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1.
BMJ ; 377: e069590, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and bleeding after covid-19. DESIGN: Self-controlled case series and matched cohort study. SETTING: National registries in Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 1 057 174 people who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 1 February 2020 and 25 May 2021 in Sweden, matched on age, sex, and county of residence to 4 076 342 control participants. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Self-controlled case series and conditional Poisson regression were used to determine the incidence rate ratio and risk ratio with corresponding 95% confidence intervals for a first deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or bleeding event. In the self-controlled case series, the incidence rate ratios for first time outcomes after covid-19 were determined using set time intervals and the spline model. The risk ratios for first time and all events were determined during days 1-30 after covid-19 or index date using the matched cohort study, and adjusting for potential confounders (comorbidities, cancer, surgery, long term anticoagulation treatment, previous venous thromboembolism, or previous bleeding event). RESULTS: Compared with the control period, incidence rate ratios were significantly increased 70 days after covid-19 for deep vein thrombosis, 110 days for pulmonary embolism, and 60 days for bleeding. In particular, incidence rate ratios for a first pulmonary embolism were 36.17 (95% confidence interval 31.55 to 41.47) during the first week after covid-19 and 46.40 (40.61 to 53.02) during the second week. Incidence rate ratios during days 1-30 after covid-19 were 5.90 (5.12 to 6.80) for deep vein thrombosis, 31.59 (27.99 to 35.63) for pulmonary embolism, and 2.48 (2.30 to 2.68) for bleeding. Similarly, the risk ratios during days 1-30 after covid-19 were 4.98 (4.96 to 5.01) for deep vein thrombosis, 33.05 (32.8 to 33.3) for pulmonary embolism, and 1.88 (1.71 to 2.07) for bleeding, after adjusting for the effect of potential confounders. The rate ratios were highest in patients with critical covid-19 and highest during the first pandemic wave in Sweden compared with the second and third waves. In the same period, the absolute risk among patients with covid-19 was 0.039% (401 events) for deep vein thrombosis, 0.17% (1761 events) for pulmonary embolism, and 0.101% (1002 events) for bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that covid-19 is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and bleeding. These results could impact recommendations on diagnostic and prophylactic strategies against venous thromboembolism after covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Venous Thrombosis/chemically induced , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779331

ABSTRACT

A 49-year-old woman presented with severe abdominal pain and per rectal bleed, 13 days after receiving the first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine. Blood tests showed remarkably low platelet count, unmeasurable D-dimer levels and low fibrinogen levels, consistent with a diagnosis of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopaenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. CT mesenteric angiogram revealed massive portosplenic mesenteric vein thrombosis. CT head also noted non-occlusive thrombosis at several sites. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins, plasma exchange, anticoagulants and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure. Following a prolonged inpatient stay, she was discharged with subsequent short bowel syndrome and long-term parenteral nutrition. This particular clinical scenario aims to highlight the importance for clinicians to remain vigilant for rare complications associated with the AstraZeneca vaccine and the subsequent management involved, at a time where it is vital to vaccinate globally in order to control the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Edema , Female , Humans , Ischemia , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Vaccines/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 277, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the RECOVERY trial showed that dexamethasone was efficacious for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), its impact on the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) and other serious procoagulant events was not assessed. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report the case of a previously healthy 83-year-old woman with COVID-19, without any genetic predisposition to thrombosis. She developed moderate respiratory distress 12 days after symptom onset and a 10-day course of dexamethasone therapy was initiated. Her clinical condition and imaging findings improved initially; however, they deteriorated after the completion of dexamethasone therapy, despite the improvement in her pneumonia and viral clearance. Laboratory tests showed markedly raised serum D-dimer, ferritin, and sIL-2R levels, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the left iliac vein and PE of the right pulmonary artery. The DVT and PE were successfully treated using intravenous heparin administration. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates the potential risk of rebound inflammation and procoagulant events following dexamethasone withdrawal. We believe that COVID-19-induced DVT and PE can be affected by dexamethasone therapy. Although dexamethasone reduces procoagulant factors, increases anticoagulant factors, and modulates cytokines, which can suppress/delay thrombus formation during treatment, it confers the risk for rebound cytokine production after treatment completion, triggering cytokine and coagulation cascades that can lead to thromboembolic diseases. In this critical clinical period, the patient's deteriorating condition may be overlooked because of the masking effects of dexamethasone treatment on fever and other clinical conditions and laboratory changes. Clinicians should follow-up coagulation markers carefully and contrast-enhanced computed tomography is useful for detecting coagulation; and, if PE occurs, therapeutic heparin administration is essential because emboli can also generate cytokines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
4.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2022: 5900468, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759506

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Several studies have demonstrated that thromboembolic events increased in patients with coronavirus infection, usually occurring in elderly patients with severe illness, associated with comorbid diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare venous thromboembolic disease occurring typically in patients with an underlying disease such as decompensated cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aim: To evaluate incidence of occurrence of acute PVT in cirrhotic patients infected with 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study involved 70 patients of the liver cirrhosis: (group A) 28 patients with liver cirrhosis infected with COVID-19, and 42 patients with liver cirrhosis as the control group matched for age and sex (group B). All patients were subjected to thorough medical history, routine investigations (complete blood count, liver, and renal function tests), imaging in the form of abdominal and Doppler ultrasonography to assess the presence of acute PVT, serum ferritin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and PCR of COVID-19 for group A only. Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding Doppler ultrasound findings as 3 of the patients in group A had PVT (10.7%), 2 of them had HCC diagnosed by triphasic CT abdomen, and only 1 patient in group B had PVT (2.3%) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In cirrhotic patients infected with COVID-19, portal vein thrombosis may be a potential complication even in the absence of hepatocellular carcinoma; further prospective studies with longer follow-up may be needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Portal Vein , Prospective Studies , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e222940, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748799

ABSTRACT

Importance: Reports of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) after messenger RNA (mRNA)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has caused safety concerns, but CVT is also known to occur after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Comparing the relative incidence of CVT after infection vs vaccination may provide a better perspective of this complication. Objective: To compare the incidence rates and clinical characteristics of CVT following either SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between January 23, 2020, and August 3, 2021, this observational cohort study was conducted at all public acute hospitals in Singapore, where patients hospitalized with CVT within 6 weeks of SARS-CoV-2 infection or after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) were identified. Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or positive serology. National SARS-CoV-2 infection data were obtained from the National Centre for Infectious Disease, Singapore, and vaccination data were obtained from the National Immunisation Registry, Singapore. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics, crude incidence rate (IR), and incidence rate ratio (IRR) of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infection and after mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Results: Among 62 447 individuals diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infections included in this study, 58 989 (94.5%) were male; the median (range) age was 34 (0-102) years; 6 CVT cases were identified (all were male; median [range] age was 33.5 [27-40] years). Among 3 006 662 individuals who received at least 1 dose of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 1 626 623 (54.1%) were male; the median (range) age was 50 (12-121) years; 9 CVT cases were identified (7 male individuals [77.8%]; median [range] age: 60 [46-76] years). The crude IR of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infections was 83.3 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 30.6-181.2 per 100 000 person-years) and 2.59 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 1.19-4.92 per 100 000 person-years) after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Six (66.7%) received BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine and 3 (33.3%) received mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. The crude IRR of CVT hospitalizations with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with those who received mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was 32.1 (95% CI, 9.40-101; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The incidence rate of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly higher compared with after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. CVT remained rare after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, reinforcing its safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Vaccination , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Young Adult
8.
Circ J ; 86(3): 458-463, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) among hospitalized psychiatric patients after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection remains unclear.Methods and Results:We retrospectively investigated the prevalence of proximal DVT after COVID-19 infection among 50 hospitalized patients in a Japanese psychiatric hospital that in which a COVID-19 cluster developed between August and September 2020. The prevalence of proximal DVT was 10.0%. Patients with proximal DVT had a lower body weight and higher maximum D-dimer levels and International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism (IMPROVE) VTE scores. CONCLUSIONS: After COVID-19 infection, hospitalized psychiatric patients are at high risk of DVT and should be carefully followed up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(2)2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667242

ABSTRACT

Background: The frequent occurrence of thromboembolic events in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus is a well-recognized fact in the medical literature, but less data is available about possible hemorrhagic incidents. Methods: We report the case of a 76-year-old patient who suffered from a mild COVID-19 infection in September 2021 and after four weeks, experienced a completely spontaneous popliteal hematoma followed by deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Therapy with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) was started, but subsequently, the patient developed a massive sub-pectoral and calf hematoma leading to moderate post-hemorrhagic anemia and acute kidney injury. This patient was treated completely conservatively. Conclusions: Considering the continuous spread of the infection with various, continuously evolving strains of this virus and the extended use of LWMH in clinical practice, such cases were seldom described in the medical literature, but should be considered as a potential cause for hemorrhagic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Hematoma/etiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(4): 106306, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic hyper-coagulabilty leading to micro and macro thrombosis is a known complication of Coronavirus disease - 2019(COVID -19). The postulated mechanism appears to be the viral activation of endothelium, triggering the coagulation pathways. Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses (CVT), a potentially serious condition, has been increasingly reported with COVID - 19 infection. In this clinical study we attempt to describe the clinical profile, investigations and outcomes of patients with COVID- 19 associated CVT. METHODS: This is a single center prospective observational study from South India. The study included patients (aged >18 years) with concomitant COVID infection and CVT. The clinical, laboratory, imaging characteristics, management and outcomes were described and compared with COVID negative CVT patients. RESULTS: Out of 97 cases of CVT treated at our center during the first and second waves of the COVID pandemic 11/97 (11%) were COVID related CVT. Among these 11 patients, 9 (81%) had presented with only CVT related symptoms and signs and were tested positive for COVID - 19 infection during the pre-hospitalization screening. Respiratory symptoms were absent in 90% of the patients. Headache (100%) and seizures (90%) were the common presenting symptoms. The median time to diagnosis was 6 hours, from presentation to the emergency department. Transverse sinus was involved 10/11 (90%) and majority of them (9/11) had Haemorrhagic Venous Infarction (HVI). Acute inflammatory markers were elevated in comparison with non COVID CVT patients, with the mean serum D-dimer being 2462.75 ng/ml and the C-reactive protein was 64.5 mg/dl. Three patients (30%) underwent decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) because of large hemispheric HVI. All patients survived in the COVID CVT group while the mortality in the non COVID group was 4%. At 6 months follow up excellent outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2) was noted equally in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms and signs of CVT may be the only presentation of COVID-19 infection. Prompt recognition and aggressive medical management including DHC offers excellent outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Veins , Intracranial Thrombosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Venous Thrombosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
12.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650643

ABSTRACT

The increased plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in patients with COVID-19 was reported in many studies, and its correlation with disease severity and mortality suggest its important role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis in COVID-19. We performed histological and immunohistochemical studies of the lungs of 29 patients who died from COVID-19. We found a significant increase in the intensity of immunohistochemical reaction for VWF in the pulmonary vascular endothelium when the disease duration was more than 10 days. In the patients who had thrombotic complications, the VWF immunostaining in the pulmonary vascular endothelium was significantly more intense than in nonsurvivors without thrombotic complications. Duration of disease and thrombotic complications were found to be independent predictors of increased VWF immunostaining in the endothelium of pulmonary vessels. We also revealed that bacterial pneumonia was associated with increased VWF staining intensity in pulmonary arterial, arteriolar, and venular endothelium, while lung ventilation was an independent predictor of increased VWF immunostaining in arterial endothelium. The results of the study demonstrated an important role of endothelial VWF in the pathogenesis of thrombus formation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/blood supply , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , von Willebrand Factor/analysis , Adult , Autopsy , COVID-19/blood , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism , Severity of Illness Index , Venous Thrombosis/classification
13.
Phlebology ; 37(3): 180-187, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a new and rare syndrome resulting from the largest vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2 in the history of mankind. The aim of this review is to clarify underlying mechanisms, pathology, diagnosis, and therapy, with the related clinical implications. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature review in order to collect the clinical and treatment data about patients suffering from VITT. PubMed, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science were screened regarding patients who developed VITT. Last search was launched on June 30th 2021. RESULTS: Abdominal and/or neurological symptoms develop between 5 and 20 days after vaccine administration and do not involve the lower extremities. VITT is suspected if the platelet count is lower than 100.000/mm3 and D-dimer is higher than the age-adjusted range. Medical treatment is mainly based on intravenous immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, and anticoagulant drugs with a short plasma half-life, but the complete avoidance of low molecular weight heparin is recommended. Endovascular treatment and/or decompressive craniectomy might be an option in a minority of cases. CONCLUSION: Due to widespread vaccination concerns, the vascular specialist and phlebologist are increasingly consulted to prevent or diagnose VITT. The latter has peculiar and completely different localizations, symptoms, and treatment compared to the common pictures of venous thrombosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(1)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636265

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) rarely develops after many COVID-19 vaccines. A 51-year-old woman re-presented to hospital with a 4 day history of headache, vomiting, diarrhoea and left calf pain, 11 days after her first dose of ChAdOx1nCoV-19 (AstraZenica) vaccine. Her neurological examination was normal. Blood tests demonstrated a low platelet count, raised D-dimer and CRP, and a positive heparin/anti-PF4 antibody assay. CT venogram demonstrated widespread cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. She was commenced on fondaparinux and intravenous immunoglobulins. The following day she developed an asymmetric quadriplegia and aphasia. CT angiogram demonstrated new bilateral cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) thrombi. She underwent stent-retriever mechanical thrombectomy of bilateral ICA and cerebral venous sinuses. Next day she had right hemiparesis and expressive dysphasia, which are improving. Thromboses due to VITT can progress rapidly to involve cerebral arteries and venous sinuses, and may warrant urgent arterial and venous thrombectomy to reduce morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
15.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 420, 2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic spread worldwide, case reports and small series identified its association with an increasing number of medical conditions including a propensity for thrombotic complications. And since the nephrotic syndrome is also a thrombophilic state, its co-occurrence with the SARS-CoV-2 infection is likely to be associated with an even higher risk of thrombosis, particularly in the presence of known or unknown additional risk factors. Lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are the most common manifestations of COVID-19-associated hypercoagulable state with other venous or arterial sites being much less frequently involved. Although splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) has been reported to be 25 times less common than usual site venous thromboembolism (VTE) and rarely occurs in nephrotic patients, it can have catastrophic consequences. A small number of SVT cases have been reported in COVID-19 infected patients in spite of their number exceeding 180 million worldwide. CASE PRESENTATION: An unvaccinated young adult male with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) who was in a complete nephrotic remission relapsed following contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection and developed abdominal pain and diarrhea. Abdominal US revealed portal vein thrombosis. The patient was anticoagulated, yet the SVT rapidly propagated to involve the spleno-mesenteric, intrahepatic and the right hepatic veins. In spite of mechanical thrombectomy, thrombolytics and anticoagulation, he developed mesenteric ischemia which progressed to gangrene leading to bowel resection and a complicated hospital course. CONCLUSION: Our case highlights the potential for a catastrophic outcome when COVID-19 infection occurs in those with a concomitant hypercoagulable state and reminds us of the need for a careful assessment of abdominal symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mesenteric Ischemia/etiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Portal System , Splanchnic Circulation , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Gangrene/etiology , Humans , Intestines/pathology , Male , Mesenteric Ischemia/therapy , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261786, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638981

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is typically compared with influenza to contextualize its health risks. SARS-CoV-2 has been linked with coagulation disturbances including arterial thrombosis, leading to considerable interest in antithrombotic therapy for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the independent thromboembolic risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with influenza remains incompletely understood. We evaluated the adjusted risks of thromboembolic events after a diagnosis of COVID-19 compared with influenza in a large retrospective cohort. METHODS: We used a US-based electronic health record (EHR) dataset linked with insurance claims to identify adults diagnosed with COVID-19 between April 1, 2020 and October 31, 2020. We identified influenza patients diagnosed between October 1, 2018 and April 31, 2019. Primary outcomes [venous composite of pulmonary embolism (PE) and acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT); arterial composite of ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI)] and secondary outcomes were assessed 90 days post-diagnosis. Propensity scores (PS) were calculated using demographic, clinical, and medication variables. PS-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: There were 417,975 COVID-19 patients (median age 57y, 61% women), and 345,934 influenza patients (median age 47y, 66% women). Compared with influenza, patients with COVID-19 had higher venous thromboembolic risk (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.38-1.70), but not arterial thromboembolic risk (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95-1.10). Secondary analyses demonstrated similar risk for ischemic stroke (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.98-1.25) and MI (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.03) and higher risk for DVT (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.19-1.56) and PE (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.57-2.10) in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In a large retrospective US cohort, COVID-19 was independently associated with higher 90-day risk for venous thrombosis, but not arterial thrombosis, as compared with influenza. These findings may inform crucial knowledge gaps regarding the specific thromboembolic risks of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thromboembolism/etiology , United States , Young Adult
17.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 50(1): 68-74, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625868

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The first known COVID-19 patient in the United States was reported on 1/20/2020. Since then, we noted increased thromboembolic events among our THA/TKA patients. Therefore, we sought to determine: (1) monthly incidences of pulmonary embolism (PE)/deep vein thrombosis (DVT) before and after January/2020 and (2) thromboembolic event rates for primary and revision patients. METHODS: We retrospectively obtained from our electronic-medical-records the total monthly number of patients (December/2018-March/2021) who underwent primary or revision THA/TKA, and among them, those who had PE/DVT during each month. Monthly rates of thromboembolic events were calculated and figures were created showing rates throughout time. The cutoff month to define before and after COVID-19 was January/2020. RESULTS: During the study period, 1.6% of patients (312/19068) had PE/DVT [PE (n = 102), DVT (n = 242), both (n = 32)]. Overall rate of PE/DVT before January/2020 was 1.2% (119/9545) and it was 2.0% (193/9523) after that month. Incidences of PE/DVT on April/June/July of 2020 were 3.4%, 3%, 3.4%, respectively. A major increase, when compared to 2019 (1.3%, 1%, 1%, respectively). An unusually high rate of PE was observed on April/2020 (3.4%), more than three times the one observed in any other month. After January/2020, there was an overall major increase of PE/DVT rates, but particularly among revision patients: 6% in five different months including 11.5% on November/2020. CONCLUSION: There was a major increase of thromboembolic events among THA/TKA patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, predominantly in revision patients. Patients need counseling about this increased risk. It remains uncertain whether more aggressive thromboprophylactic regimes should be followed.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
18.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 56(3): 258-262, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582580

ABSTRACT

IntroductionPublished evidence of venous thrombotic complications of COVID-19 is lacking from India. This case series consists of twenty-nine adult patients who were COVID -19 positive and treated for Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, in India. The study was aimed at analyzing patient demographics of patients with DVT and the outcome of Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis (CDT) in COVID positive patients. Material and Methods: Patients who developed DVT while or after being COVID positive were managed between February and April 2021 at the institution of the first two authors and were included in this retrospective study. Demographic, clinical data, laboratory data, and treatment given were analyzed. All patients were followed up for 3 months with a Villalta score. Results: There were a total of 29 patients (12 male and 17 female) included in the study with a mean age of 47 ± 17 years. The average time of presentation from being COVID positive was 17.8 ± 3.6 days and one patient developed DVT after becoming Covid negative. All but one patient had lower limb involvement, with 42.8% having proximal and 57.2% distal DVT. All patients with Iliofemoral and two with Femoropopliteal DVT were treated with catheter-di thrombolysis and the other 15 patients were managed with anticoagulation alone. No re-thrombosis was observed in the thrombolysis group. Overall average Villalta score at 3 months was 10.7 ± 2.1 with a score of 10.58 ± 2.1 in the anticoagulation-only group and 10.85 ± 2.3 in the CDT group. Conclusion: COVID-19 seems to be an additional risk factor in the development of DVT. The outcome of such patients, treated by thrombolysis appears to be similar to non-COVID patients. In this, observational experience of the authors suggests that CDT could be offered to COVID positive patients with symptomatic Iliofemoral DVT with good outcomes and an acceptable post-intervention Villalta score.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Catheters , Female , Humans , Iliac Vein , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
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