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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(44): 23756-23762, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375593

ABSTRACT

The longevity and reusability of N95-grade filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFRs) are limited by consecutive donning and disinfection treatments. Herein, we developed stable N97 nanofibrous respirators based on chemically modified surface to enable remarkable filtration characteristics via polarity driven interaction. This was achieved by a thin-film coated polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membrane (TFPNM), giving an overall long-lasting filtration performance with high quality factor at 0.42 Pa-1 (filtration efficiency: over 97 %; pressure drop: around 10 Pa), which is higher than that of the commercial N95 FFRs (0.10-0.41 Pa-1 ) tested with a flow rate of 5 L min-1 and the 0.26 µm NaCl aerosol. A coxsackie B4 virus filtration test demonstrated that TFPNM also had strong virus capture capacity of 97.67 %. As compared with N95 FFRs, the TFPNM was more resistant to a wider variety of disinfection protocols, and the overall filtration characteristics remained N97 standard.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus B, Human/metabolism , Nanofibers/chemistry , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology
2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 82, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247603

ABSTRACT

Aerosolization may occur during reprocessing of medical devices. With the current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, it is important to understand the necessity of using respirators in the cleaning area of the sterile processing department. To evaluate the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in the air of the sterile processing department during the reprocessing of contaminated medical devices. Air and surface samples were collected from the sterile processing department of two teaching tertiary hospitals during the reprocessing of respiratory equipment used in patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 and from intensive care units during treatment of these patients. SARS-CoV-2 was detected only in 1 air sample before the beginning of decontamination process. Viable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA was not detected in any sample collected from around symptomatic patients or in sterile processing department samples. The cleaning of respiratory equipment does not cause aerosolization of SARS-CoV-2. We believe that the use of medical masks is sufficient while reprocessing medical devices during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Decontamination , Equipment Reuse , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Air Microbiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Tertiary Care Centers , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 320-328, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065182

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic increased global demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) and resulted in shortages. The study evaluated the re-use of surgical masks and respirators by analysing their performance and safety before and after reprocessing using the following methods: oven, thermal drying, autoclave, and hydrogen peroxide plasma vapour. METHODS: In total, 45 surgical masks and 69 respirators were decontaminated. Visual integrity, air permeability, burst resistance, pressure differential and particulate filtration efficiency of new and decontaminated surgical masks and respirators were evaluated. In addition, 14 used respirators were analysed after work shifts before and after decontamination using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culturing. Finally, reprocessed respirators were evaluated by users in terms of functionality and comfort. RESULTS: Oven decontamination (75 °C for 45 min) was found to be the simplest decontamination method. Physical and filtration assays indicated that all reprocessing methods were safe after one cycle. Oven decontamination maintained the characteristics of surgical masks and respirators for at least five reprocessing cycles. Viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in two of the 14 used respirators. Four respirators submitted to viral culture were PCR-negative and culture-negative. Reprocessed respirators used in work shifts were evaluated positively by users, even after three decontamination cycles. CONCLUSION: Oven decontamination is a safe method for reprocessing surgical masks and respirators for at least five cycles, and is feasible in the hospital setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Masks/virology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Reuse , Hospitals , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
J Hosp Infect ; 108: 113-119, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has caused problems with respirator supplies. Re-use may minimize the impact of the shortage, but requires the availability of an efficient and safe decontamination method. AIM: To determine whether low-temperature-steam-2%-formaldehyde (LTSF) sterilization is effective, preserves the properties of filtering facepiece (FFP) respirators and allows safe re-use. METHODS: Fourteen unused FFP2, FFP3 and N95 respirator models were subjected to two cycles of decontamination cycles. After the second cycle, each model was inspected visually and accumulated residual formaldehyde levels were analysed according to EN 14180. After one and two decontamination cycles, the fit factor (FF) of each model was tested, and penetration tests with sodium chloride aerosols were performed on five models. FINDINGS: Decontamination physically altered three of the 14 models. All of the residual formaldehyde values were below the permissible threshold. Irregular decreases and increases in FF were observed after each decontamination cycle. In the sodium chloride aerosol penetration test, three models obtained equivalent or superior results to those of the FFP classification with which they were marketed, both at baseline and after one and two cycles of decontamination, and two models had lower filtering capacity. CONCLUSION: One and two decontamination cycles using LTSF did not alter the structure of most (11/14) respirators tested, and did not degrade the fit or filtration capacity of any of the analysed respirators. The residual formaldehyde levels complied with EN 14180. This reprocessing method could be used in times of shortage of personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Formaldehyde/pharmacology , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , Sterilization/methods , Adult , Aerosols/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Reuse , Formaldehyde/analysis , Humans , Male , Masks/trends , Masks/virology , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Respiratory Protective Devices/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sodium Chloride/analysis , Steam/adverse effects , Ventilators, Mechanical/supply & distribution , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 224-229, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There are currently no studies that have examined whether one dosage can be uniformly applied to different respirator types to effectively decontaminate SARS-CoV-2 on N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Health care workers have been using this disinfection method during the pandemic. Our objective was to determine the effect of UVC on SARS-CoV-2 inoculated N95 respirators and whether this was respirator material/model type dependent. METHODS: Four different locations (facepiece and strap) on five different N95 FFR models (3M 1860, 8210, 8511, 9211; Moldex 1511) were inoculated with a 10 µL drop of SARS-CoV-2 viral stock (8 × 107 TCID50/mL). The outside-facing and wearer-facing surfaces of the respirators were each irradiated with a dose of 1.5 J/cm2 UVC (254 nm). Viable SARS-CoV-2 was quantified by a median tissue culture infectious dose assay (TCID50). RESULTS: UVC delivered using a dose of 1.5 J/cm2, to each side, was an effective method of decontamination for the facepieces of 3M 1860 and Moldex 1511, and for the straps of 3M 8210 and the Moldex 1511. CONCLUSION: This dose is an appropriate decontamination method to facilitate the reuse of respirators for healthcare personnel when applied to specific models/materials. Also, some straps may require additional disinfection to maximize the safety of frontline workers. Implementation of widespread UVC decontamination methods requires careful consideration of model, material type, design, and fit-testing following irradiation.


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Masks/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology , Disinfection/methods , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Equipment Reuse , Humans , Pandemics
7.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(8): 732-734, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-735512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Robust personal protective equipment is essential in preventing the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 to head and neck surgeons who are routinely involved in aerosol generating procedures. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the collective experience, across 3 institutes, of using a reusable half-face respirator in 72 head and neck surgery cases. METHOD: Cost analysis was performed to demonstrate the financial implications of using a reusable respirator compared to single-use filtering facepiece code 3 masks. CONCLUSION: The reusable respirator is a cost-effective alternative to disposable filtering facepiece code 3 respirators. Supplying reusable respirators to individual staff members may increase the likelihood of them having appropriate personal protective equipment during their clinical duties.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Equipment Reuse/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Aerosols , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Body Fluids/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cost-Benefit Analysis/methods , Equipment Design , Female , Humans , Male , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Otolaryngology/statistics & numerical data , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgeons/statistics & numerical data , Ventilators, Mechanical/adverse effects , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology
8.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 31: 101943, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To review the effect of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) as a disinfection method for filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) to facilitate reuse during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Systematic review of the research concerning UVGI for FFRs disinfection to facilitate reuse (also termed limited reuse) during respiratory infectious diseases where aerosol transmission is considered possible. RESULTS: UVGI is one possible method for respiratory disinfection to facilitate the reuse of dwindling supplies. Appropriate dose UVGI exposition could provide enough energy to effectively decontaminate respiratory viral agents and maintain respirator's integrity for reuse. There was not currently sufficient research evidence on the effect of UVGI to inactivate coronaviruses SARS-CoV-2, and the practical application of UVGI is still unclear. . CONCLUSION: Appropriate dose UVGI exposition could provide enough energy to effectively decontaminate respiratory viral agents and maintain respirator's integrity for reuse. Further evidence concerning UVGI as a decontamination technique specifically for SARS-CoV-2 isneeded.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Photochemotherapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Ultraviolet Therapy/methods , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Equipment Reuse/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
9.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(12): 1540-1542, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693247

ABSTRACT

Bioaerosol samples were collected in an airborne infection isolation room, bathroom, and anteroom of a ventilated patient with coronavirus disease 2019. Twenty-eight samples were negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid, possibly due to the patient being on a closed-circuit ventilator or the efficiency of the air exchanges in the room.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Patient Positioning , Patients' Rooms , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505770

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has created worldwide shortages of N95 respirators. We analyzed 4 decontamination methods for effectiveness in deactivating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus and effect on respirator function. Our results indicate that N95 respirators can be decontaminated and reused, but the integrity of respirator fit and seal must be maintained.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Equipment Reuse , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(8): 880-882, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-472917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The need for protective masks greatly exceeds their global supply during the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We optimized the temperature used in the dry heat pasteurization method to destroy pathogens and decontaminate masks while retaining their filtering capacity. RESULTS: The current study showed that dry heat at both 60°C and 70°C for 1 hour could successfully kill 6 species of respiratory bacteria and one fungi species, and inactivate the H1N1 indicator virus. After being heated at 70°C for 1, 2, and 3 hours, the N95 respirators and surgical face masks showed no changes in their shape and components. The filtering efficiency of bacterial aerosol for N95 respirators were 98%, 98%, and 97% after being heated for 1, 2, and 3 hour, respectively, all of which were over the 95% efficiency required and similar to the value before being heated (99%). The filtering efficiency for surgical face masks was 97%, 97%, and 96% for 1, 2, and 3 hours of heating, respectively, all of which were also similar to the value before being heated (97%). CONCLUSIONS: This method can be used at home and can significantly resolve the current shortage of masks.


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Masks/virology , Pasteurization/methods , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Hot Temperature , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology
13.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(1): 81-84, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276220

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report that nosocomial infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be mitigated by using surgical masks and closed looped ventilation for both non-critical and critical patients. These preventive measures resulted in no viral contamination of surfaces in negative pressure environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Fomites/virology , Intensive Care Units , Masks , Patient Isolators , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Equipment Contamination , Female , Hospital Units , Humans , Male
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