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1.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(6): 548-557, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635301

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to review the prevalence, the risk factors and the outcomes of venous thrombosis (VT) in patients hospitalized for COronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Electronic bibliographic databases were searched using the words "COVID venous thrombosis". The review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement standards. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The search of the literature retrieved 877 results. After assessment of full texts, 69 papers were included in the qualitative analysis and 23 of them in the quantitative evaluation. The analyzed studies included a total of 106,838 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from January to December 2020. The pooled reported prevalence rate of VT was in median 16.7% (IQR 5.8-30%), being higher in ICU patients (60.8-85.4%). VT events were reported in about 75% of cases in the popliteal and calf veins. Signs and symptoms were present in 6.1% of cases. At quantitative evaluation, older age, D-dimer and obesity increased the odds to experience a VT (OR=3.54, 95% CI 0.65-6.43, P=0.01; OR=956.86, 95% CI 225.67-1668.05, P=0.01; OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.01-1.99, P=0.03 respectively). Female sex seemed to be protective against the odds of VT (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.93, P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, VT is a relatively common finding, with higher prevalence rates in ICU patients. VT occurs mostly in the distal regions of the lower limb and is asymptomatic in most cases. Older age, obesity and higher D-dimer values on admission increased the odds of VT, while female sex was protective against the odds of VT.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Age Factors , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
2.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 4361844, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523091

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped RNA virus first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is impacting healthcare worldwide. Patients who develop coagulopathy have worse outcomes. The pathophysiology of COVID-19 suggests a strong interplay between hemostasis and immune cells, especially neutrophils. Our purpose was to assess neutrophil fluorescence as a potential biomarker of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with COVID-acute respiratory distress syndrome (COVID-ARDS). Sixty-one patients with COVID-ARDS admitted to the four intensive care units (ICUs) of a French general hospital were included in this prospective study. Neutrophil activation was assessed by measuring neutrophil fluorescence (NEUT-Side Fluorescence Light, NEUT-SFL) with a specific fluorescent dye staining analyzed by a routine automated flow cytometer Sysmex XN-3000™ (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). DVT was diagnosed by complete duplex ultrasound (CDU). We found that NEUT-SFL was elevated on admission in patients with COVID-ARDS (49.76 AU, reference value 46.40 AU, p < 0.001), but did not differ between patients with DVT (49.99 AU) and those without (49.52 AU, p = 0.555). NEUT-SFL is elevated in patients with COVID-ARDS, reflecting neutrophil activation, but cannot be used as a marker of thrombosis. Because neutrophils are at interface between immune response and hemostasis through release of neutrophil extracellular traps, monitoring their activation could be an interesting approach to improve our management of coagulopathy during COVID-ARDS. Further research is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and identify high-performance biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Neutrophils/chemistry , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Fluorescence , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/virology
3.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic, there have been many reports of increased incidence of venous thromboembolism and arterial events as a complication. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of symptomatic thrombotic events (TEs) in patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV2 disease (coronavirus 19 [Covid-19]). METHODS: A retrospective single-center cohort study with adult patients with a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) for SARS-CoV2, included from the date of diagnosis of Covid-19 and followed for 90 days or until death. RESULTS: A total of 1621 patients were included in this study. The median age was 73 years (interquartile range25th-75th [IQR] 53-87 years) and 57% (913) were female. Overall mortality was 21.6% (348). The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs within 90 days of diagnosis was 1.8% (30 of 1621) occurring in 28 patients, including an incidence of pulmonary embolism of 0.9% (15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60%-1.6%), deep venous thrombosis of 0.61% (10, 95% CI 0.2%-1%), ischemic stroke of 0.25% (4, 95% CI 0.09%-0.65%), and ischemic arterial events of 0.06% (1, 95% CI 0.008%-0.43%). No acute coronary syndrome events were recorded. The incidence of symptomatic TEs was significantly lower in the general ward than in intensive care units (1.2% vs 5.7%; p < .001). The median time since positive rt-PCR for SARS-CoV2 to symptomatic TE was 22.5 days (IQR 19-43 days). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients receiving (53.6%) and not receiving thromboprophylaxis (66.5%) and the development of TEs. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs among these patients was lower than the incidence previously reported.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina/epidemiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/blood , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Time Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
4.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(6): 548-557, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406908

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to review the prevalence, the risk factors and the outcomes of venous thrombosis (VT) in patients hospitalized for COronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Electronic bibliographic databases were searched using the words "COVID venous thrombosis". The review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement standards. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The search of the literature retrieved 877 results. After assessment of full texts, 69 papers were included in the qualitative analysis and 23 of them in the quantitative evaluation. The analyzed studies included a total of 106,838 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from January to December 2020. The pooled reported prevalence rate of VT was in median 16.7% (IQR 5.8-30%), being higher in ICU patients (60.8-85.4%). VT events were reported in about 75% of cases in the popliteal and calf veins. Signs and symptoms were present in 6.1% of cases. At quantitative evaluation, older age, D-dimer and obesity increased the odds to experience a VT (OR=3.54, 95% CI 0.65-6.43, P=0.01; OR=956.86, 95% CI 225.67-1668.05, P=0.01; OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.01-1.99, P=0.03 respectively). Female sex seemed to be protective against the odds of VT (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.93, P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, VT is a relatively common finding, with higher prevalence rates in ICU patients. VT occurs mostly in the distal regions of the lower limb and is asymptomatic in most cases. Older age, obesity and higher D-dimer values on admission increased the odds of VT, while female sex was protective against the odds of VT.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Age Factors , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1743-1746, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy is a common abnormality in patients with COVID-19. However, the exact incidence of venous thromboembolic event is unknown in anticoagulated, severe COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVES: Systematic assessment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) using complete duplex ultrasound (CDU) in anticoagulated COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in 2 French intensive care units (ICU) where CDU is performed as a standard of care. A CDU from thigh to ankle at selected sites with Doppler waveforms and images was performed early during ICU stay in patients admitted with COVID-19. Anticoagulation dose was left to the discretion of the treating physician based on the individual risk of thrombosis. Patients were classified as treated with prophylactic anticoagulation or therapeutic anticoagulation. Pulmonary embolism was systematically searched in patients with persistent hypoxemia or secondary deterioration. RESULTS: From March 19 to April 11, 2020, 26 consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 were screened for VTE. Eight patients (31%) were treated with prophylactic anticoagulation, whereas 18 patients (69%) were treated with therapeutic anticoagulation. The overall rate of VTE in patients was 69%. The proportion of VTE was significantly higher in patients treated with prophylactic anticoagulation when compared with the other group (100% vs 56%, respectively, P = .03). Surprisingly, we found a high rate of thromboembolic events in COVID-19 patients treated with therapeutic anticoagulation, with 56% of VTE and 6 pulmonary embolisms. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest considering both systematic screening of VTE and early therapeutic anticoagulation in severe ICU COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/virology
6.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(2): 277-286, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310348

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidences prove that the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strictly linked to coagulopathy even if pneumonia appears as the major clinical manifestation. The exact incidence of thromboembolic events is largely unknown, so that a relative significant number of studies have been performed in order to explore thrombotic risk in COVID-19 patients. Cytokine storm, mediated by pro-inflammatory interleukins, tumor necrosis factor α and elevated acute phase reactants, is primarily responsible for COVID-19-associated hypercoagulopathy. Also comorbidities, promoting endothelial dysfunction, contribute to a higher thromboembolic risk. In this review we aim to investigate epidemiology and clarify the pathophysiological pathways underlying hypercoagulability in COVID-19 patients, providing indications on the prevention of thromboembolic events in COVID-19. Furthermore we aim to reassume the pathophysiological paths involved in COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/virology
7.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 139: 106883, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253732

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has deeply challenged the world population, but also our medical knowledge. Special attention has been paid early to an activation of coagulation, then to an elevated rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. These data suggested that anticoagulant drugs should be evaluated in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The publication of unexpected high rates of VTE in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, despite receiving thromboprophylaxis, open the way to dedicated trials, evaluating modified regimens of thromboprophylaxis. Moreover, the further improvement in our comprehension of the disease, particularly the pulmonary endothelial dysfunction increased the hope that anticoagulant drugs may also protect patients from pulmonary thrombosis. In this comprehensive review, we cover the different situations where thromboprophylaxis standard may be modified (medically-ill inpatients, ICU inpatients, outpatients), and describe some of the current randomized controls trials evaluating new regimens of thromboprophylaxis in patients with COVID-19, including the preliminary available results. We also discuss the potential of anticoagulant drugs to target the thromboinflammation described in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality
8.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 362-371, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication of COVID-19, so that the importance of adequate in-hospital thromboprophylaxis in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is well established. However, the incidence of VTE after discharge and whether postdischarge thromboprophylaxis is beneficial and safe are unclear. In this prospective observational single-center study, we report the incidence of VTE 6 weeks after hospitalization and the use of postdischarge thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 were invited to a multidisciplinary follow-up clinic 6 weeks after discharge. D-dimer and C-reactive protein were measured, and all patients were screened for deep vein thrombosis with venous duplex-ultrasound. Additionally, selected high-risk patients received computed tomography pulmonary angiogram or ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan to screen for incidental pulmonary embolism. RESULTS: Of 485 consecutive patients hospitalized from March through June 2020, 146 patients were analyzed, of which 39% had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Postdischarge thromboprophylaxis was prescribed in 28% of patients, but was used more frequently after ICU stay (61%) and in patients with higher maximal D-dimer and C-reactive protein levels during hospitalization. Six weeks after discharge, elevated D-dimer values were present in 32% of ward and 42% of ICU patients. Only one asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (0.7%) and one symptomatic pulmonary embolism (0.7%) were diagnosed with systematic screening. No bleedings were reported. CONCLUSION: In patients who had been hospitalized with COVID-19, systematic screening for VTE 6 weeks after discharge revealed a low incidence of VTE. A strategy of selectively providing postdischarge thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients seems safe and potentially effective.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25255, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180670

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Fibrinolysis shutdown associated with severe thrombotic complications is a recently recognized syndrome that was previously seldom investigated in patients with severe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. It presents a unique therapeutic dilemma, as anticoagulation with heparin alone is insufficient to address the imbalance in fibrinolysis. And while the use of fibrinolytic agents could limit the disease severity, it is often associated with bleeding complications. There is a need for biomarkers that will guide the timely stratification of patients into those who may benefit from both anticoagulant and fibrinolytic therapies. PATIENT CONCERNS: All 3 patients presented with shortness of breath along with comorbidities predisposing them to severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. One patient (Patient 3) also suffered from bilateral deep venous thrombosis. DIAGNOSES: All 3 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and were eventually diagnosed with respiratory failure necessitating intubation. INTERVENTIONS: All 3 patients required mechanical ventilation support, 2 of which also required renal replacement therapy. All 3 patients were also placed on anticoagulation therapy. OUTCOMES: In Patients 1 and 2, the initial D-dimer levels of 0.97 µg/ml fibrinogen equivalent units (FEU) and 0.83 µg/ml FEU were only slightly elevated (normal <0.50 µg/ml FEU). They developed rising D-dimer levels to a peak of 13.21 µg/ml FEU and >20.0 µg/ml FEU, respectively, which dropped to 1.34 µg/ml FEU 8 days later in Patient 1 and to 2.94 µg/ml on hospital day 13 in Patient 2. In Patient 3, the D-dimer level on admission was found to be elevated to >20.00 µg/ml FEU together with imaging evidence of thrombosis. And although he received therapeutic heparin infusion, he still developed pulmonary embolism (PE) and his D-dimer level declined to 5.91 µg/ml FEU. Despite "improvement" in their D-dimer levels, all 3 patients succumbed to multi-system organ failure. On postmortem examination, numerous arterial and venous thromboses of varying ages, many consisting primarily of fibrin, were identified in the lungs of all patients. LESSONS: High D-dimer levels, with subsequent downtrend correlating with clinical deterioration, seems to be an indicator of fibrinolysis suppression. These findings can help form a hypothesis, as larger cohorts are necessary to demonstrate their reproducibility.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Multiple Organ Failure , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Autopsy/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Deterioration , Female , Fibrinolysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
10.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(2): 493-496, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159474

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a source of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) due to complications such as over-coagulation, blood stasis, and endothelial damage. Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a very serious and rare disease. In this study, we report tow rare case of women with coronavirus who were hospitalized with a right ovarian vein thrombosis mimicking acute abdomen who progressed well on anticoagulation. Our report adds further document in Side effects and rare localisation of obstruction of veins and arteries in patient with corona virus.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , COVID-19/complications , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Ovary/blood supply , Puerperal Disorders , Venous Thrombosis , Abdomen, Acute/diagnosis , Abdomen, Acute/etiology , Adult , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Puerperal Disorders/blood , Puerperal Disorders/etiology , Puerperal Disorders/physiopathology , Puerperal Disorders/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , Veins/diagnostic imaging , Veins/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/physiopathology , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929708, 2021 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019, there have been 96 623 laboratory-confirmed cases and 4784 deaths by December 29 in China. We aimed to analyze the risk factors and the incidence of thrombosis from patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty-eight inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were reported (31 critical cases, 33 severe cases, and 24 common cases). The thrombosis risk factor assessment, laboratory results, ultrasonographic findings, and prognoses of these patients were analyzed, and compared among groups with different severity. RESULTS Nineteen of the 88 cases developed DVT (12 critical cases, 7 severe cases, and no common cases). In addition, among the 18 patients who died, 5 were diagnosed with DVT. Positive correlations were observed between the increase in D-dimer level (≥5 µg/mL) and the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia (r=0.679, P<0.01), and between the high Padua score (≥4) and the severity (r=0.799, P<0.01). In addition, the CRP and LDH levels on admission had positive correlations with the severity of illness (CRP: r=0.522, P<0.01; LDH: r=0.600, P<0.01). A negative correlation was observed between the lymphocyte count on admission and the severity of illness (r=-0.523, P<0.01). There was also a negative correlation between the lymphocyte count on admission and mortality in critical patients (r=-0.499, P<0.01). Univariable logistic regression analysis showed that the occurrence of DVT was positively correlated with disease severity (crude odds ratio: 3.643, 95% CI: 1.218-10.896, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our report illustrates that critically or severely ill patients have an associated high D-dimer value and high Padua score, and illustrates that a low threshold to screen for DVT may help improve detection of thromboembolism in these groups of patients, especially in asymptomatic patients. Our results suggest that early administration of prophylactic anticoagulant would benefit the prognosis of critical patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and would likely reduce thromboembolic rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Lower Extremity/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Ultrasonography , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
12.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(4): e13471, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146517

ABSTRACT

The development of an obstructive luminal thrombus is pathological and considered a failure of endogenous fibrinolysis. The consequences may be fatal, or result in lasting downstream organ damage. Therefore, assessment of endogenous fibrinolytic status in an individual may identify those at risk of occlusive thrombus formation and provide prognostic information. Arterial thrombi are more platelet rich and more resistant to fibrinolysis than venous thrombi. Several recent studies using global tests of fibrinolysis in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have shown that despite dual antiplatelet therapy, patients with impaired fibrinolytic status have an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, compared with those with effective fibrinolytic function. Such data add significantly to the predictive value of established cardiovascular risk factors and conventional biomarkers. Most data reported have been obtained with the Global Thrombosis Test and the turbidimetric plasma clot lysis assay. A few small studies in patients with ischaemic stroke suggest a similar predictive role of fibrinolytic status assessment in these patients. Studies reporting an association between impaired fibrinolysis and future venous thrombotic events are limited, and in the form of case-control studies. Viscoelastic assays may have a role in the prediction of venous thromboembolic risk. Assays of fibrinolytic function should be used to obtain a more accurate risk of future thrombotic events, particularly in the setting of ACS. The availability of point-of-care tests helps facilitate this and should encourage future studies to assess personalised antithrombotic treatment combinations to optimise fibrinolytic status and reduce thrombosis risk.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/blood , Coronary Thrombosis/blood , Fibrin Clot Lysis Time , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Thrombelastography , Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Arteries , COVID-19/blood , Coronary Thrombosis/epidemiology , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
13.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(4): 897-901, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118256

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has emerged as an important issue in patients with COVID-19. The purpose of this study is to identify the incidence of VTE and mortality in COVID-19 patients initially presenting to a large health system. Our retrospective study included adult patients (excluding patients presenting with obstetric/gynecologic conditions) across a multihospital health system in the New York Metropolitan Region from March 1-April 27, 2020. VTE and mortality rates within 8 h of assessment were described. In 10,871 adults with COVID-19, 118 patients (1.09%) were diagnosed with symptomatic VTE (101 pulmonary embolism, 17 deep vein thrombosis events) and 28 patients (0.26%) died during initial assessment. Among these 146 patients, 64.4% were males, 56.8% were 60 years or older, 15.1% had a BMI > 35, and 11.6% were admitted to the intensive care unit. Comorbidities included hypertension (46.6%), diabetes (24.7%), hyperlipidemia (14.4%), chronic lung disease (12.3%), coronary artery disease (11.0%), and prior VTE (7.5%). Key medications included corticosteroids (22.6%), statins (21.2%), antiplatelets (20.6%), and anticoagulants (20.6%). Highest D-Dimer was greater than six times the upper limit of normal in 51.4%. Statin and antiplatelet use were associated with decreased VTE or mortality (each p < 0.01). In COVID-19 patients who initially presented to a large multihospital health system, the overall symptomatic VTE and mortality rate was over 1.0%. Statin and antiplatelet use were associated with decreased VTE or mortality. The potential benefits of antithrombotics in high risk COVID-19 patients during the pre-hospitalization period deserves study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , New York/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protective Factors , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/mortality
14.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(4): 1038-1048, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High incidence of asymptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been observed in severe COVID-19 patients, but the characteristics of symptomatic VTE in general COVID-19 patients have not been described. OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively explore the prevalence and reliable risk prediction for VTE in COVID-19 patients. METHODS/RESULTS: This retrospective study enrolled all COVID-19 patients with a subsequent VTE in 16 centers in China from January 1 to March 31, 2020. A total of 2779 patients were confirmed with COVID-19. In comparison to 23,434 non-COVID-19 medical inpatients, the odds ratios (ORs) for developing symptomatic VTE in severe and non-severe hospitalized COVID-19 patients were 5.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.91-10.09) and 2.79 (95% CI 1.43-5.60), respectively. When 104 VTE cases and 208 non-VTE cases were compared, pulmonary embolism cases had a higher rate for in-hospital death (OR 6.74, 95% CI 2.18-20.81). VTE developed at a median of 21 days (interquartile range 13.25-31) since onset. Independent factors for VTE were advancing age, cancer, longer interval from symptom onset to admission, lower fibrinogen and higher D-dimer on admission, and D-dimer increment (DI) ≥1.5-fold; of these, DI ≥1.5-fold had the most significant association (OR 14.18, 95% CI 6.25-32.18, p = 2.23 × 10-10 ). A novel model consisting of three simple coagulation variables (fibrinogen and D-dimer levels on admission, and DI ≥1.5-fold) showed good prediction for symptomatic VTE (area under the curve 0.865, 95% CI 0.822-0.907, sensitivity 0.930, specificity 0.710). CONCLUSIONS: There is an excess risk of VTE in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This novel model can aid early identification of patients who are at high risk for VTE.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
15.
Radiology ; 298(2): E70-E80, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977565

ABSTRACT

Background The association of pulmonary embolism (PE) with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear, and the diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer tests for PE is unknown. Purpose To conduct meta-analysis of the study-level incidence of PE and DVT and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer tests for PE from multicenter individual patient data. Materials and Methods A systematic literature search identified studies evaluating the incidence of PE or DVT in patients with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020, to June 15, 2020. These outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model and were further evaluated using metaregression analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer tests for PE was estimated on the basis of individual patient data using the summary receiver operating characteristic curve. Results Twenty-seven studies with 3342 patients with COVID-19 were included in the analysis. The pooled incidence rates of PE and DVT were 16.5% (95% CI: 11.6, 22.9; I2 = 0.93) and 14.8% (95% CI: 8.5, 24.5; I2 = 0.94), respectively. PE was more frequently found in patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (24.7% [95% CI: 18.6, 32.1] vs 10.5% [95% CI: 5.1, 20.2] in those not admitted to the ICU) and in studies with universal screening using CT pulmonary angiography. DVT was present in 42.4% of patients with PE. D-dimer tests had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.737 for PE, and D-dimer levels of 500 and 1000 µg/L showed high sensitivity (96% and 91%, respectively) but low specificity (10% and 24%, respectively). Conclusion Pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurred in 16.5% and 14.8% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), respectively, and more than half of patients with PE lacked DVT. The cutoffs of D-dimer levels used to exclude PE in preexisting guidelines seem applicable to patients with COVID-19. © RSNA, 2020 Supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Woodard in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/blood , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/blood
16.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(1): 43-47, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965899

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 [SARS-CoV-2]), also known as COVID-19, is a single-stranded enveloped RNA virus that created a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020, with a global case burden of over 15 million in just 7 months. Infected patients develop a wide range of clinical manifestations-typically presenting with fever, cough, myalgia, and fatigue. Severely ill patients may fall victim to acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute heart injuries, neurological manifestations, or complications due to secondary infections. These critically ill patients are also found to have disrupted coagulation function, predisposing them to consumptive coagulopathies, and both venous and thromboembolic complications. Common laboratory findings include thrombocytopenia, elevated D-dimer, fibrin degradation products, and fibrinogen, all of which have been associated with greater disease severity. Many cases of pulmonary embolism have been noted, along with deep vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and systemic arterial embolism. The pathogenesis of coronavirus has not been completely elucidated, but the virus is known to cause excessive inflammation, endothelial injury, hypoxia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation, all of which contribute to thrombosis formation. These patients are also faced with prolonged immobilization while staying in the hospital or intensive care unit. It is important to have a high degree of suspicion for thrombotic complications as patients may rapidly deteriorate in severe cases. Evidence suggests that prophylaxis with anticoagulation may lead to a lower risk of mortality, although it does not eliminate the possibility. The risks and benefits of anticoagulation treatment should be considered in each case. Patients should be regularly evaluated for bleeding risks and thrombotic complications.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , COVID-19/blood , Embolism/blood , Thrombosis/blood , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/prevention & control , Embolism/etiology , Embolism/metabolism , Embolism/prevention & control , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Immobilization , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/metabolism
17.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(1): 23-28, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944480

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 6 million patients worldwide. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been increasingly recognized complication in these patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, the factors associated with development of DVT in patients with COVID-19 have not been elucidated due to the novelty of the virus. We performed a meta-analysis of published studies comparing laboratory results in COVID-19 patients with and without DVT with the aim of identifying risk factors. We searched major databases for studies evaluating DVT in COVID-positive patients and performed a meta-analysis of baseline laboratory markers associated with development of DVT. A total of six studies with 678 patients were included in the pooled analyses. Of the 678 patients, 205 of patients had a DVT. Patients diagnosed with DVT were more likely to be older [mean difference 4.59 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-7.92], and needing admission to ICU (relative risk 1.96, 95% CI 1.09-3.51). Patients with DVT had significantly higher white cell count (mean difference 1.36 × 109/l, 95% CI 0.33-2.40) and d-dimer levels (mean difference 3229.8, 95% CI 1501.5-4958.1). Lymphocyte count was lower in patients with DVT (mean difference -0.19 × 109/l, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.02). Patients with COVID-19 who develop DVT are more likely to be older and have leukocytosis with lymphopenia. Moreover, d-dimer is statistically higher and patients that are admitted to the ICU are at great risk to develop DVT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Age Factors , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(570)2020 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901250

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 are at high risk for thrombotic arterial and venous occlusions. Lung histopathology often reveals fibrin-based blockages in the small blood vessels of patients who succumb to the disease. Antiphospholipid syndrome is an acquired and potentially life-threatening thrombophilia in which patients develop pathogenic autoantibodies targeting phospholipids and phospholipid-binding proteins (aPL antibodies). Case series have recently detected aPL antibodies in patients with COVID-19. Here, we measured eight types of aPL antibodies in serum samples from 172 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. These aPL antibodies included anticardiolipin IgG, IgM, and IgA; anti-ß2 glycoprotein I IgG, IgM, and IgA; and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) IgG and IgM. We detected aPS/PT IgG in 24% of serum samples, anticardiolipin IgM in 23% of samples, and aPS/PT IgM in 18% of samples. Antiphospholipid autoantibodies were present in 52% of serum samples using the manufacturer's threshold and in 30% using a more stringent cutoff (≥40 ELISA-specific units). Higher titers of aPL antibodies were associated with neutrophil hyperactivity, including the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), higher platelet counts, more severe respiratory disease, and lower clinical estimated glomerular filtration rate. Similar to IgG from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, IgG fractions isolated from patients with COVID-19 promoted NET release from neutrophils isolated from healthy individuals. Furthermore, injection of IgG purified from COVID-19 patient serum into mice accelerated venous thrombosis in two mouse models. These findings suggest that half of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 become at least transiently positive for aPL antibodies and that these autoantibodies are potentially pathogenic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/administration & dosage , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/blood , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/etiology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Models, Animal , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/immunology , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/immunology
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105379, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-816739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been increasing reports associating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with thromboembolic phenomenon including ischemic strokes and venous thromboembolism. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare neurovascular emergency that has been observed in some COVID-19 patients, yet much remains to be learnt of its underlying pathophysiology. OBJECTIVE: We present a case series of local patients with concomitant COVID-19 infection and CVT; and aim to perform a systematic review of known cases in the current literature. METHODS: We describe two patients with concomitant COVID-19 infection and CVT from a nationwide registry in Singapore. We then conducted a literature search in PubMed and Embase using a suitable keyword search strategy from 1st December 2019 to 11th June 2020. All studies reporting CVT in COVID-19 patients were included. RESULTS: Nine studies and 14 COVID-19 patients with CVT were studied. The median age was 43 years (IQR=36-58) and majority had no significant past medical conditions (60.0%). The time taken from onset of COVID-19 symptoms to CVT diagnosis was a median of 7 days (IQR=6-14). CVT was commonly seen in the transverse (75.0%) and sigmoid sinus (50.0%); 33.3% had involvement of the deep venous sinus system. A significant proportion of patients had raised D-dimer (75.0%) and CRP levels (50.0%). Two patients reported presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Most patients received anticoagulation (91.7%) while overall mortality rate was 45.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The high mortality rate of CVT in COVID-19 infection warrants a high index of suspicion from physicians, and early treatment with anticoagulation should be initiated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/blood , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
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