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1.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 48(3): 309-317, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692483

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare form of stroke that often affects younger age groups, especially reproductive age group females. CVT is a potentially fatal neurological condition that can be frequently overlooked due to the vague nature of its clinical and radiological presentation. Headache is the most common presenting symptom. However, a wide range of symptoms can be present and the symptom onset can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Neuroimaging is mandatory in cases where CVT is suspected. Both magnetic resonance venography and computed tomography venography can confirm a diagnosis of CVT. Anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin is the mainstay of treatment. Intracranial hemorrhage is not considered a contraindication to the use of anticoagulants in CVT. Endovascular intervention is still controversial but can be a treatment option for patients with neurological deterioration or thrombus progression, despite the use of anticoagulation or with development of new or worsening intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with CVT have an increased risk of recurrence of CVT and other types of venous thromboembolism. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CVT in adults. Commentary about increased presentation of CVT in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), or after immunization against COVID-19, is also provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/drug therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
2.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 420, 2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic spread worldwide, case reports and small series identified its association with an increasing number of medical conditions including a propensity for thrombotic complications. And since the nephrotic syndrome is also a thrombophilic state, its co-occurrence with the SARS-CoV-2 infection is likely to be associated with an even higher risk of thrombosis, particularly in the presence of known or unknown additional risk factors. Lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are the most common manifestations of COVID-19-associated hypercoagulable state with other venous or arterial sites being much less frequently involved. Although splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) has been reported to be 25 times less common than usual site venous thromboembolism (VTE) and rarely occurs in nephrotic patients, it can have catastrophic consequences. A small number of SVT cases have been reported in COVID-19 infected patients in spite of their number exceeding 180 million worldwide. CASE PRESENTATION: An unvaccinated young adult male with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) who was in a complete nephrotic remission relapsed following contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection and developed abdominal pain and diarrhea. Abdominal US revealed portal vein thrombosis. The patient was anticoagulated, yet the SVT rapidly propagated to involve the spleno-mesenteric, intrahepatic and the right hepatic veins. In spite of mechanical thrombectomy, thrombolytics and anticoagulation, he developed mesenteric ischemia which progressed to gangrene leading to bowel resection and a complicated hospital course. CONCLUSION: Our case highlights the potential for a catastrophic outcome when COVID-19 infection occurs in those with a concomitant hypercoagulable state and reminds us of the need for a careful assessment of abdominal symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mesenteric Ischemia/etiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Portal System , Splanchnic Circulation , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Gangrene/etiology , Humans , Intestines/pathology , Male , Mesenteric Ischemia/therapy , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Young Adult
4.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(3): e37312, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1436538

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: la vacunación contra SARS-CoV-2 es una herramienta imprescindible en el combate contra la pandemia de COVID-19. La vacuna desarrollada en colaboración entre la Universidad de Oxford y el laboratorio de productos farmacéuticos AstraZeneca (AZN) ha demostrado buena eficacia, pero ha habido reporte de trombosis venosas. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un paciente de 70 años, de sexo masculino, que 7 días después de la administración de la primera dosis de la vacuna AZN desarrolla trombosis venosa profunda de ambos miembros inferiores y tromboembolismo pulmonar. Coincide con trombocitopenia de 15.000/mm3, descenso del fibrinógeno y elevación de los D-dímeros. La situación clínica evoca el planteo de trombocitopenia trombótica inducida por vacuna (VITT). Se realizó tratamiento con inmunoglobulinas intravenosas, metilprednisolona y crioprecipitados. Requirió colocación de un filtro de la vena cava inferior. Una vez mejorado el recuento plaquetario se instaló tratamiento anticoagulante con apixaban. Evolucionó favorablemente. Discusión: se trata del primer reporte nacional de VITT. Las trombosis subsiguientes a la vacuna de AZN pueden verse con las vacunas que comparten la misma plataforma vacunal (adenovirus inactivado). Se han reportado casos fundamentalmente en menores de 60 años y en topografías inhabituales. Este caso tiene la particularidad de que se trata de un paciente mayor de 60 años, que ya había tenido COVID-19 cinco meses antes y que se presenta con una trombosis en sitios habituales. El manejo terapéutico se adecuó a las pautas internacionales. El caso deja un aprendizaje relevante tanto en lo que refiere al diagnóstico precoz como al manejo terapéutico.


Abstract: Introduction: vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are an essential tool against the COVID-19 pandemic. The vaccine developed in collaboration with the University of Oxford and the AstraZeneca (AZN) laboratory has proved to be effective, although venous thrombosis have been reported. Clinical case: the study presents the case of a 70 year old male patient who, 7 days after receiving the first dose of the AZN vaccination develops deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities and pulmonary embolism. Simultaneously, thrombocytopenia is 15.000/mm3, fibrinogen levels drop D-dimer levels are elevated. The clinical situation leads to the suspicion of vaccine-associated immune thrombosis and thrombocytopenia (VITT). The patient was treated with intravenous immune globulin, methylprednisolone and cryoprecipitates, requiring a filter to be placed in the inferior vena cava. Once platelets count improved, anti-coagulation therapy including apixaban was commenced, evolution being good. Discussion: this is the first national report on VITT. Thrombosis after the AZN vaccination may be seen in other vaccines that use the same vaccine platform (inactive adenovirus). Cases have been reported mainly in patients younger than 60 years old and in unusual topographies. In particular, this case presents a male patient that is older than 60 years old, who had already been infected with COVID-19 five months before and who currently consults with thrombosis in regular sites. Therapeutic handling observed international guidelines. The case contributes relevant data both in terms of early diagnosis and therapeutic handling.


Resumo: Introdução: a vacinação contra a SARS-CoV-2 é uma ferramenta essencial na luta contra a pandemia de COVID-19. A vacina desenvolvida pela colaboração entre a Universidade de Oxford e o laboratório farmacêutico AstraZeneca (AZN) tem demonstrado boa eficácia, mas foram relatados casos de trombose venosa. Caso clínico: apresenta-se o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 70 anos, que 7 dias após a administração da primeira dose da vacina AZN desenvolveu trombose venosa profunda de ambos os membros inferiores e tromboembolismo pulmonar. Coincide com trombocitopenia de 15.000 / mm3, diminuição do fibrinogênio e aumento dos D-dímeros. A situação clínica lembra a trombocitopenia trombótica induzida por vacina (VITT). O tratamento foi realizado com imunoglobulinas intravenosas, metilprednisolona e crioprecipitados. Foi necessário colocar um filtro de veia cava inferior. Uma vez que a contagem de plaquetas melhorou, o tratamento anticoagulante com apixaban foi instalado. O paciente favoravelmente. Discussão: este é o primeiro relatório nacional de VITT. As tromboses subseqüentes à vacina AZN podem ser vistas com vacinas que compartilham a mesma plataforma (adenovírus inativado). Os casos foram relatados principalmente em pessoas com menos de 60 anos de idade e em topografias incomuns. Este caso tem a particularidade de se tratar de um paciente com mais de 60 anos, já com COVID-19 há cinco meses e que apresenta trombose em sítios comuns. O manejo terapêutico foi adaptado às diretrizes internacionais. O caso deixa um aprendizado relevante tanto no que diz respeito ao diagnóstico precoce quanto ao manejo terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects
5.
Phlebology ; 36(10): 835-840, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295343

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to analyze the specificity, accuracy and sensitivity of a simple, easy to calculate, prognostic score for hospitalized COVID19 patients developing deep vein thrombosis. METHODS: From March 1st to April 28th, 942 COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms were admitted to the hospital San Matteo of Pavia-Italy. Thirty two patients (3.4%) developed deep vein thrombosis during hospitalization. In all patients hemostatic and inflammatory parameters were abnormal. A simple prognostic score was developed based on the presence of specific co morbidities and D-dimers levels (quick San Matthew Score-quick SMS). RESULTS: Nine patients died in a condition of multiple organ failure, 23 patients (71.9%) survived and left the hospital in good general conditions. The developed score was based simply on two parameters: 1) presence of four specific co morbidities and 2)systemic levels of D-Dimers. The quick San Matthew Score resulted in a sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of more than 90% (94%, 92%,93% respectively) and compared favorably with other scores. The score was prospectively validated in 100 COVID19 patients who developed deep vein thrombosis collected from the literature and prospectively confirmed in our hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our study underline the importance of an immediate aggressive therapeutic approach for moderate and high-risk patients with COVID19 infection. The quick SMS score may help to identify patients at high risk for mortality and to follow the clinical outcome of the patient. A simple, easy to calculate prognostic score may also facilitate communication among health workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
6.
J Neurol Sci ; 427: 117532, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine induced immune mediated thrombocytopenia or VITT, is a recent and rare phenomenon of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia, frequently including cerebral venous thromboses (CVT), that has been described following vaccination with adenovirus vaccines ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2·S Johnson and Johnson (Janssen/J&J). The evaluation and management of suspected cases of CVT post COVID-19 vaccination are critical skills for a broad range of healthcare providers. METHODS: A collaborative comprehensive review of literature was conducted among a global group of expert neurologists and hematologists. FINDINGS: Strategies for rapid evaluation and treatment of the CVT in the context of possible VITT exist, including inflammatory marker measurements, PF4 assays, and non-heparin anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
7.
Chest ; 159(6): e361-e364, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241747

ABSTRACT

Research on COVID-19, the cause of a rapidly worsening pandemic, has led to the observation of laboratory derangements such as a propensity towards a hypercoagulable state. However, there are currently no reports on the incidence of pulmonary venous thrombosis in the setting of COVID-19. We report a case in which follow-up chest CT scans revealed an expansile filling defect in a branch of the right inferior pulmonary vein, which is consistent with pulmonary venous thrombosis. Our objective was to provide insight into an uncommon sequela of COVID-19 and consequently garner increased clinical suspicion for pulmonary VTE during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Veins , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/virology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Male , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
8.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224259

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 leading to COVID-19 induces hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable states, resulting in arterial and venous thromboembolic events. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has been well reported in COVID-19 patients. While most DVTs occur in a lower extremity, involvement of the upper extremity is uncommon. In this report, we describe the first reported patient with an upper extremity DVT recurrence secondary to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
9.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(2): 493-496, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159474

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a source of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) due to complications such as over-coagulation, blood stasis, and endothelial damage. Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a very serious and rare disease. In this study, we report tow rare case of women with coronavirus who were hospitalized with a right ovarian vein thrombosis mimicking acute abdomen who progressed well on anticoagulation. Our report adds further document in Side effects and rare localisation of obstruction of veins and arteries in patient with corona virus.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , COVID-19/complications , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Ovary/blood supply , Puerperal Disorders , Venous Thrombosis , Abdomen, Acute/diagnosis , Abdomen, Acute/etiology , Adult , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Puerperal Disorders/blood , Puerperal Disorders/etiology , Puerperal Disorders/physiopathology , Puerperal Disorders/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , Veins/diagnostic imaging , Veins/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/physiopathology , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
10.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 71(3): 292-294, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144515

ABSTRACT

Catatonic patients may develop deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) due to prolonged periods of immobility. These life-threatening conditions demand prompt recognition and management. We describe the case of a patient with catatonia who presented to anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at the outset of the current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. She complained of breathing difficulty and was suspected to have COVID-19 infection. On further evaluation, she was found to have DVT and PE and required oxygen therapy and intensive care management. The diagnostic delay in our patient would have probably not occurred, had it not been for the existing pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Catatonia/complications , Delayed Diagnosis , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Anesthesia , Catatonia/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
11.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(5): 1099-1111.e6, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111738

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We have summarized the incidence, anticoagulation panels, laboratory characteristics, and mortality of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: After systematically searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, MedRxiv, and BioRxiv, a systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 retrospective, 6 prospective observational, and 2 cross-sectional studies was performed according to the guidelines of the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) statement. RESULTS: Overall, 4382 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. Men accounted for significantly more patients than did women (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.02; P < .001). The total incidence of VTE among the patients with COVID-19 was 28.3% (95% CI, 21.6%-35.4%), with an incidence of 38.0% (95% CI, 29.1%-47.4%) and 17.2% (95% CI, 11.4%-23.8%) among those with severe and general COVID-19, respectively. The total incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities was 18.3% (95% CI, 10.8%-27.2%). The incidence of DVT was 22.1% (95% CI, 11.0%-35.5%) and 12.8% (95% CI, 5.0%-23.3%) in those with severe and general COVID-19, respectively. The total incidence of pulmonary embolism was 17.6% (95% CI, 12.3%-23.5%), with a rate of 21.7% (95% CI, 14.8%-29.3%) in severe cases and 12.5% (95% CI, 6.1%-23.5%) in general cases. When COVID-19 severity was unclassified, the mortality for the patients with VTE was not significantly greater (25.2%; 95% CI, 12.2%-40.5%) than that for those without VTE (10.2%; 95% CI, 3.4%-19.5%; OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.46-7.64; P = .377). However, among the patients with severe COVID-19, those who had developed VTE had significantly greater mortality compared with those without VTE (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.15-3.53; P = .014). The patients with COVID-19 and VTE had significantly higher D-dimer levels than did similar patients without VTE in multiple studies. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of VTE, DVT, and pulmonary embolism has been substantial among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially among those with severe COVID-19. Patients with severe COVID-19 and VTE had significantly greater mortality compared with similar patients without VTE. An increased D-dimer level might be an indicator of the occurrence of VTE in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Young Adult
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032286

ABSTRACT

A 53-year-old man with diabetes came to the emergency department with fever and dry cough for 5 days, swelling of the left leg for 2 days, shortness of breath and chest pain for 1 hour. He had raised temperature, tachycardia, tachypnoea, reduced oxygen saturation and swollen tender left leg on examination. The frontal chest radiograph showed bilateral ground-glass opacities; he tested positive for COVID-19 with elevated D-dimer. The colour Doppler examination of the left leg revealed acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the common femoral and the popliteal veins. The chest CT showed bilateral diffuse ground-glass opacities predominantly involving peripheral zones and the lower lobes. The CTPA revealed left pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), treated with low-molecular-weight heparin. COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory system. DVT and PTE are common in COVID-19 but lethal. They should be diagnosed early by clinical and radiological examinations and treated promptly with anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Computed Tomography Angiography , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Femoral Vein , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Popliteal Vein , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
16.
Phlebology ; 36(2): 114-118, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963794

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the number of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) cases during the quarantine period for COVID-19 to that of the last year. METHODS: This study was conducted as a single-center and retrospective study. All hospital admissions during April 2020 and May 2020 were screened from the hospital records, and DVT cases were recorded. Likewise, all hospital admissions during April 2019 and May 2019 were screened, and DVT cases were noted. DVT cases of both years were compared. RESULTS: Among 480931 patients admitted to our hospital in April 2019 and May 2019, DVT was detected in 82 patients (0.017%) (47 males, 35 females) with a mean age of 56.99 ± 9.1 years (ranges 39 to 79 years). Besides, among 145101 patients admitted to our hospital in April 2020 and May 2020, DVT was detected in 123 patients (0.084%) (51 males, 72 females) with a mean age of 58.64 ± 8.9 years (ranges 40 to 83 years). Despite the decrease in the total number of patients admitted to the hospital, there was a significant increase in the number of DVT patients. Interestingly, there were only two symptomatic pulmonary-embolism cases in the 2019 period, whereas there were seven symptomatic pulmonary embolisms secondary to DVT in the 2020 period. Unfortunately, one patient died due to pulmonary embolism secondary to DVT in 2020. The previous history of DVT was remarkable in patients admitted during the COVID-19 confinement. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, COVID-19 confinement seems to be associated with increased rates of DVT. Strict preventive measures such as exercise training or prophylactic drug use should be considered to prevent immobility-related DVT during the COVID-19 quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
17.
Chest ; 158(6): e269-e271, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954574

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a hypercoagulable state. To date, all patients reported with venous thromboembolic disease and COVID-19 have shown evidence of viral pneumonia. Here, we report the case of a 31-year-old patient with unexplained extensive DVT and bilateral pulmonary embolism in the absence of COVID-19 pneumonia, leading to the diagnosis of otherwise asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, given the high rates of otherwise asymptomatic patients, testing for SARS-CoV-2 should be performed in all patients with unexplained VTE occurring in COVID-19-endemic areas, even in the absence of other disease manifestations suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/virology , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
18.
Phlebology ; 36(5): 375-383, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947896

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A high rate of thrombotic events has been reported in COVID-19 population. The study aims to assess the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in COVID-19 patients admitted to a single tertiary hospital. METHODS: From April 2nd to April 18th, 2020, hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were screened by lower limb duplex ultrasound (DUS). Patients were on (low molecular weight heparin) LMWH prophylaxis in medical wards, and on therapeutic anticoagulation in intensive care unit (ICU). DVT risk factors, reported by the Padua prediction score and blood tests, were retrieved from institutional electronic charts. The study primary endpoint was the incidence of DVT in the in-hospital COVID-19 population and its association with clinical and laboratory risk factors. The secondary endpoint was the association of DVT with mortality. RESULTS: Two hundred patients (median age 62 years, 72% male, 40 in ICU) received DUS screening. DVT was observed in 29 patients (14.5%), with proximal extension in 16 patients, and in association with symptoms in four patients. The DVT rate was similar in ICU (12.5%) and non-ICU patients (15%). Eighty-seven patients underwent a computed tomography angiography (CTA) that showed pulmonary embolism in 35 patients (40.2%) not associated with DVT in 25/35 cases (71.4%). DVT in the ten patients with pulmonary embolism were symptomatic in four and with a proximal localization in eight cases. A D-dimer level ≥5 mg/l at admission was predictive of DVT (OR 1.02; IC95% 1.03-1.16; p = .003). At the multivariate analysis in-hospital mortality was predicted by age (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.02-1.15; p = .004) and by being an ICU patient (OR 1.23; 95% CI 0.30-2.25; p = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Despite LMWH prophylaxis or full anticoagulant therapy, the incidence of DVT, mainly asymptomatic, in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 14.5%. Further research should focus on the appropriate antithrombotic therapy for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105434, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941358

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection, has recently been associated with a myriad of hematologic derangements; in particular, an unusually high incidence of venous thromboembolism has been reported in patients with COVID-19 infection. It is postulated that either the cytokine storm induced by the viral infection or endothelial damage caused by viral binding to the ACE-2 receptor may activate a cascade leading to a hypercoaguable state. Although pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis have been well described in patients with COVID-19 infection, there is a paucity of literature on cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (cVST) associated with COVID-19 infection. cVST is an uncommon etiology of stroke and has a higher occurrence in women and young people. We report a series of three patients at our institution with confirmed COVID-19 infection and venous sinus thrombosis, two of whom were male and one female. These cases fall outside the typical demographic of patients with cVST, potentially attributable to COVID-19 induced hypercoaguability. This illustrates the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for cVST in patients with COVID-19 infection, particularly those with unexplained cerebral hemorrhage, or infarcts with an atypical pattern for arterial occlusive disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105412, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907409

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early studies suggest that acute cerebrovascular events may be common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may be associated with a high mortality rate. Most cerebrovascular events described have been ischemic strokes, but both intracerebral hemorrhage and rarely cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have also been reported. The diagnosis of CVST can be elusive, with wide-ranging and nonspecific presenting symptoms that can include headache or altered sensorium alone. OBJECTIVE: To describe the presentation, barriers to diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of CVST in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We abstracted data on all patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 from March 1 to August 9, 2020 at Boston Medical Center. Subsequently, we reviewed the literature and extracted all published cases of CVST in patients with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020 through August 9, 2020 and included all studies with case descriptions. RESULTS: We describe the clinical features and management of CVST in 3 women with COVID-19 who developed CVST days to months after initial COVID-19 symptoms. Two patients presented with encephalopathy and without focal neurologic deficits, while one presented with visual symptoms. All patients were treated with intravenous hydration and anticoagulation. None suffered hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged home. We identified 12 other patients with CVST in the setting of COVID-19 via literature search. There was a female predominance (54.5%), most patients presented with altered sensorium (54.5%), and there was a high mortality rate (36.4%). CONCLUSIONS: During this pandemic, clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for CVST in patients with a recent history of COVID-19 presenting with non-specific neurological symptoms such as headache to provide expedient management and prevent complications. The limited data suggests that CVST in COVID-19 is more prevalent in females and may be associated with high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
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