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2.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc ; 113(2)2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313005

ABSTRACT

Plantar thrombophlebitis is a rare abnormality with few cases reported in the literature. Coexistence with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection increases its relevance. The disease is generally classified as idiopathic, and it is suggested that it is attributed to conditions that lead to hypercoagulability. We present the case of a 68-year-old female patient with thrombosis of the lateral plantar veins and a diagnosis of coronavirus disease of 2019. The plantar vein thrombosis diagnosis was made by means of Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was suspected per clinical information and confirmed with reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique. Treatment was successful using rivaroxaban and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Female , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Ultrasonography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
5.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 18: 833-838, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263607

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The SARS-CoV-2 disease predisposes infected individuals to thrombosis, the underlying mechanisms of which are not fully understood. The balance between pro-coagulant factors and natural coagulation inhibitors in critically ill patients with Covid-19 is fundamental to the prevention and treatment of complications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pulmonary injury patterns in Covid-19 having higher mortality in the presence of deep vein thrombosis in comparison to patients without venous thrombosis and determine the Gamma variant. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted involving the evaluation of 200 medical records of patients with Covid-19 and a clinical suspicion of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) at the intensive care unit of a public hospital. The sample was divided into two groups of patients were formed - those positive and those negative for DVT. Statistical analysis involved the use of Fisher's exact test, the paired t-test and chi-square test. Results: Patients with DVT had more severe lung injuries (greater than 70%) compared to those without DVT (p = 0.003). Lesions affecting 50% to 70% of the lung area occurred in little more half of the group with DVT and just under half in the group without DVT (p = 0.5). Pulmonary lesions affecting less than 50% of the lung occurred more in patients without DVT (p = 0.0001). The Gamma variant increased prevalence of the both DVT and mortality (p=0.0001). Conclusion: Deep vein thrombosis is an aggravating factor of mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2, and the Gamma variant is an aggravating factor of both thrombotic events and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung Injury/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/complications
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 17(1): 101, 2023 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 was spread worldwide, as a pandemic, from December 2019. Venous thromboembolism events can inflict patients with coronavirus disease 2019 during the hospitalization or convalescent period. Therefore, monitoring of these patients, in terms of venous thromboembolism events signs and symptoms, and timely management of antithrombotic agents are of great importance. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old Iranian man, who is the first author of this case report, was infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and displayed the typical signs and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019. Although reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for coronavirus disease 2019, and specific immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, were negative at first, chest computed tomography scan showed the characteristic pattern of lung involvement of a coronavirus disease 2019 infection including bilateral and multilobar ground-glass opacities. At that time, there were no signs or symptoms of deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary thromboembolism, so these were not investigated. About 30 hours after hospital discharge, the patient presented back to the hospital with acute-onset chest pain. We instantly tested his blood for D-dimer, and sent him to take a Doppler sonography of his lower legs and a chest computed tomography angiography in search of pulmonary thromboembolism and deep-vein thrombosis. Although we could confirm pulmonary thromboembolism with computed tomography angiography in our patient, there were no signs or symptoms of venous thromboembolism in his lower legs, and color Doppler sonography of lower limbs was normal. So, the patient was treated with rivaroxaban as an antithrombotic agent. After some days, he was discharged in good condition. About 1 month later, he was referred to our hospital because of left lower limb edema. Although he was under antithrombotic therapy, color Doppler sonography of lower limbs revealed acute deep-vein thrombosis of the left leg. Hence, we decided to shift antithrombotic therapy from rivaroxaban to warfarin, as it is more potent than rivaroxaban in recurrent venous thromboembolism and when taking new oral anticoagulants. Unlike rivaroxaban, which needs no blood test to monitor its efficacy but has a warning for signs and symptoms of bleeding, warfarin therapy must be monitored carefully by regular blood tests for prothrombin time and international normalized ratio to maintain them in the therapeutic range. The patient was informed about the bleeding cautions, and required regular check of prothrombin time and international normalized ratio to maintain them in the proper and advised range of treatment (international normalized ratio therapeutic range 2-3). CONCLUSION: In the case of unexpected recurrent venous thromboembolism in coronavirus disease 2019, especially when patients are taking rivaroxaban or other new oral anticoagulants, such drugs should be substituted by warfarin, with routine follow-up, to maintain the value of prothrombin time and international normalized ratio within the therapeutic range.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Iran , Anticoagulants , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Decision Making
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 73(3): 533-538, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262173

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of deep venous thrombosis, and to evaluate the discriminative capacity of D-dimer in its diagnosis. METHODS: The prospective, observational study was conducted at the critical care unit of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan from February to September 2021 and comprised consecutively admitted adult critically ill patients who were receiving therapeutic-dose anticoagulation therapy. All patients were screened on day one for deep venous thrombosis by colour doppler and compression ultrasonography. Patients who did not have deep venous thrombosis on the first scan were followed every 72 hours. Data was analysed using SPSS 26. RESULTS: Of the 142 patients, 99(69.7%) were male and 43(30.3%) were female. The overall mean age was 53.20+/-13.3 years. On the first scan, 25(17.6%) patients had deep venous thrombosis. Of the remaining 117 patients, 78(68.4%) were followed every 72 hours, and 23(29.48%) of them developed deep venous thrombosis. The most common site for DVT was the common femoral vein 46(95.8%) and most deep venous thrombosis cases were unilateral 28(58.33%). D-dimer levels showed no discriminative capacity for diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (p=0.79). There were no significant risk factors for the development of deep venous thrombosis. Conclusion: There was a high incidence and prevalence of deep venous thrombosis despite therapeutic-dose anticoagulation therapy. The most common affected site was the common femoral vein and most deep venous thrombosis were unilateral. D-dimer levels had no discriminative capacity for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis DVT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Femoral Vein/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Incidence , Critical Illness , Thrombosis/complications , Risk Factors , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
8.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 57(6): 592-598, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260910

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assess heterogeneity within patients with resolved COVID-19 to broaden the vision about post-discharge thrombotic cases and postulate possible related mechanisms in search of better anticoagulation guidelines. This study details patients' characteristics, medical history, treatment, and outcomes of readmitted patients with late acute thrombosis through a systematic review of the literature and patients from our academic center database. METHODS: We extracted the records of patients readmitted for venous thrombosis complications after discharge from the database of the first 2000 patients admitted with COVID-19 in our academic center; we also performed a systematic review of the literature using the Medical Subject Headings terms "late thrombosis," "COVID-19," + "venous thrombosis" in PubMed and Google Scholar according to PRISMA guideline. RESULTS: The literature review found 20 patients suitable for review matching the inclusion criteria. These patients were added to those in our database, summing up a total of 26 patients. The median age was 50 years old, 76.9% were male, and most were overweight or had grade 1 obesity (n = 11, 42.3%). None had a previous thrombotic history, but 50% had an underlying comorbidity. Thrombotic events presented on a median of 20 days (range: 4-150 days) from discharge. Pulmonary embolisms occurred in 23 patients (88.46%), deep vein thrombosis in 4, mesenteric thrombosis, and cerebral venous thrombosis in 1, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study found that most patients readmitted for thrombotic events after COVID-19 discharge were middle-aged men with Venous Thrombo Embolism events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Middle Aged , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/complications , Patient Readmission , Aftercare , Treatment Outcome , Patient Discharge , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
10.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0280247, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224468

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia in a non-ICU setting according to the different waves of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHODS: Multicenter, prospective study of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Internal Medicine units in Italy during the first (March-May 2020) and subsequent waves (November 2020 -April 2021) of the pandemic using a serial compression ultrasound (CUS) surveillance to detect DVT of the lower limbs. RESULTS: Three-hundred-sixty-three consecutive patients were enrolled. The pooled incidence of DVT was 8%: 13.5% in the first wave, and 4.2% in the subsequent waves (p = 0.002). The proportion of patients with early (< 4 days) detection of DVT was higher in patients during the first wave with respect to those of subsequent waves (8.1% vs 1.9%; p = 0.004). Patients enrolled in different waves had similar clinical characteristics, and thrombotic risk profile. Less patients during the first wave received intermediate/high dose anticoagulation with respect to those of the subsequent waves (40.5% vs 54.5%; p = 0.005); there was a significant difference in anticoagulant regimen and initiation of thromboprophylaxis at home (8.1% vs 25.1%; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In acutely ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, the incidence of DVT of the lower limbs showed a 3-fold decrease during the first with respect to the subsequent waves of the pandemic. A significant increase in thromboprophylaxis initiation prior to hospitalization, and the increase of the intensity of anticoagulation during hospitalization, likely, played a relevant role to explain this observation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Incidence , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Lower Extremity/diagnostic imaging
11.
Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech ; 89(6): 435-440, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2169609

ABSTRACT

A 13-year-old girl suffered fracture of her left clavicle. A figure-of-8 bandage was placed during initial treatment. Six days after trauma her distal arm, elbow and proximal forearm were swollen, pain and tenderness of distal part of brachial vein was recognized during clinical examination. Duplex ultrasonography revealed partial thrombosis of the brachial vein. Bandage was immediately removed and administration of LMWH (enoxaparin) was started. Complete recanalization was achieved after a few days. The fracture was healed without further complication, patient was without sonographic and clinical signs of post-thrombotic syndrome. The second case report describes a 14-year-old boy. Initially, the fixation was a figure-of-8 bandage. 5 days after the injury he had swollen arm and elbow on the injured side, according to duplex ultrasonography deep venous thrombosis of the axillary and the brachial vein was recognized. There was only partial recanalization at the first sonographic follow up, the patient was converted to Warfarin for 3 months after injury after initial LMWH therapy. At the last follow-up, fracture of the left clavicle was healed and there were no DUSG or clinical signs of post-thrombotic syndrome. Key words: clavicle, deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity, anticoagulant therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fractures, Bone , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Male , Child , Female , Adolescent , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Conservative Treatment/adverse effects , Clavicle/diagnostic imaging , Clavicle/injuries , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Fractures, Bone/complications , Fractures, Bone/therapy
12.
Natl Med J India ; 35(3): 162-164, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2156082

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) infection not only affects the respiratory system but also induces coagulation abnormalities and thrombosis. We report a middle-aged woman who presented during the Covid-19 pandemic with sudden-onset acute left upper limb ischaemia of short duration, with no history of dry cough, breathlessness or fever, and tested positive on TrueNAT for SARS-CoV-2. Later, she developed deep venous thrombosis of the right lower limb during isolation in the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Middle Aged , Female , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Leg
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(10)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097946

ABSTRACT

Transverse myelitis and cerebral venous thrombosis represent some of the described neurological complications of coronavirus disease. A woman in her early 30s presented with headache, left-sided sensory symptoms and voiding difficulty. The patient also reported dry cough, fever, nasal congestion, anosmia and ageusia 2 weeks before presentation. The clinical examination showed sensory disturbances on the left side of the body, starting from the lower abdomen and extending to the left leg, which was consistent with transverse myelitis. The laboratory assessment confirmed a previous infection with coronavirus disease and excluded autoimmune entities. Radiological investigations revealed left transverse sinus thrombosis with no spinal cord abnormalities. The treatment was started with therapeutic anticoagulation and intravenous high-dose steroids. The patient showed significant improvement, and the neurological deficits resolved after 3 months. This is the first documented case of imaging-negative myelitis associated with cerebral venous thrombosis after coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Myelitis, Transverse , Venous Thrombosis , Female , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnostic imaging , Myelitis, Transverse/drug therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Thrombosis/drug therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
14.
Croat Med J ; 63(5): 448-452, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092960

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess the differences in clinical and laboratory parameters of non-hospitalized patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) according to the SARS-CoV-2 status. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed demographic, clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound data of adult patients admitted to the Emergency Department of University Hospital Split between March 2020 and January 2021. Patients were classified into three groups: recent COVID-19 (<1 month), non-recent COVID-19 (1 to 12 months), and non-COVID-19. RESULTS: Fifty (47.2%) of 106 patients had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection (23 patients in the recent COVID-19 and 27 in non-recent COVID-19 group). The three groups did not significantly differ in demographic and clinical parameters, including the location of deep venous thrombosis. The recent COVID-19 group had significantly higher neutrophils and CRP levels, and significantly lower prothrombin than the other two groups. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the role of elevated inflammatory and coagulation response in DVT development in the first month after the infection, but not in non-recent COVID-19 or non-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Risk Factors
15.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(9): 128-131, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056581

ABSTRACT

The literature reports that cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) develops in 1-1.5% of patients with COVID-19. Recently, a new syndrome named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) has been described. VITT is a rare side-effect of COVID-19 vaccination that also causes CVT. The article presents an overview of the above problem and a clinical case of a patient with CVT that developed within a month after the first component of the Sputnik V vaccination and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
17.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 10(4): 811-817, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757625

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is increased in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its presence is associated with worse outcomes. Ultrasound examination of patients with COVID-19 with a suspected DVT is challenging owing to concerns with disease transmission; the timely initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation is essential. This study aimed to identify patient factors associated with positive thrombus findings at ultrasound examination in patients with COVID-19 who underwent imaging for suspected DVT. METHODS: Patients who did not require intensive care unit treatment and who underwent ultrasound imaging for suspected DVT between March and December 2020 were included retrospectively. Patient demographics, comorbidities, modified Well's score, and d-dimer results on the day of ultrasound examination were recorded. Parameters for a higher likelihood of a positive DVT result were determined by comparing patients with confirmed DVT on ultrasound examination and patients with negative ultrasound findings. To determine a cut-off for d-dimer levels, a receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed. The sensitivity and specificity of the determined high-risk factors in the prediction of positive ultrasound results were calculated. RESULTS: A positive history for DVT (25% vs 4%; P < .001), thrombophilia (9% vs 2%; P = .048), immobilization (53% vs 23%; P = .001), and a Well's score ≥ 2 (50% vs 21%; P = .001) were more frequent in patients with DVT. The mean d-dimer levels were higher in patients with DVT (3871 ± 1805 vs 2075 ± 1543; P < .001). The presence of either thrombophilia or a d-dimer level of >2020 had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 64%. The presence of either thrombophilia, a d-dimer level of >2020, or a Well's score of ≥2 had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 51%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 with a d-dimer of >2020, a positive history for thrombophilia, and a Well's score of ≥2 should undergo a timely ultrasound examination. The high risk of DVT should be remembered for all hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Thrombophilia/complications , Ultrasonography , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
18.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(23-24): 1281-1288, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756809

ABSTRACT

High incidence of venous thromboembolic (VTE) events in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has been reported despite pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. We performed prospective bilateral lower extremity ultrasound evaluation of prolonged hospitalized COVID-19 ward patients from our institution without clinical suspicion of deep vein thrombosis (DVT).A total of 102 patient were included in the study. All patients were receiving pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis, the majority in intermediate or therapeutic doses. Asymptomatic DVT was detected in 26/102 (25.5%) patients: 22 had distal and four had proximal DVT, six had bilateral leg involvement. Pulmonary embolism was highly prevalent (17/70, 24.3%) but similarly grouped among patients with and without asymptomatic DVT. In total 37.2% of patients included in the study were recognized as having VTE.Asymptomatic DVT events were more common in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors (60% in postmechanically ventilated ICU survivors, 21.2% in ward patients, 22% in high-flow oxygen treated patients; P = 0.031), in patients with higher modified International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism (IMPROVE) VTE risk-score (median 3 vs. 2 points with and without DVT; P = 0.021) and higher body temperature on admission (median 38.7 °C vs. 37.7 °C with and without DVT; P = 0.001). No clear associations with Padua VTE risk score, demographic and other clinical characteristics, intensity of thromboprophylaxis, severity of other COVID-19 symptoms, degree of systemic inflammation or D­dimers on admission were found (P > 0.05 for all analyses).Systematic ultrasound assessment in prolonged hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients prior to hospital discharge is needed, especially in ICU survivors, to timely recognize and appropriately treat patients with asymptomatic DVT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
20.
Neurol Sci ; 43(5): 2951-2956, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus pandemic became the hard challenge for the modern global health system. To date, vaccination is the best strategy against Sars-Cov-2-related illness. About 3 billions of people received at least one of the approved vaccines. The related adverse events were reported during the various experimental phases, but newer and less common side effects are emerging post-marketing. Vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis (VITT) is one of these insidious adverse reactions and it is considered responsible of venous thrombosis, in both the splanchnic and the cerebral circulation. Although its mechanism has been presumably established, resembling that observed in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, some venous thromboses seem not to recognize this etiology and their pathogenesis remains unknown. Here we described a case of cerebral venous thrombosis after administration of the Ad26.COV2.S, presenting without thrombocytopenia, paving the way for possible novel causes of this vaccine-induced pathological condition. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old woman came to our observation for bilateral periorbital headache associated with retro-orbital pain started 8 days after administration of COVID vaccine Jannsen. Ophthalmologic exam showing a bilateral papilledema raised the suspicion of intracranial hypertension. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging revealed signal alteration with T1-positive contrast enhancement in the right temporal and insular lobes suggestive of cerebral venous thrombosis. The absence of thrombocytopenia and platelet factor 4 (PF-4) antibodies led the clinicians to rule out VITT. The patient was treated successfully with warfarin. CONCLUSION: Venous thrombosis occurring after COVID-19 vaccination represents an adverse event of special interest. Patients with thrombosis and thrombocytopenia appear to be affected by a general thrombophilic state, sustained by an autoimmune mechanism, and show a higher mortality. Thrombosis without thrombocytopenia's pathogenesis has not yet been clarified, but laboratory data and good response to vitamin K antagonists help clinicians in the differential diagnosis with VITT. Future research will allow us to discover other possible mechanisms and maybe identify a subgroup of patients with a higher risk of developing this medical complication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Venous Thrombosis , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Headache/complications , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/chemically induced , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/complications , Vaccines/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
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