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1.
Saudi Med J ; 43(9): 979-990, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To summarize cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) among coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients and discuss their symptoms, diagnostic method, clinical features, and prognosis. METHODS: All major databases were searched for relevant studies published between December 1, 2019 and May 5, 2021. RESULTS: A total of 233 articles were identified, 22 describing 48 patients were included. A total of 79.1% had PE and 20.9% had DVT. Most patients were men, with a mean age of 56 years. Comorbidities were present in 70.8%, and 85.4% had at least one risk factor of VTE. 56.3% had received anticoagulation therapy. Most patients were treated in the general ward. Complications occurred in 27.1% of the patients, and recovery was achieved in 80.4%. CONCLUSION: Venous thromboembolism must be suspected even in patients who had received prior anticoagulant regimens or in stable cases, especially in males, the elderly, and patients with comorbidities and high D-dimer levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
2.
Blood ; 140(16): 1764-1773, 2022 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064716

ABSTRACT

Preliminary data and clinical experience have suggested an increased risk of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in women of reproductive age treated with anticoagulants, but solid data are lacking. The TEAM-VTE study was an international multicenter prospective cohort study in women aged 18 to 50 years diagnosed with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). Menstrual blood loss was measured by pictorial blood loss assessment charts at baseline for the last menstrual cycle before VTE diagnosis and prospectively for each cycle during 3 to 6 months of follow-up. AUB was defined as an increased score on the pictorial blood loss assessment chart (>100 or >150) or self-reported AUB. AUB-related quality of life (QoL) was assessed at baseline and the end of follow-up using the Menstrual Bleeding Questionnaire. The study was terminated early because of slow recruitment attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the 98 women, 65 (66%) met at least one of the 3 definitions of AUB during follow-up (95% confidence interval [CI], 57%-75%). AUB occurred in 60% of women (36 of 60) without AUB before VTE diagnosis (new-onset AUB; 95% CI, 47%-71%). Overall, QoL decreased over time, with a mean Menstrual Bleeding Questionnaire score increase of 5.1 points (95% CI, 2.2-7.9), but this decrease in QoL was observed only among women with new-onset AUB. To conclude, 2 of every 3 women who start anticoagulation for acute VTE experience AUB, with a considerable negative impact on QoL. These findings should be a call to action to increase awareness and provide evidence-based strategies to prevent and treat AUB in this setting. This was an academic study registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT04748393; no funding was received.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Female , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Quality of Life , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , Uterine Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Uterine Hemorrhage/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(12): 2887-2895, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination has been associated with increased venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk. However, it is unknown whether genetic predisposition to VTE is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis following vaccination. METHODS: Using data from the UK Biobank, which contains in-depth genotyping and linked vaccination and health outcomes information, we generated a polygenic risk score (PRS) using 299 genetic variants. We prospectively assessed associations between PRS and incident VTE immediately after first- and the second-dose vaccination and among historical unvaccinated cohorts during the pre- and early pandemic. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) for PRS-VTE associations using Cox models. RESULTS: Of 359 310 individuals receiving one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, 160 327 (44.6%) were males, and the mean age at the vaccination date was 69.05 (standard deviation [SD] 8.04) years. After 28- and 90-days' follow-up, 88 and 299 individuals developed VTE, respectively, equivalent to an incidence rate of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-1.08) and 0.92 (0.82-1.04) per 100 000 person-days. The PRS was significantly associated with a higher risk of VTE (HR per 1 SD increase in PRS, 1.41 (1.15-1.73) in 28 days and 1.36 (1.22-1.52) in 90 days). Similar associations were found in the historical unvaccinated cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of genetic susceptibility with post-COVID-19-vaccination VTE is similar to that seen in historical data. Additionally, the observed PRS-VTE associations were equivalent for adenovirus- and mRNA-based vaccines. These findings suggest that, at the population level, the VTE that occurred after the COVID-19 vaccination has a similar genetic etiology to the conventional VTE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Risk Factors , Vaccination/adverse effects , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(19): e025914, 2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020596

ABSTRACT

Background A recent randomized trial, the MICHELLE trial, demonstrated improved posthospital outcomes with a 35-day course of prophylactic rivaroxaban for patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at high risk of venous thromboembolism. We explored how often these findings may apply to an unselected clinical population of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods and Results Using a 35-hospital retrospective cohort of patients hospitalized between March 7, 2020, and January 23, 2021, with COVID-19 (MI-COVID19 database), we quantified the percentage of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who would be eligible for rivaroxaban at discharge per MICHELLE trial criteria and report clinical event rates. The main clinical outcome was derived from the MICHELLE trial and included a composite of symptomatic venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolus-related death, nonhemorrhagic stroke, and cardiovascular death at 35 days. Multiple sensitivity analyses tested different eligibility and exclusion criteria definitions to determine the effect on eligibility for postdischarge anticoagulation prophylaxis. Of 2016 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who survived to discharge and did not have another indication for anticoagulation, 25.9% (n=523) would be eligible for postdischarge thromboprophylaxis per the MICHELLE trial criteria (range, 2.9%-39.4% on sensitivity analysis). Of the 416 who had discharge anticoagulant data collected, only 13.2% (55/416) were actually prescribed a new anticoagulant at discharge. Of patients eligible for rivaroxaban per the MICHELLE trial, the composite clinical outcome occurred in 1.2% (6/519); similar outcome rates were 5.7% and 0.63% in the MICHELLE trial's control (no anticoagulation) and intervention (rivaroxaban) groups, respectively. Symptomatic venous thromboembolism events and all-cause mortality were 6.2% (32/519) and 5.66% in the MI-COVID19 and MICHELLE trial control cohorts, respectively. Conclusions Across 35 hospitals in Michigan, ≈1 in 4 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 would qualify for posthospital thromboprophylaxis. With only 13% of patients actually receiving postdischarge prophylaxis, there is a potential opportunity for improvement in care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Aftercare , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Patient Discharge , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
5.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(10): 1063-1070, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990370

ABSTRACT

Importance: The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in ambulatory COVID-19 is controversial. In addition, the association of vaccination with COVID-19-related VTE and relevant clinical and genetic risk factors remain to be elucidated. Objective: To quantify the association between ambulatory COVID-19 and short-term risk of VTE, study the potential protective role of vaccination, and investigate clinical and genetic risk factors for post-COVID-19 VTE. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study of patients with COVID-19 from UK Biobank included participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection that was confirmed by a positive polymerase chain test reaction result between March 1, 2020, and September 3, 2021, who were then propensity score matched to COVID-19-naive people during the same period. Participants with a history of VTE who used antithrombotic drugs (1 year before index dates) or tested positive in hospital were excluded. Exposures: First infection with SARS-CoV-2, age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, obesity, vaccination status, and inherited thrombophilia. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite VTE, including deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, which occurred 30 days after the infection. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were calculated using cause-specific Cox models. Results: In 18 818 outpatients with COVID-19 (10 580 women [56.2%]; mean [SD] age, 64.3 [8.0] years) and 93 179 matched uninfected participants (52 177 women [56.0%]; mean [SD] age, 64.3 [7.9] years), the infection was associated with an increased risk of VTE in 30 days (incidence rate of 50.99 and 2.37 per 1000 person-years for infected and uninfected people, respectively; HR, 21.42; 95% CI, 12.63-36.31). However, risk was substantially attenuated among the fully vaccinated (HR, 5.95; 95% CI, 1.82-19.5; interaction P = .02). In patients with COVID-19, older age, male sex, and obesity were independently associated with higher risk, with adjusted HRs of 1.87 (95% CI, 1.50-2.33) per 10 years, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.30-2.19), and 1.83 (95% CI, 1.28-2.61), respectively. Further, inherited thrombophilia was associated with an HR of 2.05 (95% CI, 1.15-3.66) for post-COVID-19 VTE. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study of patients with COVID-19, ambulatory COVID-19 was associated with a substantially increased risk of incident VTE, but this risk was greatly reduced in fully vaccinated people with breakthrough infection. Older age, male sex, and obesity were clinical risk factors for post-COVID-19 VTE; factor V Leiden thrombophilia was additionally associated with double the risk, comparable with the risk of 10-year aging. These findings may reinforce the need for vaccination, inform VTE risk stratification, and call for targeted VTE prophylaxis strategies for unvaccinated outpatients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
6.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974308

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are no clear data about the incidence and the prophylactic strategies of arterial and venous thromboembolic events (TE) in COVID-19 ambulatory patients. Thus, we conducted this study to analyze thromboembolic complications in this setting and to assess thromboprophylaxis management and outcomes in the real life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is an observational study including Covid-19 ambulatory patients. We assessed incidence of venous and arterial TE events as well as thromboprophylaxis outcomes and hemorrhagic complications. We defined high risk thrombo-embolic factor according to the Belgian guidelines which are the only guidelines that described thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19 ambulatory patients. RESULTS: We included 2089 patients with a mean age of 43±16 years. The incidence of 30 days venous and arterial TE complications in our cohort was 1%. Venous thromboembolic complications occurred in 0.8% and arterial thromboembolic complications occurred in 0.3%.We noted at least one high-risk TE factor in 18.5% of patients but thromboprophylaxis was prescribed in 22.5% of the cases, LMWH in 18.1%, and Rivaroxaban in 3.7%. Hemorrhagic events occurred in eight patients (0.3%): five patients showed minor hemorrhagic events and three patients showed major ones (0.14%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the incidence of thromboembolic complications is very low in COVID-19 ambulatory patients. Paradoxically, there is an over prescription of thrombo-prophylaxis in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/complications , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(18): e025198, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973987

ABSTRACT

Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) contributes significantly to COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. The urokinase receptor system is involved in the regulation of coagulation. Levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) reflect hyperinflammation and are strongly predictive of outcomes in COVID-19. Whether suPAR levels identify patients with COVID-19 at risk for VTE is unclear. Methods and Results We leveraged a multinational observational study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 with suPAR and D-dimer levels measured on admission. In 1960 patients (mean age, 58 years; 57% men; 20% Black race), we assessed the association between suPAR and incident VTE (defined as pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis) using logistic regression and Fine-Gray modeling, accounting for the competing risk of death. VTE occurred in 163 (8%) patients and was associated with higher suPAR and D-dimer levels. There was a positive association between suPAR and D-dimer (ß=7.34; P=0.002). Adjusted for clinical covariables, including D-dimer, the odds of VTE were 168% higher comparing the third with first suPAR tertiles (adjusted odds ratio, 2.68 [95% CI, 1.51-4.75]; P<0.001). Findings were consistent when stratified by D-dimer levels and in survival analysis accounting for death as a competing risk. On the basis of predicted probabilities from random forest, a decision tree found the combined D-dimer <1 mg/L and suPAR <11 ng/mL cutoffs, identifying 41% of patients with only 3.6% VTE probability. Conclusions Higher suPAR was associated with incident VTE independently of D-dimer in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Combining suPAR and D-dimer identified patients at low VTE risk. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04818866.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
8.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 41(5): 101137, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The management of obstetric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to human-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) requires unique considerations. Many aspects of labour and delivery practice required adaptation in response to the global pandemic and were supported by guidelines from the Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecologists. The adoption and adherence to these guidelines is unknown. METHODS: Participating centres in "Quality of Recovery in Obstetric Anaesthesia study-a multicentre study" (ObsQoR) completed an electronic survey based on the provision of services and care related to COVID-19 in October 2021. The survey was designed against the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists COVID-19 guidelines. RESULTS: One hundred and five of the 107 participating centres completed the survey (98% response rate representing 54% of all UK obstetric units). The median [IQR] annual number of deliveries among the included sites was 4389 [3000-5325]. Ninety-nine of the 103 (94.3%) sites had guidelines for the management of peripartum women with COVID-19. Sixty-one of 105 (58.1%) sites had specific guidance for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis. Thirty-seven of 104 (35.6%) centres restricted parturient birthing plans if a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 was made. A COVID-19 vaccination referral pathway encouraging full vaccination for all pregnant women was present in 63/103 centres (61.2%). CONCLUSION: We found variability in care delivered and adherence to guidelines related to COVID-19. The clinical implications for this related to quality of peripartum care is unclear, however there remains scope to improve pathways for immunisation, birth plans and VTE prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
9.
BMC Emerg Med ; 22(1): 107, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The optimal prophylactic dose of heparin in patients with coronavirus-associated disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the emergency department (ED) is debated. This study aimed to analyze different thromboprophylaxis approaches in unvaccinated COVID-19 patients admitted to ED without initial venous thromboembolism. METHODS: Retrospectively, the effect of intermediate/high versus low dose heparin treatment was evaluated from December 2020 to July 2021 in a tertiary Academic Hospital in northeast Italy. The primary outcome comprised arterial or venous thromboembolism or all-cause death within 30 days. Secondary outcomes comprised each single primary outcome component or major hemorrhagic event. Cox regression was used to determine predictors of the primary outcome and propensity score weights to balance the effect of heparin treatment on all outcomes. RESULTS: Data of 144 consecutive patients (age 70 ± 13, 33% females) were included in the study. High-dose prophylactic heparin was used in 69%, intermediate in 15%, and low in 17% of patients. The primary outcome occurred in 48 patients. Independent predictors of the primary outcome were COVID-19 severity (hazards ratio (HR) 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-3.65, p = 0.035) and D-dimer levels (HR each log ng/dl 1.38, 95% CI 1.04-1.84, p = 0.026). Intermediate/high dose heparin did not affect the risk of the primary outcome compared with the low dose (weighted HR 1.39, 95% CI 0.75-2.56, p = 0.292). Intermediate/high heparin increased the risk of major hemorrhagic events (weighted HR 5.92, 95% CI 1.09-32, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: In unvaccinated COVID-19 patients admitted to ED, prophylaxis with heparin at the intermediate/high dose did not reduce primary outcome compared with the low dose but increased the risk of major hemorrhagic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
10.
Vaccine ; 40(32): 4394-4402, 2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid deployment of COVID-19 vaccines is challenging for safety surveillance, especially on adverse events of special interest (AESIs) that were not identified during the pre-licensure studies. This study evaluated the risk of hospitalisations for predefined diagnoses among the vaccinated population in Malaysia. METHODS: Hospital admissions for selected diagnoses between 1 February 2021 and 30 September 2021 were linked to the national COVID-19 immunisation register. We conducted self-controlled case-series study by identifying individuals who received COVID-19 vaccine and diagnosis of thrombocytopenia, venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, myocarditis/pericarditis, arrhythmia, stroke, Bell's Palsy, and convulsion/seizure. The incidence of events was assessed in risk period of 21 days postvaccination relative to the control period. We used conditional Poisson regression to calculate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) with adjustment for calendar period. RESULTS: There was no increase in the risk for myocarditis/pericarditis, Bell's Palsy, stroke, and myocardial infarction in the 21 days following either dose of BNT162b2, CoronaVac, and ChAdOx1 vaccines. A small increased risk of venous thromboembolism (IRR 1.24; 95% CI 1.02, 1.49), arrhythmia (IRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07, 1.26), and convulsion/seizure (IRR 1.26; 95% CI 1.07, 1.48) was observed among BNT162b2 recipients. No association between CoronaVac vaccine was found with all events except arrhythmia (IRR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.30). ChAdOx1 vaccine was associated with an increased risk of thrombocytopenia (IRR 2.67; 95% CI 1.21, 5.89) and venous thromboembolism (IRR 2.22; 95% CI 1.17, 4.21). CONCLUSION: This study shows acceptable safety profiles of COVID-19 vaccines among recipients of BNT162b2, CoronaVac, and ChAdOx1 vaccines. This information can be used together with effectiveness data for risk-benefit analysis of the vaccination program. Further surveillance with more data is required to assess AESIs following COVID-19 vaccination in short- and long-term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , Bell Palsy/chemically induced , Bell Palsy/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/chemically induced , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Seizures/chemically induced , Stroke/chemically induced , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Vaccines, Inactivated , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
11.
Blood Rev ; 56: 100970, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944350

ABSTRACT

By January 2022 over ten billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines had been administered worldwide. Concerns about COVID-19 vaccine-associated thrombosis arose after the characterization of a rare prothrombotic condition associated with adenoviral vector-based COVID-19 vaccines known as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Although mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have not been linked to VITT, concerns about thrombosis after vaccination persist despite safety data from hundreds of millions of recipients of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. With widespread vaccination some VTE will occur shortly after vaccination by chance alone because VTE is a common condition that affects 1 to 2 in 1000 persons each year. Detailed analysis is required to determine whether these VTE events are coincidental or associated when they occur in close proximity to mRNA vaccine administration. This paper will review what is currently known about rates of VTE after mRNA vaccination in adults, discuss the reasons why uncertainty on this topic persists, and briefly review the implications of these findings for clinical practice and health policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Vaccines , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 16: 17539447221105013, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910188

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection resulting in COVID-19 disease is associated with widespread inflammation and a prothrombotic state, resulting in frequent venous thromboembolic (VTE) events. It is currently unknown whether anticoagulation is protective for VTE events. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to identify predictors of VTE in COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Ovid databases for relevant observational studies of VTE in COVID-19 disease. The effect size for predictors of VTE was calculated using a random-effects model and presented as forest plots. Heterogeneity among studies was expressed as Q statistics and I2. Bias was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale for all identified observational studies. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plot analysis. RESULTS: We identified 28 studies involving 6053 patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. The overall pooled prevalence of VTE events was 20.7%. Male sex was associated with a higher risk of VTE events, whereas prior history of VTE, smoking, and cancer were not. VTE events were significantly higher in severely ill patients, mechanically ventilated patients, those requiring intensive care admission, and those with a low PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F ratio). Chronic comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, heart failure, renal disease, and pulmonary disease, did not increase the risk of VTE events. Patients with VTE had higher leukocyte counts and higher levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin. The occurrence of VTE was associated with increased length of stay but did not impact mortality. Therapeutic and prophylactic doses of anticoagulation were not protective against VTE. CONCLUSION: VTE in COVID-19 is associated with male gender and severe disease but not with traditional risk factors for VTE. The occurrence of VTE does not appear to be mitigated by either prophylactic or therapeutic anticoagulation. The occurrence of VTE in this population is associated with an increased length of stay but does not appear to impact mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
15.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911666

ABSTRACT

Since the pandemic began, an association among COVID-19 and venous thromboembolism has been reported, in particular for inpatients [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Inpatients , Pandemics , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911367

ABSTRACT

Background: The social determinants of health (SDOH) of patients with COVID-19-related thrombosis have been scarcely explored. Our objective was to investigate the cases of thrombosis in a group of socially disadvantaged populations with COVID-19. Methods: We investigated the thrombotic events that occurred in a cohort of migrant and Spanish patients with COVID-19 that were admitted to a medicalized hotel in Madrid. Demographic data, past medical history, and socio-economic backgrounds, such as monthly household income, level of education, and living conditions, were explored to determine the factors related to thrombosis. Results: A cohort of 383 subjects (mean age 55.4 ± 14.6 years old, 69% male), of which 58% were migrants, was studied. Fourteen (3.6%) cases of thrombosis were reported. Thrombosis was more frequent in Spanish than in migrant individuals (OR 5.3, 95%CI 1.4-19.5, p = 0.005). Neither a low monthly household income nor a low education level showed a statistical association with thrombosis (p ≥ 0.05). History of venous thromboembolism (OR 8.1, 95%CI 2.2-28.6) and being a current smoker (OR 4.7, 95%CI 1.3-16.0) were factors associated with thrombosis. Conclusions: The SDOH studied were not associated with thrombosis; however, further investigation must be performed to investigate the socio-economic conditions of subjects with COVID-19 with adverse outcomes such as thrombotic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations
17.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0266944, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early reports of increased thrombosis risk with SARS-CoV-2 infection led to changes in venous thromboembolism (VTE) management. Real-world data on the prevalence, efficacy and harms of these changes informs best practices. OBJECTIVE: Define practice patterns and clinical outcomes related to VTE diagnosis, prevention, and management in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) using a multi-hospital US sample. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study of 1121 patients admitted to 33 hospitals, exposure was dose of anticoagulant prescribed for VTE prophylaxis (standard, intensified, therapeutic), and primary outcome was VTE (pulmonary embolism [PE] and deep vein thrombosis [DVT]); secondary outcomes were PE, DVT, arterial thromboembolism (ATE), and bleeding events. Multivariable logistic regression models accounting for clustering by site and adjusted for risk factors were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Inverse probability weighting was used to account for confounding by indication. RESULTS: 1121 patients (mean age 60 ± 18, 47% female) admitted with COVID-19 between February 2, 2020 and December 31, 2020 to 33 US hospitals were included. Pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis was prescribed in 86%. Forty-seven patients (4.2%) had PE, 51 (4.6%) had DVT, and 23 (2.1%) had ATE. Forty-six patients (4.1%) had major bleeding and 46 (4.1%) had clinically relevant non-major bleeding. Compared to standard prophylaxis, adjusted odds of VTE were 0.67 (95% CI 0.21-2.1) with no prophylaxis, 1.0 (95% CI 0.06-17) with intensified, and 3.0 (95% CI 0.89-10) with therapeutic. Adjusted odds of bleeding with no prophylaxis were 5.6 (95% CI 3.0-11) and 5.3 (95% CI 3.0-10) with therapeutic (no events on intensified dosing). CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic anticoagulation was associated with a 3-fold increased odds of VTE and 5-fold increased odds of bleeding. While higher bleeding rates with high-intensity prophylaxis were likely due to full-dose anticoagulation, we conclude that high thrombosis rates were due to clinical concern for thrombosis before formal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
19.
Thromb Res ; 216: 90-96, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907824

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRF) have been reported to develop coagulation abnormalities frequently. However, there are limitations in conventional predictive models for the occurrence of thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19 and CVDRF. METHODS: Among data on 1518 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 registered with CLAVIS-COVID, a Japanese nationwide cohort study, 693 patients with CVDRF were subjected to least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analysis; a method of shrinking coefficients for reducing variance and minimizing bias to increase predictive accuracy. LASSO analysis was performed to identify risk factors for systemic thromboembolic events; occurrence of arterial and venous thromboembolism during the index hospitalization as the primary endpoint. RESULTS: LASSO analysis identified a prior systemic thromboembolism, male sex, hypoxygenemia requiring invasive mechanical ventilation support, C-reactive protein levels and D-dimer levels at admission, and congestion on chest X-ray at admission as potential risk factors for the primary endpoint. The developed risk model consisting of these risk factors showed good discriminative performance (AUC-ROC: 0.83, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.90), which was significantly better than that shown by D-dimer (AUC-ROC: 0.70, 95 % CI: 0.60-0.80) (p < 0.001). Furthermore, systemic embolic events were independently associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 3.29; 95 % CI: 1.31-8.00). CONCLUSIONS: Six parameters readily available at the time of admission were identified as risk factors for thromboembolic events, and these may be capable of stratifying the risk of in-hospital thromboembolic events, which are associated with in-hospital mortality, in patients with COVID-19 and CVDRF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cohort Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
20.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(6): 1817-1825, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients are at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Standard doses of anticoagulant prophylaxis may not be sufficiently effective for the prevention of VTE. The objective of this systematic-review and meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of high-dose versus low-dose thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to October 2021 for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing high-dose with low-dose thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19. The primary efficacy outcome was the occurrence of VTE and the primary safety outcome was major bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 5470 patients from 9 RCTs were included. Four trials included critically ill patients, four non-critically ill patients, and one included both. VTE occurred in 2.9% of patients on high-dose and in 5.7% of patients on low-dose thromboprophylaxis (relative risk [RR] 0.53; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 0.41-0.69; I2 = 0%; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome, 22). Major bleeding occurred in 2.5% and 1.4% of patients, respectively (RR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.20-2.66; I2 = 0%; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome, 100). All-cause mortality did not differ between groups (RR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.75-1.26; I2 = 47%). The risk of VTE was significantly reduced by high-dose thromboprophylaxis in non-critically ill (RR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.35-0.86; I2 = 0%), but not in critically ill patients (RR 0.69; 95% CI, 0.39-1.21; I2 = 36%). DISCUSSION: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, high-dose thromboprophylaxis is more effective than low-dose for the prevention of VTE but increases the risk of major bleeding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
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