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1.
BMJ ; 375: e065834, 2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the rates for consulting a general practitioner (GP) for sequelae after acute covid-19 in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 and those managed in the community, and to determine how the rates change over time for patients in the community and after vaccination for covid-19. DESIGN: Population based study. SETTING: 1392 general practices in England contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum database. PARTICIPANTS: 456 002 patients with a diagnosis of covid-19 between 1 August 2020 and 14 February 2021 (44.7% men; median age 61 years), admitted to hospital within two weeks of diagnosis or managed in the community, and followed-up for a maximum of 9.2 months. A negative control group included individuals without covid-19 (n=38 511) and patients with influenza before the pandemic (n=21 803). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of rates for consulting a GP for new symptoms, diseases, prescriptions, and healthcare use in individuals admitted to hospital and those managed in the community, separately, before and after covid-19 infection, using Cox regression and negative binomial regression for healthcare use. The analysis was repeated for the negative control and influenza cohorts. In individuals in the community, outcomes were also described over time after a diagnosis of covid-19, and compared before and after vaccination for individuals who were symptomatic after covid-19 infection, using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: Relative to the negative control and influenza cohorts, patients in the community (n=437 943) had significantly higher GP consultation rates for multiple sequelae, and the most common were loss of smell or taste, or both (adjusted hazard ratio 5.28, 95% confidence interval 3.89 to 7.17, P<0.001); venous thromboembolism (3.35, 2.87 to 3.91, P<0.001); lung fibrosis (2.41, 1.37 to 4.25, P=0.002), and muscle pain (1.89, 1.63 to 2.20, P<0.001); and also for healthcare use after a diagnosis of covid-19 compared with 12 months before infection. For absolute proportions, the most common outcomes ≥4 weeks after a covid-19 diagnosis in patients in the community were joint pain (2.5%), anxiety (1.2%), and prescriptions for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (1.2%). Patients admitted to hospital (n=18 059) also had significantly higher GP consultation rates for multiple sequelae, most commonly for venous thromboembolism (16.21, 11.28 to 23.31, P<0.001), nausea (4.64, 2.24 to 9.21, P<0.001), prescriptions for paracetamol (3.68, 2.86 to 4.74, P<0.001), renal failure (3.42, 2.67 to 4.38, P<0.001), and healthcare use after a covid-19 diagnosis compared with 12 months before infection. For absolute proportions, the most common outcomes ≥4 weeks after a covid-19 diagnosis in patients admitted to hospital were venous thromboembolism (3.5%), joint pain (2.7%), and breathlessness (2.8%). In patients in the community, anxiety and depression, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, general pain, nausea, chest tightness, and tinnitus persisted throughout follow-up. GP consultation rates were reduced for all symptoms, prescriptions, and healthcare use, except for neuropathic pain, cognitive impairment, strong opiates, and paracetamol use in patients in the community after the first vaccination dose for covid-19 relative to before vaccination. GP consultation rates were also reduced for ischaemic heart disease, asthma, and gastro-oesophageal disease. CONCLUSIONS: GP consultation rates for sequelae after acute covid-19 infection differed between patients with covid-19 who were admitted to hospital and those managed in the community. For individuals in the community, rates of some sequelae decreased over time but those for others, such as anxiety and depression, persisted. Rates of some outcomes decreased after vaccination in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Community Health Services , General Practitioners , Hospitalization , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , State Medicine , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
2.
Atherosclerosis ; 341: 43-49, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Thrombosis is a major driver of adverse outcome and mortality in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hypercoagulability may be related to the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19, which is mainly driven by interleukin (IL)-6. Plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels increase following IL-6 upregulation and Lp(a) has anti-fibrinolytic properties. This study investigated whether Lp(a) elevation may contribute to the pro-thrombotic state hallmarking COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Lp(a), IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured in 219 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and analyzed with linear mixed effects model. The baseline biomarkers and increases during admission were related to venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence and clinical outcomes in a Kaplan-Meier and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Lp(a) levels increased significantly by a mean of 16.9 mg/dl in patients with COVID-19 during the first 21 days after admission. Serial Lp(a) measurements were available in 146 patients. In the top tertile of Lp(a) increase, 56.2% of COVID-19 patients experienced a VTE event compared to 18.4% in the lowest tertile (RR 3.06, 95% CI 1.61-5.81; p < 0.001). This association remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, IL-6 and CRP increase and number of measurements. Increases in IL-6 and CRP were not associated with VTE. Increase in Lp(a) was strongly correlated with increase in IL-6 (r = 0.44, 95% CI 0.30-0.56, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increases in Lp(a) levels during the acute phase of COVID-19 were strongly associated with VTE incidence. The acute increase in anti-fibrinolytic Lp(a) may tilt the balance to VTE in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Lipoprotein(a) , Pilot Projects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
4.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3478-3486, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thrombotic events (VTE) are frequent in COVID-19, and elevated plasma D-dimer (pDd) and dyspnea are common in both entities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the admission pDd cut-off value associated with in-hospital VTE in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective study analyzing the at-admission pDd cut-off value to predict VTE and anticoagulation intensity along hospitalization due to COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 9386 patients, 2.2% had VTE: 1.6% pulmonary embolism (PE), 0.4% deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and 0.2% both. Those with VTE had a higher prevalence of tachypnea (42.9% vs. 31.1%; p = 0.0005), basal O2 saturation <93% (45.4% vs. 33.1%; p = 0.0003), higher at admission pDd (median [IQR]: 1.4 [0.6-5.5] vs. 0.6 [0.4-1.2] µg/ml; p < 0.0001) and platelet count (median [IQR]: 208 [158-289] vs. 189 [148-245] platelets × 109/L; p = 0.0013). A pDd cut-off of 1.1 µg/ml showed specificity 72%, sensitivity 49%, positive predictive value (PPV) 4%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 99% for in-hospital VTE. A cut-off value of 4.7 µg/ml showed specificity of 95%, sensitivity of 27%, PPV of 9%, and NPV of 98%. Overall mortality was proportional to pDd value, with the lowest incidence for each pDd category depending on anticoagulation intensity: 26.3% for those with pDd >1.0 µg/ml treated with prophylactic dose (p < 0.0001), 28.8% for pDd for patients with pDd >2.0 µg/ml treated with intermediate dose (p = 0.0001), and 31.3% for those with pDd >3.0 µg/ml and full anticoagulation (p = 0.0183). CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, a pDd value greater than 3.0 µg/ml can be considered to screen VTE and to consider full-dose anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hospitalization , Humans , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
5.
Semin Reprod Med ; 39(5-06): 186-193, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440502

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis in pregnancy is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Risk stratification of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy is complex. The hypercoagulability observed in pregnant women can reduce bleeding during childbirth, but may cause thrombosis especially in the presence of additional prothrombotic risk factors such as antiphospholipid antibodies or genetic thrombophilic defects. The availability of large datasets allows for the identification of additional independent risk factors, including assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), endometriosis, and recurrent pregnancy loss. Data on the risk of VTE linked to COVID-19 in pregnant women are very limited, but suggest that infected pregnant women have an increased risk of VTE. Current guidelines on the prevention and treatment of VTE in pregnancy are based on available, albeit limited, data and mainly present expert opinion. Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are the mainstay of anticoagulation to be employed during pregnancy. Administration of LMWH for VTE treatment in pregnancy should be based on the personalized approach, taking into account a weight-based adjusted scheme. During gestation, due to physiological changes, in women at high risk of VTE, monitoring of anti-Xa activity is performed to ensure adequate LMWH dosing. As for the treatment duration for pregnant women with acute VTE, guidelines suggest that anticoagulation should be continued for at least 6 weeks postpartum for a minimum total duration of therapy of 3 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
6.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 34(3): 101-116, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415971

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolic complications have emerged as serious sequelae in COVID-19 infections. This article summarizes the most current information regarding pathophysiology, risk factors and hematologic markers, incidence and timing of events, atypical venous thromboembolic complications, prophylaxis recommendations, and therapeutic recommendations. Data will likely to continue to rapidly evolve as more knowledge is gained regarding venous events in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
7.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(8): 1-5, 2021 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372164

ABSTRACT

The role of D-dimers in the management of venous thromboembolism is well established and testing for D-dimers has become common in most acute settings. Although it has been validated for the purpose of excluding venous thromboembolism, the test is increasingly ordered to 'diagnose' venous thromboembolism. Furthermore, in the COVID-19 pandemic, heavy reliance has been put on this test with the inclusion of D-dimers to guide treatment pathways. This review summarises the appropriateness of D-dimer tests in these different clinical settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
10.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 34(3): 117-124, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347951

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) seem to be at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) development, but there is a paucity of data exploring both the natural history of COVID-19-associated VTE and the risk for poor outcomes after VTE development. This investigation aims to explore the relationship between COVID-19-associated VTE development and mortality. A prospectively maintained registry of patients older than 18 years admitted for COVID-19-related illnesses within an academic health care network between March and September 2020 was reviewed. Codes from the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases for VTE were collected. The charts of those patients with a code for VTE were manually reviewed to confirm VTE diagnosis. There were 2,552 patients admitted with COVID-19-related illnesses. One hundred and twenty-six patients (4.9%) developed a VTE. A disproportionate percentage of patients of Black race developed a VTE (70.9% VTE v 57.8% non-VTE; P = .012). A higher proportion of patients with VTE expired during their index hospitalization (22.8% VTE v 8.4% non-VTE; P < .001). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, VTE was independently associated with mortality (odds ratio = 3.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-5.2; P < .001). Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity was associated with decreased mortality (odds ratio = 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-1.00; P = .049). Hospitalized patients of Black race with COVID-19 were more prone to VTE development, and patients with COVID-19 who developed in-hospital VTE had roughly nearly threefold higher odds of mortality. Further emphasis should be placed on optimizing COVID-19 anticoagulation protocols to reduce mortality in this high-risk cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
11.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3478-3486, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thrombotic events (VTE) are frequent in COVID-19, and elevated plasma D-dimer (pDd) and dyspnea are common in both entities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the admission pDd cut-off value associated with in-hospital VTE in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective study analyzing the at-admission pDd cut-off value to predict VTE and anticoagulation intensity along hospitalization due to COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 9386 patients, 2.2% had VTE: 1.6% pulmonary embolism (PE), 0.4% deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and 0.2% both. Those with VTE had a higher prevalence of tachypnea (42.9% vs. 31.1%; p = 0.0005), basal O2 saturation <93% (45.4% vs. 33.1%; p = 0.0003), higher at admission pDd (median [IQR]: 1.4 [0.6-5.5] vs. 0.6 [0.4-1.2] µg/ml; p < 0.0001) and platelet count (median [IQR]: 208 [158-289] vs. 189 [148-245] platelets × 109/L; p = 0.0013). A pDd cut-off of 1.1 µg/ml showed specificity 72%, sensitivity 49%, positive predictive value (PPV) 4%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 99% for in-hospital VTE. A cut-off value of 4.7 µg/ml showed specificity of 95%, sensitivity of 27%, PPV of 9%, and NPV of 98%. Overall mortality was proportional to pDd value, with the lowest incidence for each pDd category depending on anticoagulation intensity: 26.3% for those with pDd >1.0 µg/ml treated with prophylactic dose (p < 0.0001), 28.8% for pDd for patients with pDd >2.0 µg/ml treated with intermediate dose (p = 0.0001), and 31.3% for those with pDd >3.0 µg/ml and full anticoagulation (p = 0.0183). CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, a pDd value greater than 3.0 µg/ml can be considered to screen VTE and to consider full-dose anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hospitalization , Humans , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
12.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 2522-2532, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 have increased risks of venous (VTE) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE). Active cancer diagnosis and treatment are well-known risk factors; however, a risk assessment model (RAM) for VTE in patients with both cancer and COVID-19 is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of and risk factors for thrombosis in hospitalized patients with cancer and COVID-19. METHODS: Among patients with cancer in the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium registry (CCC19) cohort study, we assessed the incidence of VTE and ATE within 90 days of COVID-19-associated hospitalization. A multivariable logistic regression model specifically for VTE was built using a priori determined clinical risk factors. A simplified RAM was derived and internally validated using bootstrap. RESULTS: From March 17, 2020 to November 30, 2020, 2804 hospitalized patients were analyzed. The incidence of VTE and ATE was 7.6% and 3.9%, respectively. The incidence of VTE, but not ATE, was higher in patients receiving recent anti-cancer therapy. A simplified RAM for VTE was derived and named CoVID-TE (Cancer subtype high to very-high risk by original Khorana score +1, VTE history +2, ICU admission +2, D-dimer elevation +1, recent systemic anti-cancer Therapy +1, and non-Hispanic Ethnicity +1). The RAM stratified patients into two cohorts (low-risk, 0-2 points, n = 1423 vs. high-risk, 3+ points, n = 1034) where VTE occurred in 4.1% low-risk and 11.3% high-risk patients (c statistic 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.71). The RAM performed similarly well in subgroups of patients not on anticoagulant prior to admission and moderately ill patients not requiring direct ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with cancer and COVID-19 have elevated thrombotic risks. The CoVID-TE RAM for VTE prediction may help real-time data-driven decisions in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Venous Thromboembolism , Cohort Studies , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
13.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 2533-2538, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, life-threatening complication of COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 risk-prediction models include a history of VTE. However, it is unclear whether remote history (>9 years previously) of VTE also confers increased risk of COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible association between VTE and COVID-19 severity, independent of other risk factors. METHODS: Cohort study of UK Biobank participants recruited between 2006 and 2010. Baseline data, including history of VTE, were linked to COVID-19 test results, COVID-19-related hospital admissions, and COVID-19 deaths. The risk of COVID-19 hospitalization or death was compared for participants with a remote history VTE versus without. Poisson regression models were run univariately then adjusted stepwise for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and comorbid covariates. RESULTS: After adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle confounders and comorbid conditions, remote history of VTE was associated with nonfatal community (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.02-2.54, p = .039), nonfatal hospitalized (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.06-2.17, p = .024) and severe (hospitalized or fatal) (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.89, p = .025) COVID-19. Associations with remote history of VTE were stronger among men (severe COVID-19: RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.14-2.42, p = .009) than for women (severe COVID-19: RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.66-1.74, p = .786). CONCLUSION: Our findings support inclusion of remote history of VTE in COVID-19 risk-prediction scores, and consideration of sex-specific risk scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Biological Specimen Banks , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
14.
Shock ; 55(3): 316-320, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304005

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has threatened millions of lives worldwide with severe systemic inflammation, organ dysfunction, and thromboembolic disease. Within our institution, many critically ill COVID-19-positive patients suffered major thrombotic events, prompting our clinicians to evaluate hypercoagulability outside of traditional coagulation testing.We determined the prevalence of fibrinolysis shutdown via rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM, Instrumentation Laboratories, Bedford, Mass) in patients admitted to the intensive care unit over a period of 3 weeks. In 25 patients who had a ROTEM test, we found that 11 (44%) met criteria for fibrinolysis shutdown. Eight of 9 (73%) of the VTE patients met criteria for fibrinolysis shutdown.Given the high rate of fibrinolysis shutdown in these patients, our data support using viscoelastic testing to evaluate for the presence of impaired fibrinolysis. This may help identify patient subsets who might benefit from the administration of fibrinolytics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis , Intensive Care Units , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
15.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 327, 2021 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relative association between cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, such as diabetes and hypertension, established CV disease (CVD), and susceptibility to CV complications or mortality in COVID-19 remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of consecutive adults hospitalised for severe COVID-19 between 1st March and 30th June 2020. Pre-existing CVD, CV risk factors and associations with mortality and CV complications were ascertained. RESULTS: Among 1721 patients (median age 71 years, 57% male), 349 (20.3%) had pre-existing CVD (CVD), 888 (51.6%) had CV risk factors without CVD (RF-CVD), 484 (28.1%) had neither. Patients with CVD were older with a higher burden of non-CV comorbidities. During follow-up, 438 (25.5%) patients died: 37% with CVD, 25.7% with RF-CVD and 16.5% with neither. CVD was independently associated with in-hospital mortality among patients < 70 years of age (adjusted HR 2.43 [95% CI 1.16-5.07]), but not in those ≥ 70 years (aHR 1.14 [95% CI 0.77-1.69]). RF-CVD were not independently associated with mortality in either age group (< 70 y aHR 1.21 [95% CI 0.72-2.01], ≥ 70 y aHR 1.07 [95% CI 0.76-1.52]). Most CV complications occurred in patients with CVD (66%) versus RF-CVD (17%) or neither (11%; p < 0.001). 213 [12.4%] patients developed venous thromboembolism (VTE). CVD was not an independent predictor of VTE. CONCLUSIONS: In patients hospitalised with COVID-19, pre-existing established CVD appears to be a more important contributor to mortality than CV risk factors in the absence of CVD. CVD-related hazard may be mediated, in part, by new CV complications. Optimal care and vigilance for destabilised CVD are essential in this patient group. Trial registration n/a.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hypertension/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Male , Mortality , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(5): 639-345, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262631

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents an important clinical complication of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and high plasma D-dimer levels could suggest a higher risk of hypercoagulability. We aimed to analyse if laboratory exams, risk assessment scores, comorbidity scores were useful in predicting the VTE in SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted in internal medicine (IM). We evaluated 49 older adults with suspected VTE analysing history and blood chemistry, besides we calculated the Padua Prediction Score, the modified early warning scoring (MEWS) and the modified Elixhauser index (mEI). All patients underwent venous color-doppler ultrasounds of the lower limbs. Out of the 49 patients enrolled (mean age 79.3±14 years), 10 (20.4%) had deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and they were more frequently female (80% vs 20%, p = 0.04). We could not find any association with the Padua Prediction Score, the MEWS, and the mEI. D-dimer plasma levels were also not associated with DVT. In elderly people hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized in IM, our data, although limited by the sample size, suggest that prediction and diagnosis of VTE is difficult, due to lack of precise biomarkers and scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Early Warning Score , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Lower Extremity/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
19.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 139: 106883, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253732

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has deeply challenged the world population, but also our medical knowledge. Special attention has been paid early to an activation of coagulation, then to an elevated rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. These data suggested that anticoagulant drugs should be evaluated in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The publication of unexpected high rates of VTE in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, despite receiving thromboprophylaxis, open the way to dedicated trials, evaluating modified regimens of thromboprophylaxis. Moreover, the further improvement in our comprehension of the disease, particularly the pulmonary endothelial dysfunction increased the hope that anticoagulant drugs may also protect patients from pulmonary thrombosis. In this comprehensive review, we cover the different situations where thromboprophylaxis standard may be modified (medically-ill inpatients, ICU inpatients, outpatients), and describe some of the current randomized controls trials evaluating new regimens of thromboprophylaxis in patients with COVID-19, including the preliminary available results. We also discuss the potential of anticoagulant drugs to target the thromboinflammation described in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality
20.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 139: 106882, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies confirmed an association between COVID-19 and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Whether the risk of VTE significantly differed between COVID-19 cohorts and non-COVID-19 cohorts with similar disease severity remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to compare the rate of VTE between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cohorts with similar disease severity. METHODS: A systematic literature search (MEDLINE, Embase and Google Scholar) was conducted from January 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021 to identify studies reporting VTE in COVID-19. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for the effect measure with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Seven studies (41,768 patients) evaluated VTE in COVID-19 cohorts compared to non-COVID-19 cohorts. The overall risk of VTE (RR 1.18; 95%CI 0.79-1.77; p = 0.42; I2 = 54%), pulmonary embolism (RR 1.25; 95%CI 0.77-2.03; p = 0.36; I2 = 52%) and deep venous thrombosis (RR 0.92; 95%CI 0.52-1.65; p = 0.78; I2 = 0%) did not significantly differ between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cohorts. However, subgroup analyses suggested an increased risk of VTE amongst CODID-19 versus non COVID-19 cohorts when only patients hospitalized within the intensive care unit (ICU) were considered (RR 3.10; 95%CI 1.54-6.23), which was not observed in cohorts of predominantly non-ICU patients (RR 0.95; 95%CI 0.81-1.11) (Pinteraction = 0.001). CONCLUSION: There was no signal for a difference in VTE in COVID-19 cohorts compared to non-COVID-19 cohorts, except for the subgroup of patients hospitalized in the ICU. These results should be viewed as exploratory and further studies are needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Young Adult
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