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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745764

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is frequently encountered in the emergency department. Syncope, often as a consequence of impending haemodynamic collapse, is associated with increased mortality. While loss of consciousness owing to cerebral hypoperfusion and reduced left ventricular preload is a common cause of collapse with large volume PE, other syndromes can also cause neurological deficit in thromboembolic disease. Here, we describe a case of a woman in her 60s, presenting to the emergency department with features of high-risk PE. During clinical examination, the patient collapsed and became unresponsive with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 4/15 despite normal haemodynamics. Neurological signs were noted and CT revealed evidence of a large territory cerebral infarction. Further cardiovascular investigations identified a grade 4 patent foramen ovale. We describe a challenging case of established venous thromboembolism complicated by paradoxical embolism, highlighting the importance of thorough clinical examination and investigation and discuss the current evidence base of treatments.


Subject(s)
Embolism, Paradoxical , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Embolism, Paradoxical/complications , Embolism, Paradoxical/diagnostic imaging , Female , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Hemodynamics , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
2.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524170

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), but also for bleeding. We previously derived a prognostic score including four variables (elevated D-dimer, elevated ferritin, critical illness, and therapeutic-dose anticoagulation) that identified those at increased risk for major bleeding. METHODS: We aimed to validate the score in a subsequent cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving standard-, intermediate- or therapeutic doses of VTE prophylaxis. We evaluated its capacity to predict major bleeding, non-major bleeding, and bleeding-related death. RESULTS: The cohort included 972 patients from 29 hospitals, of whom 280 (29%) received standard-; 412 (42%) intermediate-, 157 (16%) therapeutic doses of VTE prophylaxis and 123 (13%) other drugs. Median duration of prophylaxis was 14.7 ± 10.3 days. Major bleeding occurred in 65 patients (6.7%) and non-major bleeding in 67 (6.9%). Thirty patients with major bleeding (46%) died within the first 30 days after bleeding. The prognostic score identified 203 patients (21%) at very low risk, 285 (29%) at low risk, 263 (27%) intermediate-risk and 221 (23%) at high risk for bleeding. Major bleeding occurred in 1.0%, 2.1%, 8.7% and 15.4% of the patients, respectively. Non-major bleeding occurred in 0.5%, 3.5%, 9.5% and 14.2%, respectively. The c-statistics was: 0.74 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.68-0.79) for major bleeding, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.67-0.78) for non-major bleeding and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.87) for bleeding-related death. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, we validated that a prognostic score including 4 easily available items may identify those at increased risk for bleeding.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hemorrhage/etiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
3.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481019

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a higher risk of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) than patients with other infectious or inflammatory diseases, both as macrothrombosis (pulmonar embolism and deep vein thrombosis) or microthrombosis. However, the use of anticoagulation in this scenario remains controversial. This is a project that used DELPHI methodology to answer PICO questions related to anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19. The objective was to reach a consensus among multidisciplinary VTE experts providing answers to those PICO questions. Seven PICO questions regarding patients with COVID-19 responded with a broad consensus: 1. It is recommended to avoid pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in most COVID-19 patients not requiring hospital admission; 2. In most hospitalized patients for COVID-19 who are receiving oral anticoagulants before admission, it is recommended to replace them by low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at therapeutic doses; 3. Thromboprophylaxis with LMWH at standard doses is suggested for COVID-19 patients admitted to a conventional hospital ward; 4. Standard-doses thromboprophylaxis with LMWH is recommended for COVID-19 patients requiring admission to Intensive Care Unit; 5. It is recommended not to determine D-Dimer levels routinely in COVID-19 hospitalized patients to select those in whom VTE should be suspected, or as a part of the diagnostic algorithm to rule out or confirm a VTE event; 6. It is recommended to discontinue pharmacological thromboprophylaxis at discharge in most patients hospitalized for COVID-19; 7. It is recommended to withdraw anticoagulant treatment after 3 months in most patients with a VTE event associated with COVID-19. The combination of PICO questions and DELPHI methodology provides a consensus on different recommendations for anticoagulation management in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Delphi Technique , Duration of Therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis
6.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior diagnosis of heart failure (HF) is associated with increased length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality from COVID-19. Associations between substance use, venous thromboembolism (VTE) or peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and its effects on LOS or mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study identified risk factors associated with poor in-hospital outcomes among patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS: Case-control study was conducted of patients with prior diagnosis of HF hospitalised with COVID-19 at an academic tertiary care centre from 1 January 2020 to 28 February 2021. Patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 with risk factors were compared with those without risk factors for clinical characteristics, LOS and mortality. Multivariate regression was conducted to identify multiple predictors of increased LOS and in-hospital mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19. RESULTS: Total of 211 patients with HF were hospitalised with COVID-19. Women had longer LOS than men (9 days vs 7 days; p<0.001). Compared with patients without PAD or ischaemic stroke, patients with PAD or ischaemic stroke had longer LOS (7 days vs 9 days; p=0.012 and 7 days vs 11 days, p<0.001, respectively). Older patients (aged 65 and above) had increased in-hospital mortality compared with younger patients (adjusted OR: 1.04; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.07; p=0.036). Prior diagnosis of VTE increased mortality more than threefold in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 (adjusted OR: 3.33; 95% CI 1.29 to 8.43; p=0.011). CONCLUSION: Vascular diseases increase LOS and mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity/trends , Heart Failure/mortality , Vascular Diseases/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266369

ABSTRACT

A 61-year-old obese man who had recently tested positive for COVID-19 presented to the emergency department following an unwitnessed collapse, with a brief period of unresponsiveness. CT pulmonary angiography confirmed the presence of extensive bilateral pulmonary embolism despite the patient reporting full compliance with long-term dabigatran. The patient was initially anticoagulated with low-molecular-weight heparin and was treated with non-invasive ventilation and dexamethasone for COVID-19 pneumonia. He made a full recovery and was discharged on oral rivaroxaban. His case highlighted some of the common problems encountered when selecting an anticoagulation strategy for obese patients, as well as the lack of definitive evidence to guide treatment decisions. These challenges were further complicated by our incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19 coagulopathy, with limited data available regarding the optimal management of thromboembolic complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
8.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256664

ABSTRACT

Patients with underlying cardiovascular conditions are particularly vulnerable to severe COVID-19. In this project, we aimed to characterize similarities in dysregulated immune pathways between COVID-19 patients and patients with cardiomyopathy, venous thromboembolism (VTE), or coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that these similarly dysregulated pathways may be critical to how cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) exacerbate COVID-19. To evaluate immune dysregulation in different diseases, we used four separate datasets, including RNA-sequencing data from human left ventricular cardiac muscle samples of patients with dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy and healthy controls; RNA-sequencing data of whole blood samples from patients with single or recurrent event VTE and healthy controls; RNA-sequencing data of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with and without obstructive CAD; and RNA-sequencing data of platelets from COVID-19 subjects and healthy controls. We found similar immune dysregulation profiles between patients with CVDs and COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, cardiomyopathy patients display the most similar immune landscape to COVID-19 patients. Additionally, COVID-19 patients experience greater upregulation of cytokine- and inflammasome-related genes than patients with CVDs. In all, patients with CVDs have a significant overlap of cytokine- and inflammasome-related gene expression profiles with that of COVID-19 patients, possibly explaining their greater vulnerability to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Venous Thromboembolism/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Cardiomyopathies/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Datasets as Topic , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/genetics , Inflammasomes/genetics , Lymphocyte Count , Patient Acuity , RNA-Seq , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
9.
J Investig Med ; 69(6): 1153-1155, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247390

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism associated with COVID-19, particularly acute pulmonary embolism, may represent a challenging and complex clinical scenario. The benefits of having a multidisciplinary pulmonary embolism response team (PERT) can be important during such a pandemic. The aim of PERT in the care of such patients is to provide fast, appropriate, multidisciplinary, team-based approach, with the common goal to tailor the best therapeutic decision making, prioritizing always optimal patient care, especially given lack of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in the setting of COVID-19, which potentially confers a significant prothrombotic state. Herein, we would like to briefly emphasize the importance and potential critical role of PERT in the care of patients in which these two devastating illnesses are present together.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thromboembolism/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cardiology/organization & administration , Decision Making , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Medicine/organization & administration , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/complications , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
10.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(2): 542-552, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222780

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) is associated with coagulation dysfunction that predisposes patients to an increased risk for both arterial (ATE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) and consequent poor prognosis; in particular, the incidence of ATE and VTE in critically ill COVID-19 patients can reach 5% and 31%, respectively. The mechanism of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients is complex and still not completely clear. Recent literature suggests a link between the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) and thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients. However, it remains uncertain whether aPLs are an epiphenomenon or are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thromboembolism/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Humans , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/immunology
11.
Crit Care Med ; 49(7): e663-e672, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189487

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a lifesaving therapy for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation. It is frequently complicated by both thrombosis and hemorrhage. A markedly prothrombotic state associated with high rates of venous thromboembolism has been described in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019) infection. These rates have currently not been described during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in comparison to other viral pneumonias. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Single high-volume tertiary critical care department at a university hospital. PATIENTS: Patients 16 years old or greater receiving venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation between March 1, 2020, and May 31, 2020, with coronavirus disease 2019 were compared with a cohort of patients with influenza pneumonia between June 1, 2012, and May 31, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The rates of venous thromboembolism and hemorrhage were compared in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 against a historic population of patients with influenza pneumonia who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. There were 51 patients who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to coronavirus disease 2019 and 80 patients with influenza. At cannulation for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, 37% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 compared with 8% of patients with influenza had filling defects on CT pulmonary angiography (p = 0.0001). Catheter-associated deep vein thrombosis shown on ultrasound Doppler after decannulation was present in 53% with coronavirus disease 2019 versus 25% with influenza (p = 0.01). The rates of intracranial hemorrhage at the time of cannulation were 16% with coronavirus disease 2019 and 14% with influenza (p = 0.8). Elevated d-dimer levels were seen in both conditions and were significantly higher in those with pulmonary thromboembolism than those without in coronavirus disease 2019 (p = 0.02). Fibrinogen and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in those with coronavirus disease 2019 than influenza (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Significant rates of pulmonary thromboembolism and of catheter-associated deep vein thrombosis were seen in both viral infections but were greater in those requiring the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in coronavirus disease 2019 than for influenza.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza, Human/therapy , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A virus , Influenza B virus , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , Tertiary Care Centers , Ultrasonography, Doppler
12.
Blood Adv ; 5(3): 872-888, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related critical illness and acute illness are associated with a risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). OBJECTIVE: These evidence-based guidelines of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) are intended to support patients, clinicians, and other health care professionals in decisions about the use of anticoagulation for thromboprophylaxis for patients with COVID-19-related critical illness and acute illness who do not have confirmed or suspected VTE. METHODS: ASH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel and applied strict management strategies to minimize potential bias from conflicts of interest. The panel included 3 patient representatives. The McMaster University GRADE Centre supported the guideline-development process, including performing systematic evidence reviews (up to 19 August 2020). The panel prioritized clinical questions and outcomes according to their importance for clinicians and patients. The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, including GRADE Evidence-to-Decision frameworks, to assess evidence and make recommendations, which were subject to public comment. RESULTS: The panel agreed on 2 recommendations. The panel issued conditional recommendations in favor of prophylactic-intensity anticoagulation over intermediate-intensity or therapeutic-intensity anticoagulation for patients with COVID-19-related critical illness or acute illness who do not have confirmed or suspected VTE. CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations were based on very low certainty in the evidence, underscoring the need for high-quality, randomized controlled trials comparing different intensities of anticoagulation. They will be updated using a living recommendation approach as new evidence becomes available.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Evidence-Based Medicine , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Societies, Medical , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(3)2021 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055064

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease. Bilateral pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation are key features of severe COVID-19. Fibrinogen and D-dimer levels are typically increased. The risk for venous thromboembolism is markedly increased, especially in patients in the intensive care unit despite prophylactic dose anticoagulation. Pulmonary microvascular thrombosis has also been described and the risk for arterial thrombotic diseases also appears to be increased while bleeding is less common than thrombosis, but it can occur. Evaluation for venous thromboembolism may be challenging because symptoms of pulmonary embolism overlap with COVID-19, and imaging studies may not be feasible in all cases. The threshold for evaluation or diagnosis of thromboembolism should be low given the high frequency of these events. Management and treatment are new challenges due to the paucity of high-quality evidence regarding efficacy and safety of different approaches to prevent or treat thromboembolic complications of the disease. All inpatients should receive thromboprophylaxis unless contraindicated. Some institutional protocols provide more aggressive anticoagulation with intermediate or even therapeutic dose anticoagulation for COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. Therapeutic dose anticoagulation is always appropriate to treat deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, unless contraindicated. This article reviews evaluation and management of coagulation abnormalities in individuals with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Risk Management , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
14.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(12): 822-839, 2020 Dec 26.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940637

ABSTRACT

Due to the pandemic of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the stroke medical care system is unavoidably undergoing major changes such as a decrease in the number of stroke patients receiving consultation, delay in consultation, and a decrease in the number of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy procedures. Stroke incidence in COVID-19 patients is approximately 1.1%. The features of stroke with COVID-19 have been elucidated: higher incidence in ischemic stroke than hemorrhagic stroke, increasing number of young patients, high D-dimer levels, and higher risk in elderly patients with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes. In patients with COVID-19, venous thromboembolism is more common than arterial thromboembolism, and stroke is more common than acute coronary syndrome. Protected code stroke (PCS) has been proposed which provides safe, effective and prompt treatment under complete infection control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Stroke/complications , Stroke/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hypertension , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
15.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(1): Pkaa085, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900441

ABSTRACT

Background: Complications in cancer patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been examined. This analysis aimed to compare characteristics of COVID-19 patients with and without cancer and assess whether cancer is associated with COVID-19 morbidity or mortality. Methods: COVID-19-positive patients with an inpatient or emergency encounter at the Mount Sinai Health System between March 1, 2020, and May 27, 2020, were included and compared across cancer status on demographics and clinical characteristics. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to model the associations of cancer with sepsis, venous thromboembolism, acute kidney injury, intensive care unit admission, and all-cause mortality. Results: There were 5556 COVID-19-positive patients included, 421 (7.6%) with cancer (325 solid, 96 nonsolid). Those with cancer were statistically significantly older, more likely to be non-Hispanic Black and to be admitted to the hospital during their encounter, and had more comorbidities than noncancer COVID-19 patients. Cancer patients were statistically significantly more likely to develop sepsis (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06 to 1.61) and venous thromboembolism (ORadj = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.01 to 3.09); there was no statistically significant difference in acute kidney injury (ORadj = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.39), intensive care unit admissions (ORadj = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.34), or mortality (ORadj = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.81 to 1.29). Conclusions: COVID-19 patients with cancer may have a higher risk for adverse outcomes. Although there was no statistically significant difference in mortality, COVID-19 patients with cancer have statistically significantly higher risk of thromboembolism and sepsis. Further research is warranted into the potential effects of cancer treatments on inflammatory and immune responses to COVID-19 and on the efficacy of anticoagulant therapy in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/mortality , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
16.
Blood Adv ; 4(21): 5373-5377, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901820

ABSTRACT

Patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) appear to be at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), especially if they become critically ill with COVID-19. Some centers have reported very high rates of thrombosis despite anticoagulant prophylaxis. The electronic health record (EHR) of a New Orleans-based health system was searched for all patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who were either admitted to hospital or treated and discharged from an emergency department between 1 March 2020 and 1 May 2020. From this cohort, patients with confirmed VTE (either during or after their hospital encounter) were identified by administrative query of the EHR.: Between 1 March 2020 and 1 May 2020, 6153 patients with COVID-19 were identified; 2748 of these patients were admitted, while 3405 received care exclusively through the emergency department. In total, 637 patients required mechanical ventilation and 206 required renal replacement therapy. Within the hospitalized cohort, the overall mortality rate was 24.5% and VTE occurred in 86 patients (3.1%). In the 637 patients who required mechanical ventilation at some point during their hospital stay, 45 developed VTE (7.2%). After a median follow-up of 14.6 days, VTE had been diagnosed in 3 of the 2075 admitted who were discharged alive (0.14%). Among 6153 patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized or treated in emergency departments, we did not find evidence of unusually high VTE risk. Pending further evidence from prospective, controlled trials, our findings support a traditional approach to primary VTE prevention in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Length of Stay , Louisiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
17.
Anaesthesia ; 76(3): 327-335, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852199

ABSTRACT

The reported incidence rate of venous and arterial thrombotic events in critically ill patients with COVID-19 infections is high, ranging from 20% to 60%. We adopted a patient-tailored thromboprophylaxis protocol based on clinical and laboratory presentations for these patients in our institution. We hypothesised that patients who received high-intensity thromboprophylaxis treatment would experience fewer thrombotic events. The aims of our study were to explore the incidence of thrombotic events in this population; to assess independent factors associated with thrombotic events and to evaluate the incidence of haemorrhagic events. A retrospective review of all adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between 1 March and 29 May 2020 was performed. The primary outcome was a composite of venous and arterial thrombotic events diagnosed during the ICU stay. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the independent factors associated with thrombotic events. A total of 188 patients met the inclusion criteria. All received some type of thromboprophylaxis treatment except for six patients who did not receive any prophylaxis. Of the 182 patients who received thromboprophylaxis, 75 (40%) received high-intensity thromboprophylaxis and 24 (12.8%) were treated with therapeutic anticoagulation. Twenty-one patients (11.2%) experienced 23 thrombotic events (incidence rate of 12.2% (95%CI 7.9-17.8)), including 12 deep venous thromboses, 9 pulmonary emboli and 2 peripheral arterial thromboses. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that only D-dimer (OR 2.80, p = 0.002) and high-intensity thromboprophylaxis regimen (OR 0.20, p = 0.01) were independently associated with thrombotic events. Thirty-one patients (16.5%) experienced haemorrhagic events; among them, 13 were classified as major bleeding according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. Therapeutic anticoagulation, but not the high-intensity thromboprophylaxis regimen, was associated with major bleeding. A proactive approach to the management of thromboembolism in critically ill COVID-19 patients utilising a high-intensity thromboprophylaxis regimen in appropriately selected patients may result in lower thrombotic events without increasing the risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Protocols , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Young Adult
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(17): 9161-9168, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-790177

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) predisposes patients to thrombosis which underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. We sought to investigate the balance between procoagulant factors and natural coagulation inhibitors in the critically ill COVID-19 patient and to evaluate the usefulness of hemostasis parameters to identify patients at risk of venous thromboembolic event (VTE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an observational study recording VTEs defined as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism using lower limb ultrasound (92% of the patients), computed tomography pulmonary angiography (6%) and both tests (2%). We developed a comprehensive analysis of hemostasis. RESULTS: Ninety-two consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients (age, 62 years [53-69] (median [25th-75th percentiles]); M/F sex ratio, 2.5; body-mass index, 28 kg/m2 [25-32]; past hypertension (52%) and diabetes mellitus (30%)) admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) from 03/11/2020 to 5/05/2020, were included. When tested, patients were receiving prophylactic (74%) or therapeutic (26%) anticoagulation. Forty patients (43%) were diagnosed with VTE. Patients displayed inflammatory and prothrombotic profile including markedly elevated plasma fibrinogen (7.7 g/L [6.1-8.6]), D-dimer (3,360 ng/mL [1668-7575]), factor V (166 IU/dL [136-195]) and factor VIII activities (294 IU/dL [223-362]). We evidenced significant discrepant protein C anticoagulant and chromogenic activities, combined with slightly decreased protein S activity. Plasma D-dimer >3,300 ng/mL predicted VTE presence with 78% (95%-confidence interval (95% CI), 62-89) sensitivity, 69% (95% CI, 55-81) specificity, 66% (95% CI, 51-79) positive predictive value and 80% (95% CI, 65-90) negative predictive value [area under the ROC curve, 0.779 (95%CI, 0.681-0.859), p=0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients present with an imbalance between markedly increased factor V/VIII activity and overwhelmed protein C/S pathway. Plasma D-dimer may be a useful biomarker at the bedside for suspicion of VTE.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Factor Inhibitors/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Area Under Curve , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Factor V/analysis , Factor VIII/analysis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein C/analysis , Protein S/analysis , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(17): 9154-9160, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-790176

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan, China, and has subsequently spread worldwide. An association between increased venous thromboembolism in patients with pneumonia-related to COVID-19 has not yet been well described. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We aimed to illustrate cases of pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 treated in our intensive care unit. The medical records of patients affected by COVID-19 with acute respiratory distress syndrome in our institute from 1/3/2020 to 31/3/2020 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Our center registered a high prevalence of thromboembolic events among 62 patients affected by acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 despite a regular antithrombotic prophylaxis. Out of these, 32 patients were transferred to other hospitals, and 30 were treated in our center. Venous thromboembolism was registered in 12 (19.3%) cases. In particular, 11 diagnoses of pulmonary embolism and 1 diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis were formulated. We described a case series of venous thromboembolism in nine patients treated in our Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Main pulmonary arteries were always involved in these patients. None of them died. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, critically ill patients with ARDS related to COVID-19 may have an increased risk of VTE that could be a leading cause of mortality. These patients require a high index of clinical suspicion and an accurate diagnostic approach, in order to immediately start an appropriate anticoagulant treatment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
20.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 46(7): 763-771, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744406

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, leading in some cases to a critical condition with poor long-term outcomes and residual disability requiring post-acute rehabilitation. A major concern in severe COVID-19 is represented by a concomitant prothrombotic state. However, contrasting data are available about the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE). A detailed search on the association of COVID-19 with thromboembolic complications was conducted in the main electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus) according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The weighted mean prevalence (WMP) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated with the random-effects model. Twenty studies enrolling 1,988 COVID-19 patients were included. The WMP of VTE was 31.3% (95% CI: 24.3-39.2%). The WMP of DVT was 19.8% (95% CI: 10.5-34.0%), whereas the WMP of PE was 18.9% (95% CI: 14.4-24.3%). Similar results were obtained when specifically analyzing studies on patients admitted to intensive care units and those on patients under antithrombotic prophylaxis. Regression models showed that an increasing age was associated with a higher prevalence of VTE (Z-score: 3.11, p = 0.001), DVT (Z-score: 2.33, p = 0.002), and PE (Z-score: 3.03, p = 0.002), while an increasing body mass index was associated with an increasing prevalence of PE (Z-score = 2.01, p = 0.04). Male sex did not impact the evaluated outcomes. The rate of thromboembolic complications in COVID-19 patients is definitely high. Considering the risk of fatal and disabling complications, adequate screening procedures and antithrombotic strategies should be implemented.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Critical Care/methods , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Regression Analysis , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
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