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Hum Cell ; 35(3): 871-884, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1762779


Mechanical ventilation may cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in patients requiring ventilator support. Inhibition of autophagy is an important approach to ameliorate VILI as it always enhances lung injury after exposure to various stress agents. This study aimed to further reveal the potential mechanisms underlying the effects of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit 1 (GGPPS1) knockout and autophagy in VILI using C57BL/6 mice with lung-specific GGPPS1 knockout that were subjected to mechanical ventilation. The results demonstrate that GGPPS1 knockout mice exhibit significantly attenuated VILI based on the histologic score, the lung wet-to-dry ratio, total protein levels, neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, the expression levels of autophagy markers were obviously decreased in GGPPS1 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. The inhibitory effects of GGPPS1 knockout on autophagy were further confirmed by measuring the ultrastructural change of lung tissues under transmission electron microscopy. In addition, knockdown of GGPPS1 in RAW264.7 cells reduced cyclic stretch-induced inflammation and autophagy. The benefits of GGPPS1 knockout for VILI can be partially eliminated through treatment with rapamycin. Further analysis revealed that Rab37 was significantly downregulated in GGPPS1 knockout mice after mechanical ventilation, while it was highly expressed in the control group. Simultaneously, Rab37 overexpression significantly enhances autophagy in cells that are treated with cyclin stretch, including GGPPS1 knockout cells. Collectively, our results indicate that GGPPS1 knockout results in reduced expression of Rab37 proteins, further restraining autophagy and VILI.

Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury , Animals , Autophagy/genetics , Dimethylallyltranstransferase , Farnesyltranstransferase , Geranyltranstransferase , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/genetics , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/metabolism , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/pathology , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 65(4): 403-412, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237350


Mechanical ventilation is a known risk factor for delirium, a cognitive impairment characterized by dysfunction of the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Although IL-6 is upregulated in mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI) and may contribute to delirium, it is not known whether the inhibition of systemic IL-6 mitigates delirium-relevant neuropathology. To histologically define neuropathological effects of IL-6 inhibition in an experimental VILI model, VILI was simulated in anesthetized adult mice using a 35 cc/kg tidal volume mechanical ventilation model. There were two control groups, as follow: 1) spontaneously breathing or 2) anesthetized and mechanically ventilated with 10 cc/kg tidal volume to distinguish effects of anesthesia from VILI. Two hours before inducing VILI, mice were treated with either anti-IL-6 antibody, anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, or saline. Neuronal injury, stress, and inflammation were assessed using immunohistochemistry. CC3 (cleaved caspase-3), a neuronal apoptosis marker, was significantly increased in the frontal (P < 0.001) and hippocampal (P < 0.0001) brain regions and accompanied by significant increases in c-Fos and heat shock protein-90 in the frontal cortices of VILI mice compared with control mice (P < 0.001). These findings were not related to cerebral hypoxia, and there was no evidence of irreversible neuronal death. Frontal and hippocampal neuronal CC3 were significantly reduced with anti-IL-6 antibody (P < 0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively) and anti-IL-6 receptor antibody (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively) compared with saline VILI mice. In summary, VILI induces potentially reversible neuronal injury and inflammation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, which is mitigated with systemic IL-6 inhibition. These data suggest a potentially novel neuroprotective role of systemic IL-6 inhibition that justifies further investigation.

Antibodies/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Delirium/metabolism , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Neurons/metabolism , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Delirium/drug therapy , Delirium/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Frontal Lobe/injuries , Frontal Lobe/metabolism , Frontal Lobe/pathology , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Hippocampus/injuries , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hippocampus/pathology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , Neurons/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/drug therapy , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/pathology