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1.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 80(4): 333-343, 2022 07 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029846

ABSTRACT

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a clinicobiological entity defined by the association of thrombotic events and/or obstetric complications and the presence of persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) detected by coagulation tests (lupus anticoagulant, LAC) and/or immunological assays (anticardiolipin and anti-glycoprotein-beta-I antibodies). The increased use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is now a challenge for hematology laboratories for the diagnosis of APS. DOAC interfere with LAC screening and confirmation tests resulting in a risk of false positive results. To avoid these interferences, several solutions are suggested. Some of them rely on the use of DOAC-reversal systems (activated charcoal tablet, filter system) others on the use of reagents insensitive to DOAC presence in the sample. Detection of anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies may be helpful because they are strongly associated to the presence of LAC and are increasingly recognized as a useful tool in the diagnosis and prognosis of APS. Finally, positivity of LA in the setting of a viral infection is frequent and not specific to APS. During the Covid-19 pandemic, many patients developed arterial and VTE that could suggest testing for aPLs. The association between LAC and a risk of VTE or in-hospital mortality in hospitalized Covid-19 patients was not demonstrated. Moreover, aPLs do not persist after Covid-19. Currently, testing for aPLs in Covid-19 patients is not recommended.


Le syndrome des antiphospholipides (SAPL) est une entité clinico-biologique définie par l'association de manifestations thrombotiques et/ou de complications obstétricales et la présence persistante d'anticorps antiphospholipides (aPLs) détectés par des tests de coagulation (lupus anticoagulant, LA) et/ou par des tests immunologiques (anticorps anti-cardiolipine et anticorps anti-ß2-glycoprotéine-I). L'essor des anticoagulants oraux directs (AOD) dans la prise en charge des évènements thrombotiques veineux (ETV) constitue aujourd'hui un défi pour les laboratoires d'hémostase dans le cadre du diagnostic du SAPL. Les AOD interfèrent avec les tests de dépistage et de confirmation du LA occasionnant des faux positifs. Afin de se soustraire à ces interférences plusieurs solutions sont proposées. Certaines reposent sur l'utilisation de système neutralisant l'AOD (pastille de charbon activé, système de filtre) d'autres sur l'utilisation de réactifs insensibles à la présence d'AOD. On peut également faire appel aux anticorps anti-phosphatidylsérine/prothrombine très corrélés à la présence de LA et constituant un outil de plus en plus reconnu dans le diagnostic biologique du SAPL et son pronostic. Enfin, la positivité des aPLs dans un contexte infectieux est fréquente et non spécifique du SAPL. Au cours de la pandémie Covid-19, de nombreux patients ont présentés des ETV et artériels qui ont pu motiver la recherche d'aPLs. L'association entre LA et le risque d'ETV ou la mortalité hospitalière chez les patients Covid-19 hospitalisés n'a pas été démontrée. De plus, il ne semble pas qu'il y ait de persistance de ces aPLs après la Covid-19. A ce jour, la recherche d'aPLs chez les patients atteint de Covid-19 n'est pas recommandée.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome , COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis
2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(18): e025198, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973987

ABSTRACT

Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) contributes significantly to COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. The urokinase receptor system is involved in the regulation of coagulation. Levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) reflect hyperinflammation and are strongly predictive of outcomes in COVID-19. Whether suPAR levels identify patients with COVID-19 at risk for VTE is unclear. Methods and Results We leveraged a multinational observational study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 with suPAR and D-dimer levels measured on admission. In 1960 patients (mean age, 58 years; 57% men; 20% Black race), we assessed the association between suPAR and incident VTE (defined as pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis) using logistic regression and Fine-Gray modeling, accounting for the competing risk of death. VTE occurred in 163 (8%) patients and was associated with higher suPAR and D-dimer levels. There was a positive association between suPAR and D-dimer (ß=7.34; P=0.002). Adjusted for clinical covariables, including D-dimer, the odds of VTE were 168% higher comparing the third with first suPAR tertiles (adjusted odds ratio, 2.68 [95% CI, 1.51-4.75]; P<0.001). Findings were consistent when stratified by D-dimer levels and in survival analysis accounting for death as a competing risk. On the basis of predicted probabilities from random forest, a decision tree found the combined D-dimer <1 mg/L and suPAR <11 ng/mL cutoffs, identifying 41% of patients with only 3.6% VTE probability. Conclusions Higher suPAR was associated with incident VTE independently of D-dimer in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Combining suPAR and D-dimer identified patients at low VTE risk. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04818866.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
3.
Curr Cardiol Rev ; 18(4): e220222201354, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951870

ABSTRACT

With the incidence of the unabated spreading of the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic with an increase in heart-related complications in COVID-19 patients, laboratory investigations on general health and diseases of heart have greater importance. The production of a higher level of clots in the blood in COVID-19 individuals carries a high risk of severe lethal pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, or widespread thromboembolism. The COVID-19 pandemic has raised awareness regarding the severe consequences for the cardiac system that might cause due to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism, and acute heart failure in people with preexisting cardiac illness. However, as COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory infectious disease, there is still a lot of debate on whether and how cardiac biomarkers should be used in COVID-19 patients. Considering the most practical elucidation of cardiac biomarkers in COVID-19, it is important to note that recent findings on the prognostic role of cardiac biomarkers in COVID-19 patients are similar to those found in pneumonia and ARDS studies. The use of natriuretic peptides and cardiac troponin concentrations as quantitative variables should help with COVID-19/pneumonia risk classification and ensure that these biomarkers sustain their high diagnostic precision for acute myocardial infarction and heart failure. Serial assessment of D-dimers will possibly aid clinicians in the assortment of patients for venous thromboembolism imaging in addition to the increase of anticoagulation from preventive to marginally higher or even therapeutic dosages because of the central involvement of endothelitis and thromboembolism in COVID-19. Therefore, cardiac biomarkers are produced in this phase because of some pathological processes; this review will focus on major cardiac biomarkers and their significant role in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Venous Thromboembolism , Biomarkers , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934122

ABSTRACT

Intensive care unit (ICU) patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and/or cancer suffer from high mortality rates. Mortality prediction in the ICU has been a major medical challenge for which several scoring systems exist but lack in specificity. This study focuses on two target groups, namely patients with thrombosis or cancer. The main goal is to develop and validate interpretable machine learning (ML) models to predict early and late mortality, while exploiting all available data stored in the medical record. To this end, retrospective data from two freely accessible databases, MIMIC-III and eICU, were used. Well-established ML algorithms were implemented utilizing automated and purposely built ML frameworks for addressing class imbalance. Prediction of early mortality showed excellent performance in both disease categories, in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC): VTE-MIMIC-III 0.93, eICU 0.87, cancer-MIMIC-III 0.94. On the other hand, late mortality prediction showed lower performance, i.e., AUC-ROC: VTE 0.82, cancer 0.74-0.88. The predictive model of early mortality developed from 1651 VTE patients (MIMIC-III) ended up with a signature of 35 features and was externally validated in 2659 patients from the eICU dataset. Our model outperformed traditional scoring systems in predicting early as well as late mortality. Novel biomarkers, such as red cell distribution width, were identified.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Venous Thromboembolism , Algorithms , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Machine Learning , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis
6.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 16: 17539447221105013, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910188

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection resulting in COVID-19 disease is associated with widespread inflammation and a prothrombotic state, resulting in frequent venous thromboembolic (VTE) events. It is currently unknown whether anticoagulation is protective for VTE events. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to identify predictors of VTE in COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Ovid databases for relevant observational studies of VTE in COVID-19 disease. The effect size for predictors of VTE was calculated using a random-effects model and presented as forest plots. Heterogeneity among studies was expressed as Q statistics and I2. Bias was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale for all identified observational studies. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plot analysis. RESULTS: We identified 28 studies involving 6053 patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. The overall pooled prevalence of VTE events was 20.7%. Male sex was associated with a higher risk of VTE events, whereas prior history of VTE, smoking, and cancer were not. VTE events were significantly higher in severely ill patients, mechanically ventilated patients, those requiring intensive care admission, and those with a low PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F ratio). Chronic comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, heart failure, renal disease, and pulmonary disease, did not increase the risk of VTE events. Patients with VTE had higher leukocyte counts and higher levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin. The occurrence of VTE was associated with increased length of stay but did not impact mortality. Therapeutic and prophylactic doses of anticoagulation were not protective against VTE. CONCLUSION: VTE in COVID-19 is associated with male gender and severe disease but not with traditional risk factors for VTE. The occurrence of VTE does not appear to be mitigated by either prophylactic or therapeutic anticoagulation. The occurrence of VTE in this population is associated with an increased length of stay but does not appear to impact mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
7.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 10(4): 939-944.e3, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899997

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Recent studies have characterized racial disparities in the incidence of VTE. The aim of our study was to present a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between race and VTE in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the number of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) events reported by racial groups in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. For the qualitative analysis, independent reviewers extracted the data from eligible studies, and we used the Newcastle-Ottawa scale to assess the quality of design and content for accurate interpretation. For the quantitative analysis, we pooled the odds ratios with Der Simonian and Laird random effects models. RESULTS: The qualitative analysis included 11 studies, with 6 included in the meta-analysis. All studies were observational, retrospective cohort studies, except for one retrospective case-control study. Six studies were eligible for the meta-analysis owing to the high interstudy heterogeneity; thus, the variable reports of racial groups reduced the cohort to Black/African American and White patients (n = 9723) in the analysis. The estimated proportion for DVT and PE events for Black/African American and White patients was 0.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.10) and 0.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.07), respectively. The P value of .13 suggested nonsignificant differences in the VTE rates between Black/African American and White patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the proportion of DVT and PE events between Black/African American and White patients with COVID-19 were comparable. Future COVID-19 studies should include systematic racial group reporting to identify any disparities in the setting of VTE events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
8.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 54(3): 431-437, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885483

ABSTRACT

We observed multiple fatal intracranial hemorrhages shortly after initiating therapeutic anticoagulation for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in COVID-19 patients suggesting increased anticoagulation risk associated with COVID-19. The objective of this study is to quantify risk of major hemorrhage in hospitalized COVID-19 patients on therapeutic anticoagulation for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving therapeutic anticoagulation for DVT, PE or both at four New York City hospitals were evaluated for hemorrhagic complications. These were categorized as major (including fatal) or clinically relevant non-major according to the criteria of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Hemorrhagic complications were correlated with clinical and laboratory data, ICD-10 code diagnoses and type of anticoagulation treatment. Minor hemorrhages were excluded. Major/clinically relevant hemorrhages occurred in 36 of 170 (21%) hospitalized COVID-19 patients being treated with therapeutic anticoagulation for VTE including 4 (2.4%) fatal hemorrhages. Hemorrhage was 3.4 times more likely with unfractionated heparin 27/76 (36%) compared to 8/81 (10%) with low molecular weight heparin (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that major hemorrhage was associated with intubation (p = 0.04) and elevated serum LDH (p < 0.001) and low fibrinogen (p = 0.05). Increased risk of hemorrhagic complications in treating VTE in hospitalized COVID-19 patients should be considered especially when using unfractionated heparin, in intubated patients, with low fibrinogen and/or elevated LDH. Checking serum fibrinogen and LDH before initiating therapeutic anticoagulation and monitoring coagulation parameters frequently may reduce bleeding complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fibrinogen/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis
9.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (6): 55-61, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879689

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with perioperative or previous coronavirus infection (CVI) have a greater risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multiple-center regional prospective retrospective cohort study included elective and emergency patients who underwent surgery in November 2020. The primary endpoint was VTE (PE/DVT) within 30 days after surgery. CVI was stratified as perioperative (7 days before surgery - 30 days after surgery), recent (1-6 weeks before surgery) and remote (≥7 weeks before surgery) infection. There was no information about prevention or preoperative anticoagulation at baseline data collection. RESULTS: Incidence of postoperative VTE was 1.5% (10/650) in patients without CVI, 33.3% (3/9) in patients with perioperative CVI, 18.1% (2/11) in patients with recent CVI and 8.3% (1/12) in patients with remote CVI. After adjusting the confounders, patients with perioperative and recent CVI remained at a higher risk of VTE. In general, VTEs were independently associated with 30-day mortality. In patients with CVI, mortality rate among ones without VTE was 21.7% (5/23), with VTE - 44.4% (4/9). CONCLUSION: Patients with perioperative CVI have a higher risk of postoperative VTE compared to those without CVI and patients with previous CVI and no residual symptoms. Mortality in this group is also higher than in other cohorts.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Incidence , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
10.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(6): 588-592, 2022 Jun 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879503

ABSTRACT

In the past year, significant progress has been made in the field of venous thromboembolism (VTE) including risk assessment and anticoagulation prevention, diagnostic strategies and model exploration, new drug development and disease management. Particularly, major breakthroughs have been made in the prevention of VTE with FXI inhibitors and the prevention of novel coronavirus pneumonia with coagulation alterations and anticoagulation interventions. Here, we reviewed the progress and achievements in the field of VTE in the past year, aiming to provide evidence and ideas for the diagnosis, treatment and future studies of VTE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis
11.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 34(3): 261-267, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874057

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update regarding what is known about thrombotic events and thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 generally have mild illness; however, intensive care is required in about 20-30% of hospitalized children with COVID-19 and an even higher proportion in those with MIS-C. Increased rates of thrombosis have been observed in adults hospitalized with COVID-19, and clinical trials have attempted to optimize thromboprophylaxis. There is significant variability in the estimated incidence of thrombosis in pediatric patients (0-27%) because of variation in patient populations and study design. Multiple studies demonstrate an increased rate of thrombosis compared with baseline in hospitalized pediatric patients. Few studies have evaluated risk factors for thrombosis, but critical illness, older age, and other known thrombosis risk factors appear to increase the risk. Thromboprophylaxis strategies are inconsistent, with little evidence of efficacy but few reports of major bleeding. SUMMARY: Critically ill children with SARS-CoV-2-related illnesses are at increased risk of thrombosis. Thromboprophylaxis should be considered in select patients with COVID-19 or MIS-C, though the optimal strategy is not yet known. More data is required to guide practice to prevent thrombosis in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
12.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 33(4): 209-215, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874043

ABSTRACT

Clinicians experience some challenges due to the lack of standardization of test, although D-dimer is a prognostic marker for COVID-19. We compared the clinical and analytical performances of D-dimer results obtained from different devices, kits and methods in patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Thirty-nine patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 and 24 healthy individuals were included in the study. D-dimer levels were measured with Innovance D-DIMER kit (immunoturbidimetric method) on Sysmex CS-2500 and BCS XP and VIDAS D-Dimer Exclusion II kit (enzyme-linked fluorescence method) on mini VIDAS. The studies of precision, method comparison and clinic performance were performed. The variation coefficients in all systems were within the acceptable imprecision (7.8%). Bias%(12.5%) between BCS XP and Sysmex CS-2500 was lower than the acceptable Bias%(15.5%). Bias% values (19.2% and 33.3%, respectively) between Mini VIDAS with BCS XP and Sysmex CS-2500 were higher than the acceptable Bias%. The correlation coefficients among all systems were 0.89-0.98. For 500 ng/ml FEU, there was almost perfect agreement between BCS XP and Sysmex CS-2500, a moderate agreement between Mini VIDAS and BCS XP and Sysmex CS-2500. The cut-off values for distinguishing between individuals with and withoutCOVID-19 were Mini VIDAS, Sysmex CS-2500 and BCS XP 529, 380 and 390 ng/ml FEU, respectively. The immunoturbidimetric method can be used as an alternative to the enzyme-linked fluorescent method because of satisfactory agreement at the different thresholds proposed for venous thromboembolism. However, it is recommended to follow up COVID-19 with the D-dimer results obtained by the same assay system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Immunoturbidimetry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis
13.
Thromb Res ; 213: 138-144, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to detail the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in England. METHODS: This was an exploratory retrospective analysis of observational data from the Hospital Episode Statistics dataset for England. All patients aged ≥18 years in England with a diagnosis of COVID-19 who had a hospital stay that was completed between 1st March 2020 and 31st March 2021 were included. A recorded diagnosis of VTE during the index stay or during a subsequent admission in the six weeks following discharge was the primary outcome in the main analysis. In secondary analysis, VTE diagnosis was the primary exposure and in-hospital mortality the primary outcome. RESULTS: Over the 13 months, 374,244 unique patients had a diagnosis of COVID-19 during a hospital stay, of whom 17,346 (4.6%) had a recorded diagnosis of VTE. VTE was more commonly recorded in patients aged 40-79 years, males and in patients of Black ethnicity, even after adjusting for covariates. Recorded VTE diagnosis was associated with longer hospital stay and higher adjusted in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 1.35 (95% confidence interval 1.29 to 1.41)). CONCLUSIONS: VTE was a common complication of hospitalisation with COVID-19 in England. VTE was associated with both increased length of stay and mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
14.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 59, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment in surgical patients is important for the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of patients. The commonly used Caprini model is limited by its inadequate ability to discriminate between risk stratums on the surgical population in southwest China and lengthy risk factors. The purpose of this study was to establish an improved VTE risk assessment model that is accurate and simple. METHODS: This study is based on the clinical data from 81,505 surgical patients hospitalized in the Southwest Hospital of China between January 1, 2019 and June 18, 2021. Among the population, 559 patients developed VTE. An improved VTE risk assessment model, SW-model, was established through Logistic Regression, with comparisons to both Caprini and Random Forest. RESULTS: The SW-model incorporated eight risk factors. The area under the curve (AUC) of SW-model (0.807 [0.758, 0.853], 0.804 [0.765, 0.840]), are significantly superior (p = 0.001 and p = 0.044) to those of the Caprini (0.705 [0.652, 0.757], 0.758 [0.719, 0795]) on two test sets, but inferior (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002) to Random Forest (0.854 [0.814, 0.890], 0.839 [0.806, 0.868]). In decision curve analysis, within threshold range from 0.015 to 0.04, the DCA curves of the SW-model are superior to Caprini and two default strategies. CONCLUSIONS: The SW-model demonstrated a higher discriminative capability to distinguish VTE positive in surgical patients compared with the Caprini model. Compared to Random Forest, Logistic Regression based SW-model provided interpretability which is essential in guarantee the procedure of risk assessment transparent to clinicians.


Subject(s)
Venous Thromboembolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
15.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(7): 1638-1644, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccinations in the United States are effective in preventing illness and hospitalization yet concern over post-vaccination venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk has led to vaccine hesitancy. METHODS: The aim of this study was to compare VTE rates before and after COVID-19 vaccination. COVID-19 vaccinated patients ≥18 years between November 1, 2020 through November 1, 2021 were analyzed using electronic medical records across the Mayo Clinic enterprise. The primary outcome was imaging confirmed acute VTE (upper or lower deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) occurring 90 days before and after the date of first vaccine dose. RESULTS: A total of 792 010 patients with at least one COVID-19 vaccination were identified (Pfizer, n = 452 950, Moderna, n = 290 607, and Janssen [Johnson & Johnson], n = 48 453). A total of 1565 VTE events occurred in the 90 days before (n = 772) and after (n = 793) COVID-19 vaccination. VTE post-vaccination occurred in 326 patients receiving Moderna (0.11%, incidence rate [IR] 4.58 per 1000p-years), 425 patients receiving Pfizer (0.09%, IR 3.84 per 1000p-years), and 42 receiving Janssen (0.09%, IR 3.56 per 1000p-years). Compared to the pre-vaccination timeframe, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for VTE after the Janssen vaccination was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-1.50), aHR 1.02 (95% CI 0.87-1.19) for Moderna, and aHR 1.00 (95% CI 0.87-1.15) for Pfizer. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort of COVID-19 vaccinated patients, no increased risk for acute VTE post-vaccination was identified for the authorized vaccines in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Vaccination/adverse effects , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
17.
Atherosclerosis ; 341: 43-49, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Thrombosis is a major driver of adverse outcome and mortality in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hypercoagulability may be related to the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19, which is mainly driven by interleukin (IL)-6. Plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels increase following IL-6 upregulation and Lp(a) has anti-fibrinolytic properties. This study investigated whether Lp(a) elevation may contribute to the pro-thrombotic state hallmarking COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Lp(a), IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured in 219 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and analyzed with linear mixed effects model. The baseline biomarkers and increases during admission were related to venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence and clinical outcomes in a Kaplan-Meier and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Lp(a) levels increased significantly by a mean of 16.9 mg/dl in patients with COVID-19 during the first 21 days after admission. Serial Lp(a) measurements were available in 146 patients. In the top tertile of Lp(a) increase, 56.2% of COVID-19 patients experienced a VTE event compared to 18.4% in the lowest tertile (RR 3.06, 95% CI 1.61-5.81; p < 0.001). This association remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, IL-6 and CRP increase and number of measurements. Increases in IL-6 and CRP were not associated with VTE. Increase in Lp(a) was strongly correlated with increase in IL-6 (r = 0.44, 95% CI 0.30-0.56, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increases in Lp(a) levels during the acute phase of COVID-19 were strongly associated with VTE incidence. The acute increase in anti-fibrinolytic Lp(a) may tilt the balance to VTE in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Lipoprotein(a) , Pilot Projects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
19.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 20(1): 77-86, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with Coagulopathy (CAC) and Venous Thromboembolism (VTE). These are well-reported complications of COVID-19 infection. Earlier publications have shown that CAC and thromboembolism are predictors of mortality among COVID-19 patients with severe disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) where all confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolled and followed until death or ICU discharge. CAC, VTE, along with all comorbidities, were recorded. Predictors of mortality were determined by univariate and multivariate regression. RESULTS: Among 261 patients with COVID-19, 48.3% survived and 51.7% died. CAC was present in 53.2% and 76.3% of the survivors and non-survivors, respectively (p<0.001); 89 patients (31.4%) had VTE (p=0.36) and 11 patients (4.2%) had arterial thrombosis (p=0.76) among survivors and nonsurvivors. Age between 71-80 years (p=0.009), male gender (p=0.045), CAC (p<0.001), comorbidities like chronic kidney disease (CKD, p=0.013), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, p=0.001) and asthma (p=0.046), were significant predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: A severe complication of COVID-19 is CAC, such as sepsis-induced coagulopathy, overt disseminated-coagulopathy and VTE. Old age, various comorbidities (e.g., COPD, CKD, or asthma), CAC, VTE (pulmonary embolism) and coagulation parameters with critical severity score (D-dimers, platelets, prothrombin time) and the SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) score were significant predictors of mortality among COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
20.
BMJ ; 375: e065834, 2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the rates for consulting a general practitioner (GP) for sequelae after acute covid-19 in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 and those managed in the community, and to determine how the rates change over time for patients in the community and after vaccination for covid-19. DESIGN: Population based study. SETTING: 1392 general practices in England contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum database. PARTICIPANTS: 456 002 patients with a diagnosis of covid-19 between 1 August 2020 and 14 February 2021 (44.7% men; median age 61 years), admitted to hospital within two weeks of diagnosis or managed in the community, and followed-up for a maximum of 9.2 months. A negative control group included individuals without covid-19 (n=38 511) and patients with influenza before the pandemic (n=21 803). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of rates for consulting a GP for new symptoms, diseases, prescriptions, and healthcare use in individuals admitted to hospital and those managed in the community, separately, before and after covid-19 infection, using Cox regression and negative binomial regression for healthcare use. The analysis was repeated for the negative control and influenza cohorts. In individuals in the community, outcomes were also described over time after a diagnosis of covid-19, and compared before and after vaccination for individuals who were symptomatic after covid-19 infection, using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: Relative to the negative control and influenza cohorts, patients in the community (n=437 943) had significantly higher GP consultation rates for multiple sequelae, and the most common were loss of smell or taste, or both (adjusted hazard ratio 5.28, 95% confidence interval 3.89 to 7.17, P<0.001); venous thromboembolism (3.35, 2.87 to 3.91, P<0.001); lung fibrosis (2.41, 1.37 to 4.25, P=0.002), and muscle pain (1.89, 1.63 to 2.20, P<0.001); and also for healthcare use after a diagnosis of covid-19 compared with 12 months before infection. For absolute proportions, the most common outcomes ≥4 weeks after a covid-19 diagnosis in patients in the community were joint pain (2.5%), anxiety (1.2%), and prescriptions for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (1.2%). Patients admitted to hospital (n=18 059) also had significantly higher GP consultation rates for multiple sequelae, most commonly for venous thromboembolism (16.21, 11.28 to 23.31, P<0.001), nausea (4.64, 2.24 to 9.21, P<0.001), prescriptions for paracetamol (3.68, 2.86 to 4.74, P<0.001), renal failure (3.42, 2.67 to 4.38, P<0.001), and healthcare use after a covid-19 diagnosis compared with 12 months before infection. For absolute proportions, the most common outcomes ≥4 weeks after a covid-19 diagnosis in patients admitted to hospital were venous thromboembolism (3.5%), joint pain (2.7%), and breathlessness (2.8%). In patients in the community, anxiety and depression, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, general pain, nausea, chest tightness, and tinnitus persisted throughout follow-up. GP consultation rates were reduced for all symptoms, prescriptions, and healthcare use, except for neuropathic pain, cognitive impairment, strong opiates, and paracetamol use in patients in the community after the first vaccination dose for covid-19 relative to before vaccination. GP consultation rates were also reduced for ischaemic heart disease, asthma, and gastro-oesophageal disease. CONCLUSIONS: GP consultation rates for sequelae after acute covid-19 infection differed between patients with covid-19 who were admitted to hospital and those managed in the community. For individuals in the community, rates of some sequelae decreased over time but those for others, such as anxiety and depression, persisted. Rates of some outcomes decreased after vaccination in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Community Health Services , General Practitioners , Hospitalization , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , State Medicine , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
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