we calculated the Padua Prediction Score, the modified early warning scoring (MEWS) and the modified Elixhauser index (mEI). All patients underwent venous color-doppler ultrasounds of the lower limbs. Out of the 49 patients enrolled (mean age 79.3±14 years), 10 (20.4%) had deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and they were more frequently female (80% vs 20%, p = 0.04). We could not find any association with the Padua Prediction Score, the MEWS, and the mEI. D-dimer plasma levels were also not associated with DVT. In elderly people hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized in IM, our data, although limited by the sample size, suggest that prediction and diagnosis of VTE is difficult, due to lack of precise biomarkers and scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Early Warning Score , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Lower Extremity/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
12.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 139: 106883, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253732

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has deeply challenged the world population, but also our medical knowledge. Special attention has been paid early to an activation of coagulation, then to an elevated rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. These data suggested that anticoagulant drugs should be evaluated in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The publication of unexpected high rates of VTE in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, despite receiving thromboprophylaxis, open the way to dedicated trials, evaluating modified regimens of thromboprophylaxis. Moreover, the further improvement in our comprehension of the disease, particularly the pulmonary endothelial dysfunction increased the hope that anticoagulant drugs may also protect patients from pulmonary thrombosis. In this comprehensive review, we cover the different situations where thromboprophylaxis standard may be modified (medically-ill inpatients, ICU inpatients, outpatients), and describe some of the current randomized controls trials evaluating new regimens of thromboprophylaxis in patients with COVID-19, including the preliminary available results. We also discuss the potential of anticoagulant drugs to target the thromboinflammation described in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality
13.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(2): 542-552, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222780

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) is associated with coagulation dysfunction that predisposes patients to an increased risk for both arterial (ATE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) and consequent poor prognosis; in particular, the incidence of ATE and VTE in critically ill COVID-19 patients can reach 5% and 31%, respectively. The mechanism of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients is complex and still not completely clear. Recent literature suggests a link between the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) and thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients. However, it remains uncertain whether aPLs are an epiphenomenon or are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thromboembolism/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Humans , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/immunology
14.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 362-371, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication of COVID-19, so that the importance of adequate in-hospital thromboprophylaxis in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is well established. However, the incidence of VTE after discharge and whether postdischarge thromboprophylaxis is beneficial and safe are unclear. In this prospective observational single-center study, we report the incidence of VTE 6 weeks after hospitalization and the use of postdischarge thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 were invited to a multidisciplinary follow-up clinic 6 weeks after discharge. D-dimer and C-reactive protein were measured, and all patients were screened for deep vein thrombosis with venous duplex-ultrasound. Additionally, selected high-risk patients received computed tomography pulmonary angiogram or ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan to screen for incidental pulmonary embolism. RESULTS: Of 485 consecutive patients hospitalized from March through June 2020, 146 patients were analyzed, of which 39% had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Postdischarge thromboprophylaxis was prescribed in 28% of patients, but was used more frequently after ICU stay (61%) and in patients with higher maximal D-dimer and C-reactive protein levels during hospitalization. Six weeks after discharge, elevated D-dimer values were present in 32% of ward and 42% of ICU patients. Only one asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (0.7%) and one symptomatic pulmonary embolism (0.7%) were diagnosed with systematic screening. No bleedings were reported. CONCLUSION: In patients who had been hospitalized with COVID-19, systematic screening for VTE 6 weeks after discharge revealed a low incidence of VTE. A strategy of selectively providing postdischarge thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients seems safe and potentially effective.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
15.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201364

ABSTRACT

The incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) is high during severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to identify predictive and prognostic factors of PE in non-ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In the retrospective multicenter observational CLOTVID cohort, we enrolled patients with confirmed RT-PCR COVID-19 who were hospitalized in a medicine ward and also underwent a CT pulmonary angiography for a PE suspicion. Baseline data, laboratory biomarkers, treatments, and outcomes were collected. Predictive and prognostics factors of PE were identified by using logistic multivariate and by Cox regression models, respectively. A total of 174 patients were enrolled, among whom 86 (median [IQR] age of 66 years [55-77]) had post-admission PE suspicion, with 30/86 (34.9%) PE being confirmed. PE occurrence was independently associated with the lack of long-term anticoagulation or thromboprophylaxis (OR [95%CI], 72.3 [3.6-4384.8]) D-dimers ≥ 2000 ng/mL (26.3 [4.1-537.8]) and neutrophils ≥ 7.0 G/L (5.8 [1.4-29.5]). The presence of these two biomarkers was associated with a higher risk of PE (p = 0.0002) and death or ICU transfer (HR [95%CI], 12.9 [2.5-67.8], p < 0.01). In hospitalized non-ICU severe COVID-19 patients with clinical PE suspicion, the lack of anticoagulation, D-dimers ≥ 2000 ng/mL, neutrophils ≥ 7.0 G/L, and these two biomarkers combined might be useful predictive markers of PE and prognosis, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/pathology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
17.
J Infect Dis ; 223(6): 933-944, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is associated with hypercoagulability, which predisposes to venous thromboembolism (VTE). We analyzed platelet and neutrophil activation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and their association with VTE. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. Platelet and leukocyte activation, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and matrix metalloproteinase 9, a neutrophil-released enzyme, were measured. Four patients were restudied after recovery. The activating effect of plasma from patients with COVID-19 on control platelets and leukocytes and the inhibiting activity of common antithrombotic agents on it were studied. RESULTS: A total of 36 patients with COVID-19 and 31 healthy controls were studied; VTE developed in 8 of 36 patients with COVID-19 (22.2%). Platelets and neutrophils were activated in patients with COVID-19. NET, but not platelet activation, biomarkers correlated with disease severity and were associated with thrombosis. Plasmatic matrix metalloproteinase 9 was significantly increased in patients with COVID-19. Platelet and neutrophil activation markers, but less so NETs, normalized after recovery. In vitro, plasma from patients with COVID-19 triggered platelet and neutrophil activation and NET formation, the latter blocked by therapeutic-dose low-molecular-weight heparin, but not by aspirin or dypiridamole. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet and neutrophil activation are key features of patients with COVID-19. NET biomarkers may help to predict clinical worsening and VTE and may guide low-molecular-weight heparin treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Extracellular Traps , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/blood , Humans , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/blood , Middle Aged , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils/immunology , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/virology , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/immunology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
18.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(4): e13471, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146517

ABSTRACT

The development of an obstructive luminal thrombus is pathological and considered a failure of endogenous fibrinolysis. The consequences may be fatal, or result in lasting downstream organ damage. Therefore, assessment of endogenous fibrinolytic status in an individual may identify those at risk of occlusive thrombus formation and provide prognostic information. Arterial thrombi are more platelet rich and more resistant to fibrinolysis than venous thrombi. Several recent studies using global tests of fibrinolysis in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have shown that despite dual antiplatelet therapy, patients with impaired fibrinolytic status have an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, compared with those with effective fibrinolytic function. Such data add significantly to the predictive value of established cardiovascular risk factors and conventional biomarkers. Most data reported have been obtained with the Global Thrombosis Test and the turbidimetric plasma clot lysis assay. A few small studies in patients with ischaemic stroke suggest a similar predictive role of fibrinolytic status assessment in these patients. Studies reporting an association between impaired fibrinolysis and future venous thrombotic events are limited, and in the form of case-control studies. Viscoelastic assays may have a role in the prediction of venous thromboembolic risk. Assays of fibrinolytic function should be used to obtain a more accurate risk of future thrombotic events, particularly in the setting of ACS. The availability of point-of-care tests helps facilitate this and should encourage future studies to assess personalised antithrombotic treatment combinations to optimise fibrinolytic status and reduce thrombosis risk.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/blood , Coronary Thrombosis/blood , Fibrin Clot Lysis Time , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Thrombelastography , Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Arteries , COVID-19/blood , Coronary Thrombosis/epidemiology , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
19.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(2): 482-492, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086634

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have suggested that COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This study aimed to investigate the incidence of VTE among mechanically ventilated adults with COVID-19 pneumonia, compared to patients with respiratory failure related to other causes. Prospective study that enrolled critically ill adults with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia between June 2, 2020 and August 11, 2020. Critically ill adults with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia who required mechanical ventilation within 24 h after hospital admission were followed until death or hospital discharge. Sequential ultrasonography screening of the lower extremities and catheter insertion sites, as well as testing for plasma biochemical markers, were performed at the intensive care unit admission, day 3, day 7, and day 14. The primary outcome was a composite of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and thrombosis at the central catheter insertion sites. We enrolled 70 patients, including 57 patients with COVID-19 and 13 patients without COVID-19, and all patients completed follow-up. The incidence of the primary outcome was higher among patients with COVID-19 than among patients with respiratory failure related to other etiologies (36.8% vs. 0%, p = 0.023). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that VTE was independently associated with a COVID-19 diagnosis (odds ratio: 6.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.19-68.07) and D-dimer concentration (1-ng/mL increase, odds ratio: 1.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.30). The incidence of VTE was higher among critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, relative to among patients with respiratory failure related to other causes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Embolism , Respiratory Insufficiency , Risk Assessment , Venous Thromboembolism , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
20.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 61(4): 628-634, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080726

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 infection has been found to cause an increased risk of venous thrombo-embolism (VTE). The aims of the study were to determine the frequency of VTE in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and its correlation with D dimer levels and pharmacological prophylaxis. METHODS: This was a cohort study of critically ill patients due to COVID-19. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit on the same day of April 2020 were selected, regardless of length of stay, and a single bilateral venous duplex ultrasound in the lower extremities was performed up to 72 hours later. Pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed by computed tomography angiography. Asymptomatic and symptomatic VTE were registered, including pre-screening in hospital VTE. Characteristics of patients, blood test results, doses of thromboprophylaxis received, VTE events, and mortality after seven day follow up were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 230 critically ill patients were studied. The median intensive care unit stay of these patients was 12 days (interquartile range [IQR] 5 - 19 days). After seven days follow up, the frequency of patients with VTE, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was 26.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 21% - 32%) (69 events in 61 patients): 45 with DVT and 16 with PE (eight of them with concomitant DVT). The cumulative frequency of symptomatic VTE was 8.3% (95% CI 4.7% - 11.8%). D dimer values ≥ 1 500 ng/mL were diagnostic of VTE, with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 42%. During follow up after screening, six patients developed new VTE. Three of them developed a recurrence after a DVT diagnosed at screening, despite receiving therapeutic doses of heparin. Mortality rates at seven day follow up were the same for those with (6.6%) and without (5.3%) VTE. CONCLUSION: Patients with severe COVID-19 infection are at high risk of VTE, and further new symptomatic VTE events and recurrence can occur despite anticoagulation. The prophylactic anticoagulant dose may need to be increased in patients with a low risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Correlation of Data , Critical Illness , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
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