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1.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2022: 5900468, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759506

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Several studies have demonstrated that thromboembolic events increased in patients with coronavirus infection, usually occurring in elderly patients with severe illness, associated with comorbid diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare venous thromboembolic disease occurring typically in patients with an underlying disease such as decompensated cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aim: To evaluate incidence of occurrence of acute PVT in cirrhotic patients infected with 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study involved 70 patients of the liver cirrhosis: (group A) 28 patients with liver cirrhosis infected with COVID-19, and 42 patients with liver cirrhosis as the control group matched for age and sex (group B). All patients were subjected to thorough medical history, routine investigations (complete blood count, liver, and renal function tests), imaging in the form of abdominal and Doppler ultrasonography to assess the presence of acute PVT, serum ferritin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and PCR of COVID-19 for group A only. Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding Doppler ultrasound findings as 3 of the patients in group A had PVT (10.7%), 2 of them had HCC diagnosed by triphasic CT abdomen, and only 1 patient in group B had PVT (2.3%) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In cirrhotic patients infected with COVID-19, portal vein thrombosis may be a potential complication even in the absence of hepatocellular carcinoma; further prospective studies with longer follow-up may be needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Portal Vein , Prospective Studies , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
2.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(23-24): 1281-1288, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756809

ABSTRACT

High incidence of venous thromboembolic (VTE) events in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has been reported despite pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. We performed prospective bilateral lower extremity ultrasound evaluation of prolonged hospitalized COVID-19 ward patients from our institution without clinical suspicion of deep vein thrombosis (DVT).A total of 102 patient were included in the study. All patients were receiving pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis, the majority in intermediate or therapeutic doses. Asymptomatic DVT was detected in 26/102 (25.5%) patients: 22 had distal and four had proximal DVT, six had bilateral leg involvement. Pulmonary embolism was highly prevalent (17/70, 24.3%) but similarly grouped among patients with and without asymptomatic DVT. In total 37.2% of patients included in the study were recognized as having VTE.Asymptomatic DVT events were more common in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors (60% in postmechanically ventilated ICU survivors, 21.2% in ward patients, 22% in high-flow oxygen treated patients; P = 0.031), in patients with higher modified International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism (IMPROVE) VTE risk-score (median 3 vs. 2 points with and without DVT; P = 0.021) and higher body temperature on admission (median 38.7 °C vs. 37.7 °C with and without DVT; P = 0.001). No clear associations with Padua VTE risk score, demographic and other clinical characteristics, intensity of thromboprophylaxis, severity of other COVID-19 symptoms, degree of systemic inflammation or D­dimers on admission were found (P > 0.05 for all analyses).Systematic ultrasound assessment in prolonged hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients prior to hospital discharge is needed, especially in ICU survivors, to timely recognize and appropriately treat patients with asymptomatic DVT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e222940, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748799

ABSTRACT

Importance: Reports of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) after messenger RNA (mRNA)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has caused safety concerns, but CVT is also known to occur after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Comparing the relative incidence of CVT after infection vs vaccination may provide a better perspective of this complication. Objective: To compare the incidence rates and clinical characteristics of CVT following either SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between January 23, 2020, and August 3, 2021, this observational cohort study was conducted at all public acute hospitals in Singapore, where patients hospitalized with CVT within 6 weeks of SARS-CoV-2 infection or after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) were identified. Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or positive serology. National SARS-CoV-2 infection data were obtained from the National Centre for Infectious Disease, Singapore, and vaccination data were obtained from the National Immunisation Registry, Singapore. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics, crude incidence rate (IR), and incidence rate ratio (IRR) of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infection and after mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Results: Among 62 447 individuals diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infections included in this study, 58 989 (94.5%) were male; the median (range) age was 34 (0-102) years; 6 CVT cases were identified (all were male; median [range] age was 33.5 [27-40] years). Among 3 006 662 individuals who received at least 1 dose of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 1 626 623 (54.1%) were male; the median (range) age was 50 (12-121) years; 9 CVT cases were identified (7 male individuals [77.8%]; median [range] age: 60 [46-76] years). The crude IR of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infections was 83.3 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 30.6-181.2 per 100 000 person-years) and 2.59 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 1.19-4.92 per 100 000 person-years) after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Six (66.7%) received BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine and 3 (33.3%) received mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. The crude IRR of CVT hospitalizations with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with those who received mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was 32.1 (95% CI, 9.40-101; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The incidence rate of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly higher compared with after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. CVT remained rare after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, reinforcing its safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Vaccination , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Young Adult
5.
Circ J ; 86(3): 458-463, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) among hospitalized psychiatric patients after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection remains unclear.Methods and Results:We retrospectively investigated the prevalence of proximal DVT after COVID-19 infection among 50 hospitalized patients in a Japanese psychiatric hospital that in which a COVID-19 cluster developed between August and September 2020. The prevalence of proximal DVT was 10.0%. Patients with proximal DVT had a lower body weight and higher maximum D-dimer levels and International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism (IMPROVE) VTE scores. CONCLUSIONS: After COVID-19 infection, hospitalized psychiatric patients are at high risk of DVT and should be carefully followed up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1275, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the association of primary acute cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) with COVID-19 vaccination through complete ascertainment of all diagnosed CVT in the population of Scotland. METHODS: Case-crossover study comparing cases of CVT recently exposed to vaccination (1-14 days after vaccination) with cases less recently exposed. Cases in Scotland from 1 December 2020 were ascertained through neuroimaging studies up to 17 May 2021 and diagnostic coding of hospital discharges up to 28 April 2021, linked to national vaccination records. The main outcome measure was primary acute CVT. RESULTS: Of 50 primary acute CVT cases, 29 were ascertained only from neuroimaging studies, 2 were ascertained only from hospital discharges, and 19 were ascertained from both sources. Of these 50 cases, 14 had received the Astra-Zeneca ChAdOx1 vaccine and 3 the Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine. The incidence of CVT per million doses in the first 14 days after vaccination was 2.2 (95% credible interval 0.9 to 4.1) for ChAdOx1 and 1 (95% credible interval 0.1 to 2.9) for BNT162b2. The rate ratio for CVT associated with exposure to ChAdOx1 in the first 14 days compared with exposure 15-84 days after vaccination was 3.2 (95% credible interval 1.1 to 9.5). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support a causal association between CVT and the AstraZeneca vaccine. The absolute risk of post-vaccination CVT in this population-wide study in Scotland was lower than has been reported for populations in Scandinavia and Germany; the explanation for this is not clear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Over Studies , Humans , Neuroimaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , Vaccination , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
7.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(6): 548-557, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635301

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to review the prevalence, the risk factors and the outcomes of venous thrombosis (VT) in patients hospitalized for COronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Electronic bibliographic databases were searched using the words "COVID venous thrombosis". The review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement standards. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The search of the literature retrieved 877 results. After assessment of full texts, 69 papers were included in the qualitative analysis and 23 of them in the quantitative evaluation. The analyzed studies included a total of 106,838 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from January to December 2020. The pooled reported prevalence rate of VT was in median 16.7% (IQR 5.8-30%), being higher in ICU patients (60.8-85.4%). VT events were reported in about 75% of cases in the popliteal and calf veins. Signs and symptoms were present in 6.1% of cases. At quantitative evaluation, older age, D-dimer and obesity increased the odds to experience a VT (OR=3.54, 95% CI 0.65-6.43, P=0.01; OR=956.86, 95% CI 225.67-1668.05, P=0.01; OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.01-1.99, P=0.03 respectively). Female sex seemed to be protective against the odds of VT (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.93, P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, VT is a relatively common finding, with higher prevalence rates in ICU patients. VT occurs mostly in the distal regions of the lower limb and is asymptomatic in most cases. Older age, obesity and higher D-dimer values on admission increased the odds of VT, while female sex was protective against the odds of VT.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Age Factors , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
8.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 50(1): 68-74, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625868

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The first known COVID-19 patient in the United States was reported on 1/20/2020. Since then, we noted increased thromboembolic events among our THA/TKA patients. Therefore, we sought to determine: (1) monthly incidences of pulmonary embolism (PE)/deep vein thrombosis (DVT) before and after January/2020 and (2) thromboembolic event rates for primary and revision patients. METHODS: We retrospectively obtained from our electronic-medical-records the total monthly number of patients (December/2018-March/2021) who underwent primary or revision THA/TKA, and among them, those who had PE/DVT during each month. Monthly rates of thromboembolic events were calculated and figures were created showing rates throughout time. The cutoff month to define before and after COVID-19 was January/2020. RESULTS: During the study period, 1.6% of patients (312/19068) had PE/DVT [PE (n = 102), DVT (n = 242), both (n = 32)]. Overall rate of PE/DVT before January/2020 was 1.2% (119/9545) and it was 2.0% (193/9523) after that month. Incidences of PE/DVT on April/June/July of 2020 were 3.4%, 3%, 3.4%, respectively. A major increase, when compared to 2019 (1.3%, 1%, 1%, respectively). An unusually high rate of PE was observed on April/2020 (3.4%), more than three times the one observed in any other month. After January/2020, there was an overall major increase of PE/DVT rates, but particularly among revision patients: 6% in five different months including 11.5% on November/2020. CONCLUSION: There was a major increase of thromboembolic events among THA/TKA patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, predominantly in revision patients. Patients need counseling about this increased risk. It remains uncertain whether more aggressive thromboprophylactic regimes should be followed.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
9.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3478-3490, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection predisposes patients to arterial and venous thrombosis. This study aimed to systematically review the available evidence in the literature for cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in association with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify cases of COVID-19-associated CVT. The search period spanned 1 January 2020 to 1 December 2020, and the review protocol (PROSPERO-CRD42020214327) followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Identified studies were evaluated for bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. A proportion meta-analysis was performed to estimate the frequency of CVT among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: We identified 57 cases from 28 reports. Study quality was mostly classified as low. CVT symptoms developed after respiratory disease in 90%, and the mean interval was 13 days. CVT involved multiple sites in 67% of individuals, the deep venous system was affected in 37%, and parenchymal hemorrhage was found in 42%. Predisposing factors for CVT beyond SARS-CoV-2 infection were present in 31%. In-hospital mortality was 40%. Using data from 34,331 patients, the estimated frequency of CVT among patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.5). In an inpatient setting, CVT accounted for 4.2% of cerebrovascular disorders in individuals with COVID-19 (cohort of 406 patients, 95% CI: 1.47-11.39). CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral venous thrombosis in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection is a rare, although there seems to be an increased relative risk. High suspicion is necessary, because the diagnosis of this potentially life-threatening condition in COVID-19 patients can be challenging. Evidence is still scarce on the pathophysiology and potential prevention of COVID-19-associated CVT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
10.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3478-3486, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thrombotic events (VTE) are frequent in COVID-19, and elevated plasma D-dimer (pDd) and dyspnea are common in both entities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the admission pDd cut-off value associated with in-hospital VTE in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective study analyzing the at-admission pDd cut-off value to predict VTE and anticoagulation intensity along hospitalization due to COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 9386 patients, 2.2% had VTE: 1.6% pulmonary embolism (PE), 0.4% deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and 0.2% both. Those with VTE had a higher prevalence of tachypnea (42.9% vs. 31.1%; p = 0.0005), basal O2 saturation <93% (45.4% vs. 33.1%; p = 0.0003), higher at admission pDd (median [IQR]: 1.4 [0.6-5.5] vs. 0.6 [0.4-1.2] µg/ml; p < 0.0001) and platelet count (median [IQR]: 208 [158-289] vs. 189 [148-245] platelets × 109/L; p = 0.0013). A pDd cut-off of 1.1 µg/ml showed specificity 72%, sensitivity 49%, positive predictive value (PPV) 4%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 99% for in-hospital VTE. A cut-off value of 4.7 µg/ml showed specificity of 95%, sensitivity of 27%, PPV of 9%, and NPV of 98%. Overall mortality was proportional to pDd value, with the lowest incidence for each pDd category depending on anticoagulation intensity: 26.3% for those with pDd >1.0 µg/ml treated with prophylactic dose (p < 0.0001), 28.8% for pDd for patients with pDd >2.0 µg/ml treated with intermediate dose (p = 0.0001), and 31.3% for those with pDd >3.0 µg/ml and full anticoagulation (p = 0.0183). CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, a pDd value greater than 3.0 µg/ml can be considered to screen VTE and to consider full-dose anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hospitalization , Humans , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
11.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic, there have been many reports of increased incidence of venous thromboembolism and arterial events as a complication. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of symptomatic thrombotic events (TEs) in patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV2 disease (coronavirus 19 [Covid-19]). METHODS: A retrospective single-center cohort study with adult patients with a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) for SARS-CoV2, included from the date of diagnosis of Covid-19 and followed for 90 days or until death. RESULTS: A total of 1621 patients were included in this study. The median age was 73 years (interquartile range25th-75th [IQR] 53-87 years) and 57% (913) were female. Overall mortality was 21.6% (348). The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs within 90 days of diagnosis was 1.8% (30 of 1621) occurring in 28 patients, including an incidence of pulmonary embolism of 0.9% (15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60%-1.6%), deep venous thrombosis of 0.61% (10, 95% CI 0.2%-1%), ischemic stroke of 0.25% (4, 95% CI 0.09%-0.65%), and ischemic arterial events of 0.06% (1, 95% CI 0.008%-0.43%). No acute coronary syndrome events were recorded. The incidence of symptomatic TEs was significantly lower in the general ward than in intensive care units (1.2% vs 5.7%; p < .001). The median time since positive rt-PCR for SARS-CoV2 to symptomatic TE was 22.5 days (IQR 19-43 days). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients receiving (53.6%) and not receiving thromboprophylaxis (66.5%) and the development of TEs. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs among these patients was lower than the incidence previously reported.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina/epidemiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/blood , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Time Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
12.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(12): 1330-1337, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of prevalence studies on deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in severe COVID-19 patients are retrospective with DVT assessment based on clinical suspicion. Our aim was to prospectively and systematically estimate the occurrence of DVT in critically-ill mechanically-ventilated patients, and to identify potential risk factors for DVT occurrence and mortality. METHODS: All patients with COVID-19 admitted to our 45 beds in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) between March 6, 2020, and April 18, 2020, requiring invasive ventilatory support were daily screened for DVT with lower extremities and jugular veins ultrasonography. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed in order to identify predictors of DVT and mortality. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients were included in the final analysis (56 men, mean age 67 years, median SOFA=7 points, median SAPS II=41 points, median PaO2/Fi02=10.8 kPa). The period prevalence of DVT was 40.8%. Thirty-one DVTs were diagnosed. Twenty-five DVTs (80.6% of total DVTs) were catheter-related, mainly in the jugular veins. Twenty-six DVTs (83.9%) occurred in patients receiving enhanced antithrombotic prophylaxis. No independent variable was predictive of DVT occurrence. Twenty-eight patients (36.8%) died during the ICU stay. Age and SOFA score were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A high number of critically-ill mechanically-ventilated COVID-19 patients developed a DVT. The majority of DVTs were catheter-related and occurred under intensive prophylactic anticoagulation. Routine ultrasound of the jugular veins should be suggested in this patient population, and in particular in presence of a central venous catheter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Critical Illness , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(38): e27216, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437853

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is associated with high mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but there remains uncertainty about the benefit of anti-coagulation prophylaxis and how to decide when ultrasound screening is indicated. We aimed to determine parameters predicting which COVID-19 patients are at risk of DVT and to assess the benefit of prophylactic anti-coagulation.Adult hospitalized patients with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) undergoing venous duplex ultrasound for DVT assessment (n = 451) were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and laboratory data within 72 hours of ultrasound were collected. Using split sampling and a 10-fold cross-validation, a random forest model was developed to find the most important variables for predicting DVT. Different d-dimer cutoffs were examined for classification of DVT. We also compared the rate of DVT between the patients going and not going under thromboprophylaxis.DVT was found in 65 (14%) of 451 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction positive patients. The random forest model, trained and cross-validated on 2/3 of the original sample (n = 301), had area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85-0.97) for prediction of DVT in the test set (n = 150), with sensitivity = 93% (95%CI: 68%-99%) and specificity = 82% (95%CI: 75%-88%). The following variables had the highest importance: d-dimer, thromboprophylaxis, systolic blood pressure, admission to ultrasound interval, and platelets. Thromboprophylaxis reduced DVT risk 4-fold from 26% to 6% (P < .001), while anti-coagulation therapy led to hemorrhagic complications in 14 (22%) of 65 patients with DVT including 2 fatal intra-cranial hemorrhages. D-dimer was the most important predictor with area under curve = 0.79 (95%CI: 0.73-0.86) by itself, and a 5000 ng/mL threshold at 7 days postCOVID-19 symptom onset had 75% (95%CI: 53%-90%) sensitivity and 81% (95%CI: 72%-88%) specificity. In comparison with d-dimer alone, the random forest model showed 68% versus 32% specificity at 95% sensitivity, and 44% versus 23% sensitivity at 95% specificity.D-dimer >5000 ng/mL predicts DVT with high accuracy suggesting regular monitoring with d-dimer in the early stages of COVID-19 may be useful. A random forest model improved the prediction of DVT. Thromboprophylaxis reduced DVT in COVID-19 patients and should be considered in all patients. Full anti-coagulation therapy has a risk of life-threatening hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/standards , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/mortality
14.
Lancet ; 398(10306): 1147-1156, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A new syndrome of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) has emerged as a rare side-effect of vaccination against COVID-19. Cerebral venous thrombosis is the most common manifestation of this syndrome but, to our knowledge, has not previously been described in detail. We aimed to document the features of post-vaccination cerebral venous thrombosis with and without VITT and to assess whether VITT is associated with poorer outcomes. METHODS: For this multicentre cohort study, clinicians were asked to submit all cases in which COVID-19 vaccination preceded the onset of cerebral venous thrombosis, regardless of the type of vaccine, interval between vaccine and onset of cerebral venous thrombosis symptoms, or blood test results. We collected clinical characteristics, laboratory results (including the results of tests for anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies where available), and radiological features at hospital admission of patients with cerebral venous thrombosis after vaccination against COVID-19, with no exclusion criteria. We defined cerebral venous thrombosis cases as VITT-associated if the lowest platelet count recorded during admission was below 150 × 109 per L and, if the D-dimer was measured, the highest value recorded was greater than 2000 µg/L. We compared the VITT and non-VITT groups for the proportion of patients who had died or were dependent on others to help them with their activities of daily living (modified Rankin score 3-6) at the end of hospital admission (the primary outcome of the study). The VITT group were also compared with a large cohort of patients with cerebral venous thrombosis described in the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and May 20, 2021, we received data on 99 patients from collaborators in 43 hospitals across the UK. Four patients were excluded because they did not have definitive evidence of cerebral venous thrombosis on imaging. Of the remaining 95 patients, 70 had VITT and 25 did not. The median age of the VITT group (47 years, IQR 32-55) was lower than in the non-VITT group (57 years; 41-62; p=0·0045). Patients with VITT-associated cerebral venous thrombosis had more intracranial veins thrombosed (median three, IQR 2-4) than non-VITT patients (two, 2-3; p=0·041) and more frequently had extracranial thrombosis (31 [44%] of 70 patients) compared with non-VITT patients (one [4%] of 25 patients; p=0·0003). The primary outcome of death or dependency occurred more frequently in patients with VITT-associated cerebral venous thrombosis (33 [47%] of 70 patients) compared with the non-VITT control group (four [16%] of 25 patients; p=0·0061). This adverse outcome was less frequent in patients with VITT who received non-heparin anticoagulants (18 [36%] of 50 patients) compared with those who did not (15 [75%] of 20 patients; p=0·0031), and in those who received intravenous immunoglobulin (22 [40%] of 55 patients) compared with those who did not (11 [73%] of 15 patients; p=0·022). INTERPRETATION: Cerebral venous thrombosis is more severe in the context of VITT. Non-heparin anticoagulants and immunoglobulin treatment might improve outcomes of VITT-associated cerebral venous thrombosis. Since existing criteria excluded some patients with otherwise typical VITT-associated cerebral venous thrombosis, we propose new diagnostic criteria that are more appropriate. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/drug therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
15.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(6): 548-557, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406908

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to review the prevalence, the risk factors and the outcomes of venous thrombosis (VT) in patients hospitalized for COronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Electronic bibliographic databases were searched using the words "COVID venous thrombosis". The review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement standards. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The search of the literature retrieved 877 results. After assessment of full texts, 69 papers were included in the qualitative analysis and 23 of them in the quantitative evaluation. The analyzed studies included a total of 106,838 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from January to December 2020. The pooled reported prevalence rate of VT was in median 16.7% (IQR 5.8-30%), being higher in ICU patients (60.8-85.4%). VT events were reported in about 75% of cases in the popliteal and calf veins. Signs and symptoms were present in 6.1% of cases. At quantitative evaluation, older age, D-dimer and obesity increased the odds to experience a VT (OR=3.54, 95% CI 0.65-6.43, P=0.01; OR=956.86, 95% CI 225.67-1668.05, P=0.01; OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.01-1.99, P=0.03 respectively). Female sex seemed to be protective against the odds of VT (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.93, P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, VT is a relatively common finding, with higher prevalence rates in ICU patients. VT occurs mostly in the distal regions of the lower limb and is asymptomatic in most cases. Older age, obesity and higher D-dimer values on admission increased the odds of VT, while female sex was protective against the odds of VT.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Age Factors , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
16.
Phlebology ; 37(1): 21-25, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among the multiple complex pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Covid-19 pneumonia, immunothrombosis has been shown to play a key role. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the monthly prevalence of deep venous thrombosis in a university hospital that admitted 5159 patients with Covid-19 in the medical ward and intensive care unit (ICU) and investigate whether there has been an increase in the prevalence of deep vein thrombosis and dead recently. METHOD: A clinical trial was conducted evaluating 5159 patients admitted to the university hospital, Hospital de Base in São Jose do Rio Preto-Brazil, with a positive test for Covid-19, the prevalence of monthly deep venous thrombosis and the increase in thrombotic and events and mortality in March 2020 to April 2021 compared to the previous January and February with March-April of 2021. The evaluated by Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The prevalence of deep vein thrombosis varied between the months of 0.26% to 7%, with an average of 2.5%. The months of March and April 2021 had a significant increase in venous thrombosis and mortality in relation to the months of January and February 2021. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of deep venous thrombosis was variable during the months evaluated, since the beginning of Covid-19, but there was a significant increase in these last two months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
18.
Cardiol J ; 28(6): 941-953, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346686

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) pandemic has presently stunted the growth of the airline industry. Despite the setbacks, pre-COVID-19 passenger numbers are forecasted to return by as early as 2024. As the industry recovers, the number of long-distance flights will surely continue to increase like it did before the pandemic. The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following air travel is also likely to increase. Although not common, the unique environment of air travel exposes individuals with particular health conditions to an elevated risk of acquiring VTEs. Numerous factors increasing the risk of developing VTE related to air travel have been identified, including inherited and acquired flight-related aspects. Non-pharmacological approaches to reduce air travel-related VTEs involve simple foot movements, compression socks and stockings, intermittent pneumatic compression devices, a novel modified airline seat, and foot exercisers. Pharmacological methods include heparins and direct oral anticoagulants. More than 30 reliable articles were evaluated to present the current knowledge regarding air travel-related VTEs, their risk factors, and prophylactic methods. Issues in research methodologies found in the literature were identified and discussed. Further research involving international collaboration projects is recommended. The authors' perspectives regarding long flights in previously infected COVID-19 individuals are also included.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Travel-Related Illness , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346476

ABSTRACT

Deep vein thrombosis causes several acute and chronic vessel complications and puts patients at risk of subsequent sepsis development. This unique study aimed to estimate the risk of sepsis development in DVT patients compared with non-DVT patients. This population-based cohort study used records of a longitudinal health insurance database containing two million patients defined in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Our study included patients aged over 20 years with a new diagnosis of DVT with at least two outpatient department visits or an admission between 2001 and 2014. Patients with a diagnosis of sepsis before the index date were excluded. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to homogenize the baseline characteristics between the two groups. To define the independent risk of the DVT group, a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratios. After PSM, the DVT group (n = 5753) exhibited a higher risk of sepsis (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.59-1.90) compared with non-DVT group (n = 5753). Patients with an increased risk of sepsis were associated with being elderly aged, male, having diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, malignancy, and use of antibiotics. In conclusion, this population-based cohort study demonstrated an increased risk of sepsis in DVT patients compared with non-DVT patients. Thus, early prevention and adequate treatment of DVT is necessary in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Embolism , Sepsis , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Cohort Studies , Humans , Incidence , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sepsis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255541, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339414

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recently, several single center studies have suggested a protective effect of the influenza vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study utilizes a continuously updated Electronic Medical Record (EMR) network to assess the possible benefits of influenza vaccination mitigating critical adverse outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients from 56 healthcare organizations (HCOs). METHODS: The de-identified records of 73,346,583 patients were retrospectively screened. Two cohorts of 37,377 patients, having either received or not received influenza vaccination six months-two weeks prior to SARS-CoV-2 positive diagnosis, were created using Common Procedural Terminology (CPT) and logical observation identifiers names and codes (LOINC) codes. Adverse outcomes within 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis were compared between cohorts. Outcomes were assessed with stringent propensity score matching including age, race, ethnicity, gender, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), obesity, heart disease, and lifestyle habits such as smoking. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-positive patients who received the influenza vaccine experienced decreased sepsis (p<0.01, Risk Ratio: 1.361-1.450, 95% CI:1.123-1.699, NNT:286) and stroke (p<0.02, RR: 1.451-1.580, 95% CI:1.075-2.034, NNT:625) across all time points. ICU admissions were lower in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients receiving the influenza vaccine at 30, 90, and 120 days (p<0.03, RR: 1.174-1.200, 95% CI:1.003-1.385, NNT:435), while approaching significance at 60 days (p = 0.0509, RR: 1.156, 95% CI:0.999-1.338). Patients who received the influenza vaccine experienced fewer DVTs 60-120 days after positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (p<0.02, RR:1.41-1.530, 95% CI:1.082-2.076, NNT:1000) and experienced fewer emergency department (ED) visits 90-120 days post SARS-CoV-2-positive diagnosis (p<0.01, RR:1.204-1.580, 95% CI: 1.050-1.476, NNT:176). CONCLUSION: Our analysis outlines the potential protective effect of influenza vaccination in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients against adverse outcomes within 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of a positive diagnosis. Significant findings favoring influenza vaccination mitigating the risks of sepsis, stroke, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), emergency department (ED) & Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions suggest a potential protective effect that could benefit populations without readily available access to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Thus further investigation with future prospective studies is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Time Factors , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
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