Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 33
Filter
2.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(11): 1314-1323, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439655

ABSTRACT

Importance: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) has been reported after vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson). Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination with and without TTS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from an international registry of consecutive patients with CVST within 28 days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination included between March 29 and June 18, 2021, from 81 hospitals in 19 countries. For reference, data from patients with CVST between 2015 and 2018 were derived from an existing international registry. Clinical characteristics and mortality rate were described for adults with (1) CVST in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, (2) CVST after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination not fulling criteria for TTS, and (3) CVST unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Exposures: Patients were classified as having TTS if they had new-onset thrombocytopenia without recent exposure to heparin, in accordance with the Brighton Collaboration interim criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics and mortality rate. Results: Of 116 patients with postvaccination CVST, 78 (67.2%) had TTS, of whom 76 had been vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCov-19; 38 (32.8%) had no indication of TTS. The control group included 207 patients with CVST before the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 63 of 78 (81%), 30 of 38 (79%), and 145 of 207 (70.0%) patients, respectively, were female, and the mean (SD) age was 45 (14), 55 (20), and 42 (16) years, respectively. Concomitant thromboembolism occurred in 25 of 70 patients (36%) in the TTS group, 2 of 35 (6%) in the no TTS group, and 10 of 206 (4.9%) in the control group, and in-hospital mortality rates were 47% (36 of 76; 95% CI, 37-58), 5% (2 of 37; 95% CI, 1-18), and 3.9% (8 of 207; 95% CI, 2.0-7.4), respectively. The mortality rate was 61% (14 of 23) among patients in the TTS group diagnosed before the condition garnered attention in the scientific community and 42% (22 of 53) among patients diagnosed later. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with CVST, a distinct clinical profile and high mortality rate was observed in patients meeting criteria for TTS after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/mortality , Registries , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/mortality , Thrombocytopenia/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Sex Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/blood , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Young Adult
3.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211013104, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282217

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with VTE, to help develop preventive measures for venous thromboembolism (VTE in COVID-19) cases. COVID-19 patients admitted to Henan Provincial People's Hospital were retrospectively analyzed, including 23, 4 and 8 cases with mild to moderate, severe and critical symptoms, respectively. VTE incidence, age at onset, relevant laboratory parameters and prognosis were analyzed. Overall, VTE incidence in the 35 patients was 20.0%, occurring in severe (n = 1) and critical (n = 6) cases. D-dimer showed statistical significance in laboratory examination, representing except a diagnostic index and especial can be a prognostic factor in VTE among COVID-19 patients. Severe and critical COVID-19 cases had significantly reduced platelet counts, with a risk of hemorrhage. During treatment, the risk of both hemorrhage and thrombosis should be considered. VTE occurs in COVID-19 cases, affecting individuals with severe and critical symptoms. Significant D-dimer increase is of great significance in the risk assessment of death in critical cases of COVID-19. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent VTE during treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Young Adult
4.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 139: 106883, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253732

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has deeply challenged the world population, but also our medical knowledge. Special attention has been paid early to an activation of coagulation, then to an elevated rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. These data suggested that anticoagulant drugs should be evaluated in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The publication of unexpected high rates of VTE in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, despite receiving thromboprophylaxis, open the way to dedicated trials, evaluating modified regimens of thromboprophylaxis. Moreover, the further improvement in our comprehension of the disease, particularly the pulmonary endothelial dysfunction increased the hope that anticoagulant drugs may also protect patients from pulmonary thrombosis. In this comprehensive review, we cover the different situations where thromboprophylaxis standard may be modified (medically-ill inpatients, ICU inpatients, outpatients), and describe some of the current randomized controls trials evaluating new regimens of thromboprophylaxis in patients with COVID-19, including the preliminary available results. We also discuss the potential of anticoagulant drugs to target the thromboinflammation described in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality
5.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 362-371, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication of COVID-19, so that the importance of adequate in-hospital thromboprophylaxis in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is well established. However, the incidence of VTE after discharge and whether postdischarge thromboprophylaxis is beneficial and safe are unclear. In this prospective observational single-center study, we report the incidence of VTE 6 weeks after hospitalization and the use of postdischarge thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 were invited to a multidisciplinary follow-up clinic 6 weeks after discharge. D-dimer and C-reactive protein were measured, and all patients were screened for deep vein thrombosis with venous duplex-ultrasound. Additionally, selected high-risk patients received computed tomography pulmonary angiogram or ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan to screen for incidental pulmonary embolism. RESULTS: Of 485 consecutive patients hospitalized from March through June 2020, 146 patients were analyzed, of which 39% had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Postdischarge thromboprophylaxis was prescribed in 28% of patients, but was used more frequently after ICU stay (61%) and in patients with higher maximal D-dimer and C-reactive protein levels during hospitalization. Six weeks after discharge, elevated D-dimer values were present in 32% of ward and 42% of ICU patients. Only one asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (0.7%) and one symptomatic pulmonary embolism (0.7%) were diagnosed with systematic screening. No bleedings were reported. CONCLUSION: In patients who had been hospitalized with COVID-19, systematic screening for VTE 6 weeks after discharge revealed a low incidence of VTE. A strategy of selectively providing postdischarge thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients seems safe and potentially effective.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(7): 105805, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is limited literature on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) complications such as thromboembolism, cardiac complications etc. as possible trigger for stroke. Hence, we aim to evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 related cardiovascular complications and secondary infection and their possibility as potential triggers for the stroke. METHODS: Data from observational studies describing the complications [acute cardiac injury (ACI), cardiac arrhythmias (CA), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), septic shock, secondary infection] and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020, were extracted following PRISMA guidelines. Adverse outcomes defined as intensive care units, oxygen saturation less than 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation, severe disease, and in-hospital mortality. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were obtained, and forest plots were created using random-effects models. A short review of these complications as triggers of stroke was conducted. RESULTS: 16 studies with 3480 confirmed COVID-19 patients, prevalence of ACI [38%vs5.9%], CA [26%vs5.3%], DIC [4%vs0.74%], septic shock [18%vs0.36%], and infection [30%vs12.5%] was higher among patients with poor outcomes. In meta-analysis, ACI [aOR:9.93(95%CI:3.95-25.00], CA [7.52(3.29-17.18)], DIC [7.36(1.24-43.73)], septic shock [30.12(7.56-120.10)], and infection [10.41(4.47-24.27)] had higher odds of adverse outcomes. Patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, had complications like pulmonary embolism, venous thromboembolism, DIC, etc. and had poor outcomes CONCLUSION: The complications like acute cardiac injury, cardiac arrhythmias, DIC, septic shock, and secondary infection had poor outcomes. Patients with stroke were having history of these complications. Long term monitoring is required in such patients to prevent stroke and mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
7.
Vasc Med ; 26(4): 426-433, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166685

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may predispose patients to venous thromboembolism (VTE). Limited data are available on the utilization of the Pulmonary Embolism Response Team (PERT) in the setting of the COVID-19 global pandemic. We performed a single-center study to evaluate treatment, mortality, and bleeding outcomes in patients who received PERT consultations in March and April 2020, compared to historical controls from the same period in 2019. Clinical data were abstracted from the electronic medical record. The primary study endpoints were inpatient mortality and GUSTO moderate-to-severe bleeding. The frequency of PERT utilization was nearly threefold higher during March and April 2020 (n = 74) compared to the same period in 2019 (n = 26). During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was significantly less PERT-guided invasive treatment (5.5% vs 23.1%, p = 0.02) with a numerical but not statistically significant trend toward an increase in the use of systemic fibrinolytic therapy (13.5% vs 3.9%, p = 0.3). There were nonsignificant trends toward higher in-hospital mortality or moderate-to-severe bleeding in patients receiving PERT consultations during the COVID-19 period compared to historical controls (mortality 14.9% vs 3.9%, p = 0.18 and moderate-to-severe bleeding 35.1% vs 19.2%, p = 0.13). In conclusion, PERT utilization was nearly threefold higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than during the historical control period. Among patients evaluated by PERT, in-hospital mortality or moderate-to-severe bleeding were not significantly different, despite being numerically higher, while invasive therapy was utilized less frequently during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Health Resources/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Patient Care Team/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality
8.
Vasc Med ; 26(4): 415-425, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166684

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism events (VTE). This study performed a systematic review in PubMed/EMBASE of studies reporting the prevalence of VTE in patients with COVID-19 who were totally screened/assessed for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or for pulmonary embolism (PE). Among 47 candidate studies (n = 6459; 33 in Europe), 17 studies (n = 3973; weighted age 63.0 years, males 60%, intensive care unit (ICU) 16%) reported the prevalence of PE with a pooled estimate of 32% (95% CI: 25, 40%), and 32 studies (n = 2552; weighted age 62.6 years, males 57%, ICU 49%) reported the prevalence of DVT with a pooled estimate of 27% (95% CI: 21, 34%). A total of 36 studies reported the use of at least prophylactic antithrombotic treatment in the majority of their patients. Meta-regression analysis showed that the prevalence of VTE was higher across studies with a higher percentage of ICU patients and higher study population mean D-dimer values, and lower in studies with mixed dosing of anticoagulation in ⩾ 50% of the population compared to studies with standard prophylactic dosing of anticoagulation in < 50% of the population. The pooled odds ratio for death in patients with COVID-19 and VTE versus those without VTE (17 studies, n = 2882) was 2.1 (95% CI: 1.2, 3.6). Hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 are at high VTE risk despite prophylactic anticoagulation. Further research should investigate the individualized VTE risk of patients with COVID-19 and the optimal preventive antithrombotic therapy. PROSPERO Registration No.: CRD42020185543.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Young Adult
9.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(5): 1099-1111.e6, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111738

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We have summarized the incidence, anticoagulation panels, laboratory characteristics, and mortality of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: After systematically searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, MedRxiv, and BioRxiv, a systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 retrospective, 6 prospective observational, and 2 cross-sectional studies was performed according to the guidelines of the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) statement. RESULTS: Overall, 4382 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. Men accounted for significantly more patients than did women (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.02; P < .001). The total incidence of VTE among the patients with COVID-19 was 28.3% (95% CI, 21.6%-35.4%), with an incidence of 38.0% (95% CI, 29.1%-47.4%) and 17.2% (95% CI, 11.4%-23.8%) among those with severe and general COVID-19, respectively. The total incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities was 18.3% (95% CI, 10.8%-27.2%). The incidence of DVT was 22.1% (95% CI, 11.0%-35.5%) and 12.8% (95% CI, 5.0%-23.3%) in those with severe and general COVID-19, respectively. The total incidence of pulmonary embolism was 17.6% (95% CI, 12.3%-23.5%), with a rate of 21.7% (95% CI, 14.8%-29.3%) in severe cases and 12.5% (95% CI, 6.1%-23.5%) in general cases. When COVID-19 severity was unclassified, the mortality for the patients with VTE was not significantly greater (25.2%; 95% CI, 12.2%-40.5%) than that for those without VTE (10.2%; 95% CI, 3.4%-19.5%; OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.46-7.64; P = .377). However, among the patients with severe COVID-19, those who had developed VTE had significantly greater mortality compared with those without VTE (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.15-3.53; P = .014). The patients with COVID-19 and VTE had significantly higher D-dimer levels than did similar patients without VTE in multiple studies. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of VTE, DVT, and pulmonary embolism has been substantial among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially among those with severe COVID-19. Patients with severe COVID-19 and VTE had significantly greater mortality compared with similar patients without VTE. An increased D-dimer level might be an indicator of the occurrence of VTE in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Young Adult
10.
Eur J Haematol ; 106(5): 716-723, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091053

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 predisposes patients to a higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), although the extent of these implications is unclear and the risk of bleeding has been poorly evaluated. To date, no studies have reported long-term outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and VTE. METHOD: Prospective observational study to evaluate long-term (90 days or more) outcomes of patients diagnosed with VTE (PE, DVT of the extremities, or both) in the setting of COVID-19. The main outcome of the study was a compound of major bleeding and death. RESULTS: The study comprised 100 patients (mean age 65 ± 13.9 years). At the time of VTE diagnosis, 66% patients were hospitalized, 34.8% of them in the ICU. Mean follow-up was 97.9 ± 23.3 days. During the study period, 24% patients died and median time to death was 12 (IQR: 2.25-20.75) days, 11% patients had major bleeding and median time to event was 12 (IQR: 5-16) days. The cause of death was PE in 5% and bleeding in 2% of patients. There were no VTE recurrences. The main study outcome occurred in 29% patients. Risk of death or major bleeding was independently associated with ICU admission (HR 12.2; 95% CI 3.0-48.3), thrombocytopenia (HR 4.5; 95% CI 1.2-16.5), and cancer (HR 21.6; 95% CI 1.8-259). CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19 and VTE, mortality and major bleeding were high and almost a third of deaths were VTE-related. The majority of complications occurred in the first 30 days. ICU admission, thrombocytopenia, and cancer are risk factors for poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
11.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 1076029621993573, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079192

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) predisposes patients to venous thromboembolism (VTE) due to risk factors, severe infection, and severe inflammatory responses. The objective is to determine the risk of developing VTE after corticosteroid administration during COVID-19 treatment. Using PRISMA reporting guidelines, a review was conducted from inception until 20 September 2020 with MESH terms including "venous thromboembolism" and "covid-19," using MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL Plus, and WHO Global Database. The inclusion criteria included studies with COVID-19 patients aged 18 years and older with VTE diagnosed by duplex ultrasonography or computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Exclusion criteria were studies with non COVID-19 patients and non-VTE patients aged less than 18 years. Quality appraisal was conducted of included studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A random-effect model using 95% confidence intervals, and significance of findings was assessed using Review Manager V5.4.We included 12 observational studies with 2801 patients (VTE n = 434; non-VTE; n = 2367). Patients had a higher risk of presenting with VTE when being administered corticosteroids during treatment of COVID-19 (RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.77, I2 = 0%). A positive effect size was found (SMD = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.67 to 1.32, I2 = 85%) for D-dimer laboratory values (µg/mL) in the VTE group. While critically ill COVID-19 patients are more likely to require corticosteroid treatment, it may be associated with increased risk of VTE, and poor clinical prognosis. Risk assessment is warranted to further evaluate patients as case-by-case in reducing VTE and worsening clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Models, Cardiovascular , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality
12.
Am Heart J ; 235: 12-23, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with both venous and arterial thrombotic complications. While prophylactic anticoagulation is now widely recommended for hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the effectiveness and safety of thromboprophylaxis in outpatients with COVID-19 has not been established. STUDY DESIGN: PREVENT-HD is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pragmatic, event-driven phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in symptomatic outpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at risk for thrombotic events, hospitalization, and death. Several challenges posed by the pandemic have necessitated innovative approaches to clinical trial design, start-up, and conduct. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by time from COVID-19 confirmation, to either rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily or placebo for 35 days. The primary efficacy end point is a composite of symptomatic venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, acute limb ischemia, non-central nervous system systemic embolization, all-cause hospitalization, and all-cause mortality. The primary safety end point is fatal and critical site bleeding according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis definition. Enrollment began in August 2020 and is expected to enroll approximately 4,000 participants to yield the required number of end point events. CONCLUSIONS: PREVENT-HD is a pragmatic trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of the direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban in the outpatient setting to reduce major venous and arterial thrombotic events, hospitalization, and mortality associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Outpatients , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Double-Blind Method , Extremities/blood supply , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Placebos/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 622-632, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability may be a key mechanism of death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and examine the observational effect of early therapeutic anticoagulation on survival. DESIGN: In a multicenter cohort study of 3239 critically ill adults with COVID-19, the incidence of VTE and major bleeding within 14 days after intensive care unit (ICU) admission was evaluated. A target trial emulation in which patients were categorized according to receipt or no receipt of therapeutic anticoagulation in the first 2 days of ICU admission was done to examine the observational effect of early therapeutic anticoagulation on survival. A Cox model with inverse probability weighting to adjust for confounding was used. SETTING: 67 hospitals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with COVID-19 admitted to a participating ICU. MEASUREMENTS: Time to death, censored at hospital discharge, or date of last follow-up. RESULTS: Among the 3239 patients included, the median age was 61 years (interquartile range, 53 to 71 years), and 2088 (64.5%) were men. A total of 204 patients (6.3%) developed VTE, and 90 patients (2.8%) developed a major bleeding event. Independent predictors of VTE were male sex and higher D-dimer level on ICU admission. Among the 2809 patients included in the target trial emulation, 384 (11.9%) received early therapeutic anticoagulation. In the primary analysis, during a median follow-up of 27 days, patients who received early therapeutic anticoagulation had a similar risk for death as those who did not (hazard ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.92 to 1.35]). LIMITATION: Observational design. CONCLUSION: Among critically ill adults with COVID-19, early therapeutic anticoagulation did not affect survival in the target trial emulation. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
14.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(8): 1043-1053, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify the prevalence and predictors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) or mortality in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized adult patients admitted to an integrated health care network in the New York metropolitan region between March 1, 2020 and April 27, 2020. The final analysis included 9,407 patients with an overall VTE rate of 2.9% (2.4% in the medical ward and 4.9% in the intensive care unit [ICU]) and a VTE or mortality rate of 26.1%. Most patients received prophylactic-dose thromboprophylaxis. Multivariable analysis showed significantly reduced VTE or mortality with Black race, history of hypertension, angiotensin converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blocker use, and initial prophylactic anticoagulation. It also showed significantly increased VTE or mortality with age 60 years or greater, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of 3 or greater, patients on Medicare, history of heart failure, history of cerebrovascular disease, body mass index greater than 35, steroid use, antirheumatologic medication use, hydroxychloroquine use, maximum D-dimer four times or greater than the upper limit of normal (ULN), ICU level of care, increasing creatinine, and decreasing platelet counts. CONCLUSION: In our large cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the overall in-hospital VTE rate was 2.9% (4.9% in the ICU) and a VTE or mortality rate of 26.1%. Key predictors of VTE or mortality included advanced age, increasing CCI, history of cardiovascular disease, ICU level of care, and elevated maximum D-dimer with a cutoff at least four times the ULN. Use of prophylactic-dose anticoagulation but not treatment-dose anticoagulation was associated with reduced VTE or mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Young Adult
16.
Thromb Res ; 198: 135-138, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombosis and pulmonary embolism appear to be major causes of mortality in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, few studies have focused on the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: In this multi-center study, we followed 1529 COVID-19 patients for at least 45 days after hospital discharge, who underwent routine telephone follow-up. In case of signs or symptoms of pulmonary embolism (PE) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT), they were invited for an in-hospital visit with a pulmonologist. The primary outcome was symptomatic VTE within 45 days of hospital discharge. RESULTS: Of 1529 COVID-19 patients discharged from hospital, a total of 228 (14.9%) reported potential signs or symptoms of PE or DVT and were seen for an in-hospital visit. Of these, 13 and 12 received Doppler ultrasounds or pulmonary CT angiography, respectively, of whom only one patient was diagnosed with symptomatic PE. Of 51 (3.3%) patients who died after discharge, two deaths were attributed to VTE corresponding to a 45-day cumulative rate of symptomatic VTE of 0.2% (95%CI 0.1%-0.6%; n = 3). There was no evidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in these patients. Other deaths after hospital discharge included myocardial infarction (n = 13), heart failure (n = 9), and stroke (n = 9). CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe a high rate of symptomatic VTE in COVID-19 patients after hospital discharge. Routine extended thromboprophylaxis after hospitalization for COVID-19 may not have a net clinical benefit. Randomized trials may be warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality
17.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 455-462, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940131

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged from the West District of Southern China Seafood Wholesale Market in late December 2019 and has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) presents with upper respiratory symptoms like cough, fever, and lethargy. At the same time, in later stages, critical COVID-19 patients develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), venous thromboembolism (VTE), and multiple organ failure from cytokine storm and coagulation hyperactivity. Primary manifestations of thrombotic events include deep vein thrombosis (DVT), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Initial coagulopathy in COVID-19 patients presents with elevated fibrin degradation products, especially D-dimers. In contrast, late presentations show evidence of prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT), increased platelets, and fibrinogen levels. Diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression are done by regular screening of laboratory parameters, including D-dimer and fibrinogen. Management of coagulopathy in COVID-19 patients is like that of critically ill patients, including thromboprophylaxis. Coagulopathy is a poor prognostic factor, and optimum strategies should be developed for early diagnosis, prevention, and prompt treatment of VTE in COVID-19 patients. Thrombosis prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has shown beneficial results in preventing coagulopathy a reducing risk of mortality due to thrombotic events. We will discuss VTE in COVID-19 patients highlighting the role of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and interleukin-6 (IL-6).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Incidence , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105427, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899242

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been shown to cause multisystemic damage. We undertook a systematic literature review and comprehensive analysis of a total of 55 articles on arterial and venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 and articles on previous pandemics with respect to thromboembolism and compared the similarities and differences between them. The presence of thrombosis in multiple organ systems points to thromboembolism being an integral component in the pathogenesis of this disease. Thromboembolism is likely to be the main player in the morbidity and mortality of COVID -19 in which the pulmonary system is most severely affected. We also hypothesize that D-dimer values could be used as an early marker for prognostication of disease as it has been seen to be raised even in the pre-symptomatic stage. This further strengthens the notion that thromboembolism prevention is necessary. We also examined literature on the neurovascular and cardiovascular systems, as the manifestation of thromboembolic phenomenon in these two systems varied, suggesting different pathophysiology of damage. Further research into the role of thromboembolism in COVID-19 is important to advance the understanding of the virus, its effects and to tailor treatment accordingly to prevent further casualties from this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/mortality , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/prevention & control , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
19.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 351-361, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885548

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, limited data exist on patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and short-term outcomes of patients diagnosed with VTE during hospitalization for COVID-19. This is a prospective multinational study of patients with incident VTE during the course of hospitalization for COVID-19. Data were obtained from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) registry. All-cause mortality, VTE recurrences, and major bleeding during the first 10 days were separately investigated for patients in hospital wards versus those in intensive care units (ICUs). As of May 03, 2020, a total number of 455 patients were diagnosed with VTE (83% pulmonary embolism, 17% isolated deep vein thrombosis) during their hospital stay; 71% were male, the median age was 65 (interquartile range, 55-74) years. Most patients (68%) were hospitalized in medical wards, and 145 in ICUs. Three hundred and seventeen (88%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 84-91%) patients were receiving thromboprophylaxis at the time of VTE diagnosis. Most patients (88%) received therapeutic low-molecular-weight heparin, and 15 (3.6%) received reperfusion therapies. Among 420 patients with complete 10-day follow-up, 51 (12%; 95% CI: 9.3-15%) died, no patient recurred, and 12 (2.9%; 95% CI: 1.6-4.8%) experienced major bleeding. The 10-day mortality rate was 9.1% (95% CI: 6.1-13%) among patients in hospital wards and 19% (95% CI: 13-26%) among those in ICUs. This study provides characteristics and early outcomes of patients diagnosed with acute VTE during hospitalization for COVID-19. Additional studies are needed to identify the optimal strategies to prevent VTE and to mitigate adverse outcomes associated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Hospital Mortality , Registries , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hemorrhage/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL