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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650643

ABSTRACT

The increased plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in patients with COVID-19 was reported in many studies, and its correlation with disease severity and mortality suggest its important role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis in COVID-19. We performed histological and immunohistochemical studies of the lungs of 29 patients who died from COVID-19. We found a significant increase in the intensity of immunohistochemical reaction for VWF in the pulmonary vascular endothelium when the disease duration was more than 10 days. In the patients who had thrombotic complications, the VWF immunostaining in the pulmonary vascular endothelium was significantly more intense than in nonsurvivors without thrombotic complications. Duration of disease and thrombotic complications were found to be independent predictors of increased VWF immunostaining in the endothelium of pulmonary vessels. We also revealed that bacterial pneumonia was associated with increased VWF staining intensity in pulmonary arterial, arteriolar, and venular endothelium, while lung ventilation was an independent predictor of increased VWF immunostaining in arterial endothelium. The results of the study demonstrated an important role of endothelial VWF in the pathogenesis of thrombus formation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/blood supply , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , von Willebrand Factor/analysis , Adult , Autopsy , COVID-19/blood , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism , Severity of Illness Index , Venous Thrombosis/classification
2.
Cell Res ; 31(12): 1244-1262, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493090

ABSTRACT

The infusion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) potentially improves clinical symptoms, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled (29 patients/group) phase II clinical trial to validate previous findings and explore the potential mechanisms. Patients treated with umbilical cord-derived MSCs exhibited a shorter hospital stay (P = 0.0198) and less time required for symptoms remission (P = 0.0194) than those who received placebo. Based on chest images, both severe and critical patients treated with MSCs showed improvement by day 7 (P = 0.0099) and day 21 (P = 0.0084). MSC-treated patients had fewer adverse events. MSC infusion reduced the levels of C-reactive protein, proinflammatory cytokines, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and promoted the maintenance of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. To explore how MSCs modulate the immune system, we employed single-cell RNA sequencing analysis on peripheral blood. Our analysis identified a novel subpopulation of VNN2+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor-like (HSPC-like) cells expressing CSF3R and PTPRE that were mobilized following MSC infusion. Genes encoding chemotaxis factors - CX3CR1 and L-selectin - were upregulated in various immune cells. MSC treatment also regulated B cell subsets and increased the expression of costimulatory CD28 in T cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition, an in vivo mouse study confirmed that MSCs suppressed NET release and reduced venous thrombosis by upregulating kindlin-3 signaling. Together, our results underscore the role of MSCs in improving COVID-19 patient outcomes via maintenance of immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Venous Thrombosis/metabolism , Venous Thrombosis/pathology
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13325, 2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281739

ABSTRACT

COVID 19 is associated with a hypercoagulable state and frequent thromboembolic complications. For how long this acquired abnormality lasts potentially requiring preventive measures, such as anticoagulation remains to be delineated. We used viscoelastic rotational thrombelastometry (ROTEM) in a single center cohort of 13 critical ill patients and performed follow up examinations three months after discharge from ICU. We found clear signs of a hypercoagulable state due to severe hypofibrinolysis and a high rate of thromboembolic complications during the phase of acute illness. Three month follow up revealed normalization of the initial coagulation abnormality and no evidence of venous thrombosis in all thirteen patients. In our cohort the coagulation profile was completely normalized three months after COVID-19. Based on these findings, discontinuation of anticoagulation can be discussed in patients with complete venous reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thrombelastography , Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/pathology
4.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(5): 319-329, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171402

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a clinical syndrome caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients with severe disease show hyperactivation of the immune system, which can affect multiple organs besides the lungs. Here, we propose that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a process known as immunothrombosis, in which activated neutrophils and monocytes interact with platelets and the coagulation cascade, leading to intravascular clot formation in small and larger vessels. Microthrombotic complications may contribute to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other organ dysfunctions. Therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing immunothrombosis may therefore be useful. Several antithrombotic and immunomodulating drugs have been proposed as candidates to treat patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection pathogenesis and how it contributes to critical illness and its complications may help to improve risk stratification and develop targeted therapies to reduce the acute and long-term consequences of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/immunology , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Blood Coagulation/immunology , Blood Platelets/immunology , Critical Illness/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Lung/blood supply , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Monocytes/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
5.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(48): 7693-7706, 2020 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease can frequently affect the liver. Data on hepatic histopathological findings in COVID-19 is scarce. AIM: To characterize hepatic pathological findings in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020192813), following PRISMA guidelines. Eligible trials were those including patients of any age and COVID-19 diagnosis based on a molecular test. Histopathological reports from deceased COVID-19 patients undergoing autopsy or liver biopsy were reviewed. Articles including less than ten patients were excluded. Proportions were pooled using random-effects models. Q statistic and I 2 were used to assess heterogeneity and levels of evidence, respectively. RESULTS: We identified 18 studies from 7 countries; all were case reports and case series from autopsies. All the patients were over 15 years old, and 67.2% were male. We performed a meta-analysis of 5 studies, including 116 patients. Pooled prevalence estimates of liver histopathological findings were hepatic steatosis 55.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 46.2-63.8], congestion of hepatic sinuses 34.7% (95%CI: 7.9-68.4), vascular thrombosis 29.4% (95%CI: 0.4-87.2), fibrosis 20.5% (95%CI: 0.6-57.9), Kupffer cell hyperplasia 13.5% (95%CI: 0.6-54.3), portal inflammation 13.2% (95%CI: 0.1-48.8), and lobular inflammation 11.6% (95%CI: 0.3-35.7). We also identified the presence of venous outflow obstruction, phlebosclerosis of the portal vein, herniated portal vein, periportal abnormal vessels, hemophagocytosis, and necrosis. CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of hepatic steatosis and vascular thrombosis as major histological liver features. Other frequent findings included portal and lobular inflammation and Kupffer cell hyperplasia or proliferation. Further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms and implications of these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fatty Liver/epidemiology , Hepatic Veins/pathology , Liver/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Fatty Liver/etiology , Fatty Liver/pathology , Humans , Kupffer Cells/pathology , Liver/blood supply , Liver/cytology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/pathology
6.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(6): 688-694, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971191

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread all over the world, since its discovery in 2019, Wuhan, China. This disease is called COVID-19 and already killed over 1 million people worldwide. The clinical symptoms include fever, dry cough, dyspnea, headache, dizziness, generalized weakness, vomiting, and diarrhea. Unfortunately, so far, there is no validated vaccine, and its management consists mainly of supportive care. Venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are highly prevalent in patients suffering from severe COVID-19. In fact, a prothrombotic state seems to be present in most fatal cases of the disease. SARS-CoV-2 leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines, causing immune-mediated tissue damage, disruption of the endothelial barrier, and uncontrolled thrombogenesis. Thrombin is the key regulator of coagulation and fibrin formation. In severe COVID-19, a dysfunctional of physiological anticoagulant mechanisms leads to a progressive increase of thrombin activity, which is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome development and a poor prognosis. Protease-activated receptor type 1 (PAR1) is the main thrombin receptor and may represent an essential link between coagulation and inflammation in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. In this review, we discuss the potential role of PAR1 inhibition and regulation in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Receptor, PAR-1/metabolism , Thrombin/metabolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Receptor, PAR-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
8.
J Pediatr ; 226: 281-284.e1, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737186

ABSTRACT

A 12-year-old girl with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection presented as phlegmasia cerulea dolens with venous gangrene. Emergent mechanical thrombectomy was complicated by a massive pulmonary embolism and cardiac arrest, for which extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation and therapeutic hypothermia were used. Staged ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis was used for treatment of bilateral pulmonary emboli and the extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis while the patient received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. We highlight the need for heightened suspicion for occult severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection among children presenting with unusual thrombotic complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Thrombophlebitis/virology , Veins/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Female , Gangrene/diagnosis , Gangrene/virology , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombophlebitis/diagnosis , Thrombophlebitis/pathology , Thrombophlebitis/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
9.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(4): 1275-1284, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526787

ABSTRACT

Autopsies of deceased with a confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can provide important insights into the novel disease and its course. Furthermore, autopsies are essential for the correct statistical recording of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) deaths. In the northern German Federal State of Hamburg, all deaths of Hamburg citizens with ante- or postmortem PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection have been autopsied since the outbreak of the pandemic in Germany. Our evaluation provides a systematic overview of the first 80 consecutive full autopsies. A proposal for the categorisation of deaths with SARS-CoV-2 infection is presented (category 1: definite COVID-19 death; category 2: probable COVID-19 death; category 3: possible COVID-19 death with an equal alternative cause of death; category 4: SARS-CoV-2 detection with cause of death not associated to COVID-19). In six cases, SARS-CoV-2 infection was diagnosed postmortem by a positive PCR test in a nasopharyngeal or lung tissue swab. In the other 74 cases, SARS-CoV-2 infection had already been known antemortem. The deceased were aged between 52 and 96 years (average 79.2 years, median 82.4 years). In the study cohort, 34 deceased were female (38%) and 46 male (62%). Overall, 38% of the deceased were overweight or obese. All deceased, except for two women, in whom no significant pre-existing conditions were found autoptically, had relevant comorbidities (in descending order of frequency): (1) diseases of the cardiovascular system, (2) lung diseases, (3) central nervous system diseases, (4) kidney diseases, and (5) diabetes mellitus. A total of 76 cases (95%) were classified as COVID-19 deaths, corresponding to categories 1-3. Four deaths (5%) were defined as non-COVID-19 deaths with virus-independent causes of death. In eight cases, pneumonia was combined with a fulminant pulmonary artery embolism. Peripheral pulmonary artery embolisms were found in nine other cases. Overall, deep vein thrombosis has been found in 40% of the cases. This study provides the largest overview of autopsies of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients presented so far.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Cross Infection/mortality , Exudates and Transudates , Female , Fibroblasts/pathology , Fibrosis/pathology , Germany/epidemiology , Giant Cells/pathology , Humans , Male , Megakaryocytes/pathology , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Organ Size , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Residential Facilities/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Travel-Related Illness , Venous Thrombosis/pathology
10.
Platelets ; 31(5): 627-632, 2020 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245402

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease that currently lacks standardized and established laboratory markers to evaluate its severity. In COVID-19 patients, the number of platelets (PLTs) and dynamic changes of PLT-related parameters are currently a concern. The present paper discusses the potential link between PLT parameters and COVID-19. Several studies have identified a link between severe COVID-19 patients and specific coagulation index, in particular, high D-dimer level, prolonged prothrombin time, and low PLT count. These alterations reflect the hypercoagulable state present in severe COVID-19 patients, which could promote microthrombosis in the lungs, as well as in other organs. Further information and more advanced hematological parameters related to PLTs are needed to better estimate this link, also considering COVID-19 patients at different disease stages and stratified in different cohorts based on preexisting co-morbidity, age, and gender. Increasing the understanding of PLT functions in COVID-19 will undoubtedly improve our knowledge on disease pathogenesis, clinical management, and therapeutic options, but could also lead to the development of more precise therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Platelets/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/ultrastructure , COVID-19 , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Drug Interactions , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation , Lung/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Platelet Count , Platelet Function Tests , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Prothrombin Time , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
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