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1.
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Suplemento COVID): 055-063, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1609074

ABSTRACT

There is a clear association between novel coronavirus 2 infection and the diagnosis of venous thromboembolic disease, as a cosequence of the development of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to the activation of the coagulation cascade. It occurs in 90% of patients with severe forms of the infection, evidencing the presence of pulmonary endovascular micro and macro thrombosis. This suggests a possible clinical benefit of thromboprophylaxis according to the patient's clinical risk. The suspicion of venous thromboembolic disease in the context of this pandemic represents a diagnostic challenge due to the co-existence of similarities between both conditions in several different aspects. It should be noted that the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism does not exclude the possibility of simultaneous viral infection. The evaluation of patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism in the context of the pandemic should be optimized in order to implement a rapid diagnosis and treatment to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. This will help reducing infectious risk for health-care professionals and other patients.


Existe una clara relación entre la infección por el nuevo coronavirus 2 y el diagnóstico de enfermedad tromboembólica venosa, como consecuencia del desarrollo de un síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica debido a la activación de la cascada de la coagulación. Se presenta en el 90% de los pacientes con formas graves de la infección, lo que revela la presencia de microtrombosis y macrotrombosis intravascular pulmonar. Esto sugiere un posible beneficio clínico de la aplicación de una tromboprofilaxis adecuada al riesgo clínico de cada paciente. Asimismo, la sospecha de enfermedad tromboembólica venosa en el contexto de esta pandemia representa un reto diagnóstico debido a la existencia de similitudes entre ambas alteraciones en varios aspectos. Debe tenerse en cuenta que el diagnóstico de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo no excluye la posibilidad de infección viral. La valoración de pacientes con sospecha de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo en el contexto de la pandemia debe ser eficaz para establecer un diagnóstico y tratamiento con rapidez, a fin de reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad adjuntas, sin que ello eleve el riesgo de infección para los profesionales de la salud y otros pacientes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
2.
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Suplemento COVID): 047-054, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1609046

ABSTRACT

Coagulopathy and thrombosis associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represent a major issue in the management of this disease. In the past months, clinical studies have demonstrated that COVID-19 patients present with a particular hypercoagulable state, in which a markedly increased D-dimer concomitant with increased levels of fibrinogen are observed. This hypercoagulable state leads to an increased risk of thrombosis, which seems to be higher among those patients with critical symptoms of COVID-19. The best therapeutic approach to prevent thrombotic events in COVID-19 has not been determined yet and several questions regarding thromboprophylaxis therapy, such as the time to initiate anticoagulation, type of anticoagulant and dose regimen, have emerged among physicians. To address these concerns, several medical societies have published position papers to provide the opinion of thrombosis experts on the management of coagulopathy and thrombosis associated with COVID-19. In line with this, the Latin America Cooperative Group of Hemostasis and Thrombosis (Grupo CLAHT) has constituted a panel of experts in thrombosis and hemostasis to discuss the available data on this topic. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence regarding hemostatic impairment and thrombotic risk in COVID-19 and to provide a carefully revised opinion of Latin American experts on the thromboprophylaxis and management of thrombotic events and coagulopathy in patients with suspected COVID-19.


La coagulopatía y la trombosis asociadas a la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) representan un problema importante en el manejo de esta enfermedad. Los estudios clínicos de los últimos meses han demostrado que los pacientes con COVID-19 presentan un estado de hipercoagulabilidad particular, en el que se observa un aumento notable del dímero D concomitante con niveles elevados de fibrinógeno. El estado de hipercoagulabilidad conduce a un mayor riesgo de trombosis, que parece ser mayor entre aquellos pacientes con síntomas críticos de COVID-19. El mejor enfoque terapéutico para prevenir los eventos trombóticos en esta nueva enfermedad aún no se ha determinado y han surgido varias preguntas con respecto a la tromboprofilaxia, como el momento adecuado para iniciar la anticoagulación, el tipo de anticoagulante y el régimen de dosis. Para abordar estas preocupaciones, varias sociedades médicas han publicado artículos de posición para brindar la opinión de expertos en trombosis sobre el manejo de la coagulopatía y trombosis asociadas a COVID-19. Grupo Cooperativo Latinoamericano de Hemostasia y Trombosis (Grupo CLAHT) ha convocado a un panel de expertos en trombosis y hemostasia para discutir los datos disponibles sobre este tema. El objetivo de esta revisión es resumir la evidencia actual con respecto al deterioro hemostático y el riesgo trombótico en el COVID-19 y proporcionar una opinión cuidadosamente revisada de los expertos latinoamericanos sobre la tromboprofilaxis y el manejo de eventos trombóticos y coagulopatía en pacientes con sospecha de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/complications , Consensus , Hemostasis , Humans , Latin America , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombosis/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
3.
J Investig Med ; 69(6): 1153-1155, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247390

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism associated with COVID-19, particularly acute pulmonary embolism, may represent a challenging and complex clinical scenario. The benefits of having a multidisciplinary pulmonary embolism response team (PERT) can be important during such a pandemic. The aim of PERT in the care of such patients is to provide fast, appropriate, multidisciplinary, team-based approach, with the common goal to tailor the best therapeutic decision making, prioritizing always optimal patient care, especially given lack of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in the setting of COVID-19, which potentially confers a significant prothrombotic state. Herein, we would like to briefly emphasize the importance and potential critical role of PERT in the care of patients in which these two devastating illnesses are present together.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thromboembolism/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cardiology/organization & administration , Decision Making , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Medicine/organization & administration , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/complications , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
4.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(6): 631-642, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246450

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients, including children. In recent years, it has become clear that hospitalization and critical illness bestow an increased VTE risk in pediatrics and relate to mortality and life-limiting comorbidities. For critically ill children, reported rates of VTE vary by study sampling techniques, presence of inherited or acquired thrombophilia, acute and chronic immobility, underlying illness prompting hospitalization, and clinical factors related to illness severity such as central venous catheterization, length of stay, mechanical ventilation, and patient age. Accordingly, critically ill children with new signs of venous congestion, acute inflammation, or unexplained acute organ dysfunction should be routinely evaluated for VTE. This narrative review summarizes recent and historical literature regarding risk factors, prevention, presentation, treatment, and outcomes of VTE in critically ill children. In addition, we identify knowledge gaps and priorities for future collaborative research on this vital condition. Special attention is given to the clinical trial opportunities, challenges, and ongoing efforts in thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children, including those hospitalized for disease related to novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and multisystem inflammatory disease in children.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Child , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Disease Management , Humans , Risk Factors , Thrombolytic Therapy
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(7): 105805, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is limited literature on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) complications such as thromboembolism, cardiac complications etc. as possible trigger for stroke. Hence, we aim to evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 related cardiovascular complications and secondary infection and their possibility as potential triggers for the stroke. METHODS: Data from observational studies describing the complications [acute cardiac injury (ACI), cardiac arrhythmias (CA), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), septic shock, secondary infection] and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020, were extracted following PRISMA guidelines. Adverse outcomes defined as intensive care units, oxygen saturation less than 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation, severe disease, and in-hospital mortality. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were obtained, and forest plots were created using random-effects models. A short review of these complications as triggers of stroke was conducted. RESULTS: 16 studies with 3480 confirmed COVID-19 patients, prevalence of ACI [38%vs5.9%], CA [26%vs5.3%], DIC [4%vs0.74%], septic shock [18%vs0.36%], and infection [30%vs12.5%] was higher among patients with poor outcomes. In meta-analysis, ACI [aOR:9.93(95%CI:3.95-25.00], CA [7.52(3.29-17.18)], DIC [7.36(1.24-43.73)], septic shock [30.12(7.56-120.10)], and infection [10.41(4.47-24.27)] had higher odds of adverse outcomes. Patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, had complications like pulmonary embolism, venous thromboembolism, DIC, etc. and had poor outcomes CONCLUSION: The complications like acute cardiac injury, cardiac arrhythmias, DIC, septic shock, and secondary infection had poor outcomes. Patients with stroke were having history of these complications. Long term monitoring is required in such patients to prevent stroke and mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
7.
Vasc Med ; 26(4): 426-433, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166685

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may predispose patients to venous thromboembolism (VTE). Limited data are available on the utilization of the Pulmonary Embolism Response Team (PERT) in the setting of the COVID-19 global pandemic. We performed a single-center study to evaluate treatment, mortality, and bleeding outcomes in patients who received PERT consultations in March and April 2020, compared to historical controls from the same period in 2019. Clinical data were abstracted from the electronic medical record. The primary study endpoints were inpatient mortality and GUSTO moderate-to-severe bleeding. The frequency of PERT utilization was nearly threefold higher during March and April 2020 (n = 74) compared to the same period in 2019 (n = 26). During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was significantly less PERT-guided invasive treatment (5.5% vs 23.1%, p = 0.02) with a numerical but not statistically significant trend toward an increase in the use of systemic fibrinolytic therapy (13.5% vs 3.9%, p = 0.3). There were nonsignificant trends toward higher in-hospital mortality or moderate-to-severe bleeding in patients receiving PERT consultations during the COVID-19 period compared to historical controls (mortality 14.9% vs 3.9%, p = 0.18 and moderate-to-severe bleeding 35.1% vs 19.2%, p = 0.13). In conclusion, PERT utilization was nearly threefold higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than during the historical control period. Among patients evaluated by PERT, in-hospital mortality or moderate-to-severe bleeding were not significantly different, despite being numerically higher, while invasive therapy was utilized less frequently during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Health Resources/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Patient Care Team/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality
8.
Am Heart J ; 237: 1-4, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141561

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at heightened risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE), though there is no data examining when these events occur following a COVID-19 diagnosis. We therefore sought to characterize the incidence, timecourse of events, and outcomes of VTE during the COVID-19 pandemic in a national healthcare system using data from Veterans Affairs Administration.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Veterans Health/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Chemoprevention/methods , Chemoprevention/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
9.
Postgrad Med ; 133(sup1): 27-35, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117488

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with high rates of thrombo-embolic complications, mostly venous thromboembolism (VTE), which is thought to be a combination of conventional VTE and in situ immunothrombosis in the pulmonary vascular tree. The incidence of thrombotic complications is dependent on setting (intensive care unit (ICU) versus general ward) and the threshold for performing diagnostic tests (screening versus diagnostic algorithms triggered by symptoms). Since these thrombotic complications are associated with in-hospital mortality, all current guidelines and consensus papers propose pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in all hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Several trials are ongoing to study the optimal intensity of anticoagulation for this purpose. As for the management of thrombotic complications, treatment regimens from non-COVID-19 guidelines can be adapted, with choice of anticoagulant drug class dependent on the situation. Parenteral anticoagulation is preferred for patients on ICUs or with impending clinical deterioration, while oral treatment can be started in stable patients. This review describes current knowledge on incidence and pathophysiology of COVID-19 associated VTE and provides an overview of guideline recommendations on thromboprophylaxis and treatment of established VTE in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Chemoprevention/methods , Disease Management , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Incidence , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/physiopathology , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
10.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(5): 1099-1111.e6, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111738

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We have summarized the incidence, anticoagulation panels, laboratory characteristics, and mortality of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: After systematically searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, MedRxiv, and BioRxiv, a systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 retrospective, 6 prospective observational, and 2 cross-sectional studies was performed according to the guidelines of the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) statement. RESULTS: Overall, 4382 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. Men accounted for significantly more patients than did women (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.02; P < .001). The total incidence of VTE among the patients with COVID-19 was 28.3% (95% CI, 21.6%-35.4%), with an incidence of 38.0% (95% CI, 29.1%-47.4%) and 17.2% (95% CI, 11.4%-23.8%) among those with severe and general COVID-19, respectively. The total incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities was 18.3% (95% CI, 10.8%-27.2%). The incidence of DVT was 22.1% (95% CI, 11.0%-35.5%) and 12.8% (95% CI, 5.0%-23.3%) in those with severe and general COVID-19, respectively. The total incidence of pulmonary embolism was 17.6% (95% CI, 12.3%-23.5%), with a rate of 21.7% (95% CI, 14.8%-29.3%) in severe cases and 12.5% (95% CI, 6.1%-23.5%) in general cases. When COVID-19 severity was unclassified, the mortality for the patients with VTE was not significantly greater (25.2%; 95% CI, 12.2%-40.5%) than that for those without VTE (10.2%; 95% CI, 3.4%-19.5%; OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.46-7.64; P = .377). However, among the patients with severe COVID-19, those who had developed VTE had significantly greater mortality compared with those without VTE (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.15-3.53; P = .014). The patients with COVID-19 and VTE had significantly higher D-dimer levels than did similar patients without VTE in multiple studies. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of VTE, DVT, and pulmonary embolism has been substantial among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially among those with severe COVID-19. Patients with severe COVID-19 and VTE had significantly greater mortality compared with similar patients without VTE. An increased D-dimer level might be an indicator of the occurrence of VTE in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Young Adult
11.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(2): 482-492, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086634

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have suggested that COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This study aimed to investigate the incidence of VTE among mechanically ventilated adults with COVID-19 pneumonia, compared to patients with respiratory failure related to other causes. Prospective study that enrolled critically ill adults with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia between June 2, 2020 and August 11, 2020. Critically ill adults with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia who required mechanical ventilation within 24 h after hospital admission were followed until death or hospital discharge. Sequential ultrasonography screening of the lower extremities and catheter insertion sites, as well as testing for plasma biochemical markers, were performed at the intensive care unit admission, day 3, day 7, and day 14. The primary outcome was a composite of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and thrombosis at the central catheter insertion sites. We enrolled 70 patients, including 57 patients with COVID-19 and 13 patients without COVID-19, and all patients completed follow-up. The incidence of the primary outcome was higher among patients with COVID-19 than among patients with respiratory failure related to other etiologies (36.8% vs. 0%, p = 0.023). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that VTE was independently associated with a COVID-19 diagnosis (odds ratio: 6.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.19-68.07) and D-dimer concentration (1-ng/mL increase, odds ratio: 1.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.30). The incidence of VTE was higher among critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, relative to among patients with respiratory failure related to other causes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Embolism , Respiratory Insufficiency , Risk Assessment , Venous Thromboembolism , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
12.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(5): 1093-1098, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039471

ABSTRACT

In response to the pandemic, an abrupt pivot of Vascular Quality Initiative physician members away from standard clinical practice to a restrictive phase of emergent and urgent vascular procedures occurred. The Society for Vascular Surgery Patient Safety Organization queried both data managers and physicians in May 2020. Approximately three-fourths (74%) of physicians adopted restrictive operating policies for urgent and emergent cases only, whereas one-half proceeded with "time sensitive" elective cases as urgent. Data manager case entry was negatively affected by both low case volumes and staffing due to reassignment or furlough. Venous registry volumes were reduced fivefold in the first quarter of 2020 compared with a similar period in 2019. The consequences of delaying vascular procedures for ambulatory venous practice remain unknown with increased morbidity likely. Challenges to determine venous thromboembolism mortality impact exist given difficulty in verifying "in home and extended care facility" deaths. Further ramifications of a pandemic shutdown will likely be amplified if postponement of elective vascular care extends beyond a short window of time. It will be important to monitor disease progression and case severity as a result of policy shifts adopted locally in response to pandemic surges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Prosthesis Implantation/trends , Surgeons/trends , Varicose Veins/therapy , Vascular Surgical Procedures/trends , Vena Cava Filters/trends , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Elective Surgical Procedures/trends , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Prosthesis Implantation/instrumentation , Registries , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Varicose Veins/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Workload
13.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(1): 84-91, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1025438

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We use a national emergency medicine clinical quality registry to describe recent trends in emergency department (ED) visitation overall and for select emergency conditions. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Clinical Emergency Department Registry, including 164 ED sites across 35 states participating in the registry with complete data from January 2019 through November 15, 2020. Overall ED visit counts, as well as specific emergency medical conditions identified by International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification code (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, cardiac arrest/ventricular fibrillation, and venous thromboembolisms), were tabulated. We plotted biweekly visit counts overall and across specific geographic regions. RESULTS: The largest declines in visit counts occurred early in the pandemic, with a nadir in April 46% lower than the 2019 monthly average. By November, overall ED visit counts had increased, but were 23% lower than prepandemic levels. The proportion of all ED visits that were for the select emergency conditions increased early in the pandemic; however, total visit counts for acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease have remained lower in 2020 compared with 2019. Despite considerable geographic and temporal variation in the trajectory of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, the overall pattern of ED visits observed was similar across regions and time. CONCLUSION: The persistent decline in ED visits for these time-sensitive emergency conditions raises the concern that coronavirus disease 2019 may continue to impede patients from seeking essential care. Efforts thus far to encourage individuals with concerning signs and symptoms to seek emergency care may not have been sufficient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Emergencies , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Registries , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
14.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(11): 2586-2597, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015731

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 emerged as a serious human pathogen in late 2019, causing the disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The most common clinical presentation of severe COVID-19 is acute respiratory failure consistent with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Airway, lung parenchymal, pulmonary vascular, and respiratory neuromuscular disorders all feature in COVID-19. This article reviews what is known about the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection on different parts of the respiratory system, clues to understanding the underlying biology of respiratory disease, and highlights current and future translation and clinical research questions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Lung/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/physiopathology , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
15.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(12): 1654-1667, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998022

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 was first described in late 2019 and has since developed into a pandemic affecting more than 21 million people worldwide. Of particular relevance for acute care is the occurrence of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC), which is characterised by hypercoagulability, immunothrombosis and venous thromboembolism, and contributes to hypoxia in a significant proportion of patients. This review describes diagnosis and treatment of CAC in the emergency department and in intensive care. We summarise the pathological mechanisms and common complications of CAC such as pulmonary thrombosis and venous thromboembolic events and discuss current strategies for thromboprophylaxis and therapeutic anti-coagulation in the acute care setting.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Hemostasis , Humans , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
16.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 72: 205-208, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973859

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pandemic is associated with coagulopathy and an increased risk of thromboembolic events. A case of an extensive arterial thrombus in the left leg of a patient that occurred after discharge from Covid-19 pneumonia is described. Some patients may be under continued risk of thromboembolism after discharge and the value of extended thromboprophylaxis should be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Leg/blood supply , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Humans , Iliac Artery , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
17.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 351-361, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885548

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, limited data exist on patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and short-term outcomes of patients diagnosed with VTE during hospitalization for COVID-19. This is a prospective multinational study of patients with incident VTE during the course of hospitalization for COVID-19. Data were obtained from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) registry. All-cause mortality, VTE recurrences, and major bleeding during the first 10 days were separately investigated for patients in hospital wards versus those in intensive care units (ICUs). As of May 03, 2020, a total number of 455 patients were diagnosed with VTE (83% pulmonary embolism, 17% isolated deep vein thrombosis) during their hospital stay; 71% were male, the median age was 65 (interquartile range, 55-74) years. Most patients (68%) were hospitalized in medical wards, and 145 in ICUs. Three hundred and seventeen (88%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 84-91%) patients were receiving thromboprophylaxis at the time of VTE diagnosis. Most patients (88%) received therapeutic low-molecular-weight heparin, and 15 (3.6%) received reperfusion therapies. Among 420 patients with complete 10-day follow-up, 51 (12%; 95% CI: 9.3-15%) died, no patient recurred, and 12 (2.9%; 95% CI: 1.6-4.8%) experienced major bleeding. The 10-day mortality rate was 9.1% (95% CI: 6.1-13%) among patients in hospital wards and 19% (95% CI: 13-26%) among those in ICUs. This study provides characteristics and early outcomes of patients diagnosed with acute VTE during hospitalization for COVID-19. Additional studies are needed to identify the optimal strategies to prevent VTE and to mitigate adverse outcomes associated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Hospital Mortality , Registries , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hemorrhage/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
19.
J Med Case Rep ; 14(1): 188, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-863352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is minimal data available highlighting the prevalence of venous thromboembolism in patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This case report with a literature review emphasizes a unique presentation of COVID-19 that is highly important for health care providers to consider when treating their patients. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old Caucasian male patient presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of dyspnea on exertion after his wife's recent diagnosis of COVID-19. He additionally had experienced a couple of episodes of self-resolving diarrhea a few days before presentation. Based on the patient's clinical presentation and the laboratory workup identifying an elevated D-dimer, a computed tomography angiogram of the chest was obtained, which was significant for moderately large, bilateral pulmonary emboli with a saddle embolus, and an associated small, left lower lobe, pulmonary infarct. Ultrasound of the lower extremity showed non-occlusive deep vein thrombosis at the distal left femoral vein to the left popliteal vein. The patient was additionally diagnosed with COVID-19 when the results of the COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test returned as positive. The patient was admitted to the COVID unit, and he was started on an intravenously administered, unfractionated heparin drip for management of his bilateral pulmonary emboli and deep vein thrombosis. The patient's clinical condition improved significantly with anticoagulation, and he was observed in the hospital for 3 days, after which he was discharged home on the enoxaparin bridge with warfarin. Post-discharge telephone calls at day 10 and week 4 revealed that the patient was appropriately responding to anticoagulation treatment and had no recurrence of his symptoms related to venous thromboembolism and COVID-19. CONCLUSION: As COVID-19 continues to lead to significant mortality, more data is emerging that is exposing its perplexing pathogenicity. Meanwhile, the presentation of venous thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19 remains an unusual finding. It is imperative for health care providers to be mindful of this unique association to make necessary diagnostic evaluations and provide appropriate treatment for the patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Femoral Vein/diagnostic imaging , Heparin/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography/methods , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
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