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1.
medrxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.02.01.24302037

ABSTRACT

Background: Usual clinical testing rarely reveals cardiac abnormalities persisting after hospitalization for COVID-19. Such testing may overlook residual changes responsible for increased adverse cardiac events post-discharge. Methods: To further elucidate long-term status, we performed exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) in 15 patients age 30-63 without myocarditis 3 to 31 months after hospital discharge. We compared patient outcomes to published data in healthy comparisons (HC) exercising according to the same protocol. Results: Patients' treadmill exercise (Bruce protocol), averaging 8.2 min, was halted by dyspnea or fatigue. Pre-stress baselines in recovering patients (RP) matched HC except for higher heart rate: mean 81 bpm for RP and 63 for HC (p<0.0001). At peak stress, RP had significantly lower mean left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (67% vs 73%, p<0.0017) and higher peak early mitral inflow velocity/early mitral annular velocity (E/e', 9.1 vs 6.6, p<0.006) compared with HC performing equal exercise (8.5 min). Thus, when stressed, patients without known cardiac impairment showed modest but consistently diminished systolic contractile function and diastolic LV compliance during recovery vs HC. Peak HR during stress was significantly elevated in RP vs HC; peak SBP also trended higher. Average pulmonary artery systolic pressures among RP remained normal. Conclusions: Our measurements during ESE uniquely identified residual abnormality in cardiac contractile function not evident in the unstressed condition. This finding exposes a previously-unrecognized residual influence of COVID-19, possibly related to underlying autonomic dysfunction, microvascular disease, or diffuse interstitial changes after subclinical myocarditis; it may have long-term implications for clinical management and later prognosis.


Subject(s)
Dyspnea , COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Microvascular Angina , Lung Diseases , Fatigue , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Myocarditis
2.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 410-418, May-June 2022. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20244272

ABSTRACT

Abstract An acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV2 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Current data in the world and in Brazil show that approximately 40% of patients who died have some type of cardiac comorbidity. There are also robust reports showing an increase in IL-6 / IL-1B / TNF-alpha and the presence of lymphopenia in patients with COVID-19. Our team and others have shown that increased cytokines are the link between arrhythmias/Left ventricular dysfunction and the immune system in different diseases. In addition, it has been well demonstrated that lymphopenia can not only be a good marker, but also a factor that causes heart failure. Thus, the present review focused on the role of the immune system upon the cardiac alterations observed in the SARS-CoV2 infection. Additionally, it was well described that SARS-CoV-2 is able to infect cardiac cells. Therefore, here it will be reviewed in deep.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Myocardium/immunology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Cytokines , Cytokines/immunology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Heart Failure/complications , Lymphopenia/complications
3.
preprints.org; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202305.2073.v1

ABSTRACT

Patients diagnosed with cancer are less frequently covered by preventive measures for cardiovascular diseases. The frequent co-occurrence of these diseases makes it necessary to apply parallel diagnostics and cardiological treatment with anti-cancer therapy. Case report: We present a case of a 73-year-old former smoker with hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and arterial hypertension, after a partial right nephrectomy in 2005 due to kidney cancer, diagnosed with SARS-COV-2 infection in April 2022. Follow-up chest imaging showed a 20 mm focal lesion in the left lung further classified as a small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Unexpectedly the patient was hospitalized for ST-segment elevation inferior left ventricular (LV) myocardial infarction treated successfully with coronary angioplasty, however heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricle ejection fraction was diagnosed. One month later patient required another hospitalization due to the HF decompensation and cardiological treatment was optimized with flozin addition to the standard HF therapy. After cardiological approval chemotherapy was initiated with the cisplatinum-etoposide regimen and continued for 6 months without HF decompensation and significant deterioration of renal function. After that, the patient underwent radical radiotherapy. Follow-up chest computed tomography scans showed regression of the neoplastic lesion. Conclusions: Coincidence of newly recognized cancer and infection might contribute and provoke serious cardiological events . To reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications, early periodic cardiological surveillance and optimal pharmacotherapy are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Neoplasms , Kidney Diseases , Kidney Neoplasms , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Myocardial Infarction , Adenocarcinoma in Situ , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
4.
Heart ; 109(11): 823-831, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313879

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of implantable haemodynamic monitoring (IHM)-guided care. METHODS: PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE were searched for RCTs of IHM in patients with heart failure (HF). Outcomes were examined in total (first and recurrent) event analyses. RESULTS: Five trials comparing IHM-guided care with standard care alone were identified and included 2710 patients across ejection fraction (EF) ranges. Data were available for 628 patients (23.2%) with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) (EF ≥50%) and 2023 patients (74.6%) with heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (EF <50%). Chronicle, CardioMEMS and HeartPOD IHMs were used. In all patients, regardless of EF, IHM-guided care reduced total HF hospitalisations (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.82) and total worsening HF events (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.84). In patients with HFrEF, IHM-guided care reduced total worsening HF events (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.86). The effect of IHM-guided care on total worsening HF events in patients with HFpEF was uncertain (fixed-effect model: HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.88; random-effects model: HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.14). IHM-guided care did not reduce mortality (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.20). IHM-guided care reduced all-cause mortality and total worsening HF events (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HF across all EFs, IHM-guided care reduced total HF hospitalisations and worsening HF events. This benefit was consistent in patients with HFrEF but not consistent in HFpEF. Further trials with pre-specified analyses of patients with an EF of ≥50% are required. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021253905.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Prostheses and Implants , Hospitalization , Stroke Volume , Prognosis
5.
Echocardiography ; 40(6): 464-474, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular sequelae may occur in patients recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recent studies have detected a considerable incidence of subclinical myocardial dysfunction-assessed with speckle-tracking echocardiography-and of long-COVID symptoms in these patients. This study aimed to define the long-term prognostic role of subclinical myocardial dysfunction and long-COVID condition in patients recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We prospectively followed up 110 patients hospitalized at our institution due to COVID-19 pneumonia in April 2020 and then recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. A 7-month clinical and echocardiographic evaluation was performed, followed by a 21-month clinical follow-up. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure hospitalization, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A subclinical myocardial dysfunction-defined as an impairment of left ventricular global longitudinal strain (≥-18%)-was identified at a 7-month follow-up in 37 patients (34%), was associated with an increased risk of long-term MACE with a good discriminative power (area under the curve: .73) and resulted in a strong independent predictor of extended MACE in multivariate regression analyses. Long-COVID condition was not associated with a worse long-term prognosis, instead. CONCLUSIONS: In patients recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia, a subclinical myocardial dysfunction is present in one-third of the whole population at 7-month follow-up and is associated with a higher risk of MACE at long-term follow-up. Speckle-tracking echocardiography is a promising tool to optimize the risk-stratification in patients recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia, while the definition of a long-COVID condition has no prognostic relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , Risk Factors , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Prognosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications
6.
Echocardiography ; 40(5): 388-396, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301636

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac involvement seems to impact prognosis of COVID-19, especially in critically ill patients. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, evaluated by bedside triage echocardiography (echo), in patients admitted to emergency departments (ED) in the US with COVID-19. We also assessed the feasibility of using cloud imaging for sharing and interpreting echocardiograms. METHODS: Patients admitted to three reference EDs with confirmed COVID-19 underwent triage echo within 72 h of symptom onset with remote interpretation. Clinical and laboratory data, as well as COVID-19 symptoms, were collected. The association between echo variables, demographics and clinical data with all-cause hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission was assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Three hundred ninety-nine patients were enrolled, 41% women, with a mean age of 62±16 years. Mean oxygen saturation on presentation was 92.3± 9.2%. Compared to in-hospital survivors, non-survivors were older, had lower oxygen saturation on presentation, were more likely to have a chronic condition and had lower LV ejection fraction (50.3±19.7% vs. 58.0±13.6%) (P < .05). In the cohort, 101 (25%) patients had moderate/severe LV dysfunction, 131 (33%) had moderate/severe RV dysfunction. Advanced age and lower oxygen saturation were independently associated with death and ICU admission. LV and RV function, or other echo variables, were not independent predictors of outcomes. CONCLUSION: In patients admitted with COVID-19 undergoing early echo triage, the independent predictors of death and ICU admission were age and oxygen saturation. The inclusion of echo variables did not improve prediction of unfavorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Male , Triage , Ventricular Function, Left , Echocardiography , Retrospective Studies
7.
Indian Pediatr ; 60(5): 389-390, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285230

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical presentation, phenotype and outcome of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) from a tertiary care center in southern India. METHODS: 257 children fulfilling the inclusion criteria of MIS-C were prospectively enrolled from June, 2020 to March, 2022. RESULTS: Median (range) age at presentation was 6 year (35 day to 12 years). Presenting features were fever (98%), vomiting (75.8%), red eyes (63%), rashes (49%), pain abdomen (49%), shock (45.9%), lymphopenia (73%, thrombocytopenia (58.3%) and anemia (45%). 103 (39.7%) children required intensive care admission. Shock phenotype, Kawasaki-like phenotype and no specific phenotype were diagnosed in 45.9%, 44.4%, and 36.6% children, respectively. Left ventricular dysfunction (30.3%), acute kidney injury (13%), acute liver failure (17.4%), and hemophagolymphohistiocytosis (HLH) (13.6%) were the major system involvement in MIS-C. Mitral regurgitation (P=0.029), hyperechogenic coronaries (P=0.006), Left ventricular dysfunction (P=0.001) and low ejection fraction (P=0.007) were significantly associated with shock. Overall mortality was 11.7%. CONCLUSION: Kawasaki-like and shock-like presentation were common in MIS-C. Coronary abnormalities were seen in 118 (45.9%) children. Children with acute kidney injury, HLH, need for mechanical ventilation, and echocardiogram evidence of mitral regurgitation in MIS-C have a poor outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mitral Valve Insufficiency , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(11): 11-12, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Subclinical myocardial dysfunction may exist in post-COVID-19 patients and may carry significance in long term. METHODOLOGY: Subjects of long-COVID-19 with historically and radiologically significant pulmonary involvement (without documented cardiac involvement) were evaluated on outpatient follow-up echocardiographically when they had disproportionate shortness of breath (SOB), fatigue, or high pulse rate as perceived by the physicians. The common acute-phase symptoms were noted and scored retrospectively. The assessment included spirometry and measurement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) score with measurement of the left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) free wall global longitudinal strain as an adjunct to routine two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography and spirometry. The results were evaluated statistically with respect to the history of hospitalization. RESULTS: The hospitalized (n = 15) and nonhospitalized (n = 10) patients were demographically similar. However, the nonhospitalized patients had higher total symptom score (p = 0.03), anosmia (p = 0.017), and ageusia (p = 0.0019). At follow-up (>3 months of acute illness), the nonhospitalized patients had a better CAT score (p = 0.04), higher change in max pulse rate (p = 0.03), and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (p = 0.002), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) (p = 0.02), and left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) (-17.15 ± 1.19 vs -13.11 ± 1.91) (p = 0.0001). Overall, the two groups formed distinct clusters. The LVGLS and the maximum pulse rate difference in the two chair test (2CT) seem to contribute maximally to the variance between the two groups in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The subclinical myocardial dysfunction persisting in post-COVID patients (without suspected cardiac affection and lower neuroinflammatory symptoms in the acute phase) with significant pulmonary affection needs further evaluation. They demonstrate a higher max pulse rate difference in the 2CT. This real-world observation demands further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography, Doppler , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
9.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273752

ABSTRACT

Heart failure exacerbations impart significant morbidity and mortality, however, large- scale studies assessing outcomes in the setting of concurrent coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) are limited. We utilized National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database to compare clinical outcomes in patients admitted with acute congestive heart failure exacerbation (CHF) with and without COVID-19 infection. A total of 2,101,980 patients (Acute CHF without COVID-19 (n = 2,026,765 (96.4%) and acute CHF with COVID-19 (n = 75,215, 3.6%)) were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was utilized to compared outcomes and were adjusted for age, sex, race, income level, insurance status, discharge quarter, Elixhauser co-morbidities, hospital location, teaching status and bed size. Patients with acute CHF and COVID-19 had higher in-hospital mortality compared to patients with acute CHF alone (25.78% vs. 5.47%, adjust OR (aOR) 6.3 (95% CI 6.05-6.62, p < 0.001)) and higher rates of vasopressor use (4.87% vs. 2.54%, aOR 2.06 (95% CI 1.86-2.27, p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation (31.26% vs. 17.14%, aOR 2.3 (95% CI 2.25-2.44, p < 0.001)), sudden cardiac arrest (5.73% vs. 2.88%, aOR 1.95 (95% CI 1.79-2.12, p < 0.001)), and acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis (5.56% vs. 2.94%, aOR 1.92 (95% CI 1.77-2.09, p < 0.001)). Moreover, patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (26.87% vs. 24.5%, adjusted OR 1.26 (95% CI 1.16-1.36, p < 0.001)) with increased incidence of vasopressor use, sudden cardiac arrest, and cardiogenic shock as compared to patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Furthermore, elderly patients and patients with African-American and Hispanic descents had higher in-hospital mortality. Acute CHF with COVID-19 is associated with higher in-hospital mortality, vasopressor use, mechanical ventilation, and end organ dysfunction such as kidney failure and cardiac arrest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Aged , Stroke Volume , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Death, Sudden, Cardiac
10.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0283708, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with cardiac dysfunction. This study tested the relative prognostic role of left (LV), right and bi- (BiV) ventricular dysfunction on mortality in a large multicenter cohort of patients during and after acute COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS/RESULTS: All hospitalized COVID-19 patients who underwent clinically indicated transthoracic echocardiography within 30 days of admission at four NYC hospitals between March 2020 and January 2021 were studied. Images were re-analyzed by a central core lab blinded to clinical data. Nine hundred patients were studied (28% Hispanic, 16% African-American), and LV, RV and BiV dysfunction were observed in 50%, 38% and 17%, respectively. Within the overall cohort, 194 patients had TTEs prior to COVID-19 diagnosis, among whom LV, RV, BiV dysfunction prevalence increased following acute infection (p<0.001). Cardiac dysfunction was linked to biomarker-evidenced myocardial injury, with higher prevalence of troponin elevation in patients with LV (14%), RV (16%) and BiV (21%) dysfunction compared to those with normal BiV function (8%, all p<0.05). During in- and out-patient follow-up, 290 patients died (32%), among whom 230 died in the hospital and 60 post-discharge. Unadjusted mortality risk was greatest among patients with BiV (41%), followed by RV (39%) and LV dysfunction (37%), compared to patients without dysfunction (27%, all p<0.01). In multivariable analysis, any RV dysfunction, but not LV dysfunction, was independently associated with increased mortality risk (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: LV, RV and BiV function declines during acute COVID-19 infection with each contributing to increased in- and out-patient mortality risk. RV dysfunction independently increases mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Outpatients , Aftercare , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/methods , Patient Discharge , Hospitals
11.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 39(6): 1115-1122, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) have emerged as a major health issue in patients who have previously been infected with Covid-19 virus. PURPOSE: we aimed at the assessment of functional outcomes in post Covid-19 patients with persistent dyspnea using a multidisciplinary approach including clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, exercise ECG, and different echo-Doppler modalities, including left atrial functions. METHODS: The current observational randomized controlled study conducted on 60- patients one month after recovery from Covid-19 infection presented with persistent dyspnea compared to 30 healthy volunteers. All participants were subjected to evaluation of dyspnea by different scores, laboratory investigations, stress ECG, and echo-Doppler examination to measure LV dimensions, volumes, systolic and diastolic functions by M-mode, 2D, and tissue Doppler imaging in addition to 2-D speckle tacking LA strain. RESULTS: Post Covid-19 patients had persistent elevation of inflammatory markers, low functional capacity (evidenced by a higher NYHA class, m MRC score, PCFS scale) and decreased METs by stress ECG compared to control group. Post Covid-19 patients showed LV diastolic dysfunction and impairment of 2D-STE LA functions compared to control group. We found negative correlations between LA strain with NYHA class, mMRC scale, LAVI, ESR and CRP; meanwhile, there were significant positive correlations between LA strain with exercise duration and METs. CONCLUSION: post Covid patients presented with persistent dyspnea demonstrated low functional capacity evidenced by different scores and stress ECG. Moreover, patients with post Covid syndrome showed elevated inflammatory biomarkers, LV diastolic dysfunction in addition to impaired LA strain functions. Impairment of LA strain was closely correlated to different functional scores, inflammatory biomarkers, exercise duration, and METs suggesting that these could to be the possible etiologies for the persistence of post Covid symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Atrial Function, Left , Heart Atria
12.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.03.14.23287258

ABSTRACT

Background Whether impaired left ventricular (LV) function contributes to persistent cardiopulmonary symptoms or decreased exercise capacity after COVID-19 remains unclear. The aim of this prospective study was to determine differences in LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) between athletes who did not have a history of LV dysfunction but had a positive COVID-19 test (PCAt) and healthy control (CON) athletes and relate them to symptoms during COVID-19. Methods We performed 151 transthoracic echocardiographies in our high-performance laboratory. GLS was determined in four-, two-, and three-chamber views and assessed offline by a blinded investigator in 88 PCAt (35% women) at a median of two months after COVID-19 who trained at least three times per week with more than 20 MET per week and 52 CONs from the German national squad (38% women). Results GLS was significantly lower (GLS -18.53 {+/-}1.94% vs. -19.94{+/-}1.42%, p<0.001) and diastolic function significantly reduced (E/A 1.54{+/-}0.52 vs. 1.66{+/-}0.43, p=0.020; E`l 0.15{+/-}0.04 vs. 0.17{+/-}0.04, p=0.009; E/E'l 5.74{+/-}1.74 vs. 5.22{+/-}1.36, p=0.024) in PCAt. There was no association between GLS and acute symptoms like resting dyspnea, exertional dyspnea during or after COVID-19, palpitations, chest pain or increased resting heart rate. However, there was a trend toward lower GLS in PCAt with subjectively perceived performance limitation (p=0.054). Conclusions In a cohort of athletes at a median two months after COVID-19, significantly lower GLS and diastolic function were observed, suggesting mild myocardial dysfunction. GLS could be used as a screening element during return-to-sport examinations.


Subject(s)
Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Dyspnea , COVID-19 , Sprains and Strains , Cardiomyopathies , Chest Pain
13.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 39(5): 939-944, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246681

ABSTRACT

It is known that during the active course of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), myocardial injury has an established pathological base, while its myocardial injury post-recovery is still obscured.The aim of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal left atrial strain (LAS) using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in COVID-19-recovered patients who are previously healthy without confounder comorbidities to detect the potential cardiac dysfunction.200 patients were prospectively included and examined 4?12 weeks after recovery from COVID-19 infection. 137 participants with comorbidities or previous history of cardiopulmonary disease were excluded from the analysis. A total of 63 patients who fulfilled our inclusion criteria were recruited into two groups according to thepresence or absence of persistent dyspnoea and exercise intolerance. Clinical, laboratory & comprehensive echocardiographic examinations were done for all. We observed that 31.7% of the previously healthy individuals developed dyspnoea & exercise intolerance post-COVID-19 infection. There were significantly impaired LAS parameters in the symptomatic group (LA reservoir, contraction & conduit strain, 22.7%, -6.6% & -16.1% versus 40%, -12%, and ? 27% in the asymptomatic group with P < 0.000). Only LA reservoir strain and LA stiffness can independently predict the development of dyspnoea & exercise intolerance post-COVID-19 at cut-off values of 30% & 24.5% respectively with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 91%, P < 0.001. These impaired LAS parameters could explain the developed symptoms post-COVID-19 recovery, even before disturbed conventional diastolic echocardiographic parameters.LAS parameters are significantly associated with the developed exertional dyspnoea & exercise intolerance post-COVID-19. LA reservoir strain & LA stiffness could provide a simple, easily available tool that points to early LV diastolic dysfunction and may direct the therapy in this subset of the population.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Predictive Value of Tests , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Disease Progression
14.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 39(5): 887-894, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many patients who have recovered from their coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) episode continue to remain symptomatic and seek medical opinion. The clinical characteristics and echocardiography findings of such subjects have not been adequately studied. METHODS: The study included 472 subjects (age 54.0 ± 13.4 years, 57% men) with previous COVID-19 (median duration since COVID-19 12.0 weeks, interquartile range 9.0-26.0 weeks) and 100 controls (age 53.9 ± 13.6 years, 53% men). All subjects underwent detailed clinical assessment and echocardiography, including measurement of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and global longitudinal strain (GLS). RESULTS: Less than third (29.2%) of the post-COVID subjects had needed hospitalization for their initial infection. Exertional dyspnea or breathing difficulty at rest were the commonest reasons for post-COVID presentation. As compared to controls, the post-COVID subjects had impaired LV systolic (LVEF 63.2 ± 2.2 vs. 61.9 ± 4.6, P = 0.007; GLS - 19.9 ± 2.6% vs. -17.6 ± 3.4%, P < 0.001) and diastolic function. Majority of those with reduced LV GLS had preserved LVEF. The patients presenting before 12 weeks were more likely to be symptomatic, but LV GLS did not differ. The patients needing hospitalization had higher burden of co-morbidities and significantly reduced LV GLS as compared to those who had received domiciliary treatment. The patients in the lowest GLS tertile were older, had higher burden of co-morbidities, and had had more severe initial infection with greater need for hospitalization, oxygen therapy and steroids. The need for hospitalization was independently associated with lower GLS at the time of current presentation. CONCLUSION: This study shows that impairment of LV systolic and diastolic function is common among subjects recovering from previous COVID-19 episode. The patients with more severe initial infection have more marked impairment of LV function and this impairment persists even after several months of recovery from the initial infection. Routine measurement of GLS may be helpful since LV systolic dysfunction in these patients is mostly subclinical.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Male , Humans , Infant , Female , Predictive Value of Tests , Ventricular Function, Left , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(50): e31935, 2022 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191099

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular injuries induced by SARS CoV-2 have been reported repeatedly in various studies. Therefore, it is necessary to understand cardiac complications at a low cost, quickly. This study aimed to determine the relationship between cardiological parameters and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients with coronavirus infection. : Patients who were admitted to the emergency department due to the ongoing pandemic, all patients with similar symptoms to coronavirus disease 2019 infection were initially admitted to the respiratory emergency room and underwent subsequent evaluations to confirm or rule out SARS-COV2 infection symptoms were assessed for eligibility. Patient were categorized into 2 groups 1. Positive PCR and negative PCR groups. Binary logistic regression was performed to assess the effect of several factors on the likelihood of developing positive troponin, reduced ejection fraction (EF), and Positive brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Among 195 patients included, 115 (58.9%) had positive PCR. Patient in the positive PCR and negative PCR were 58.04 ±â€…18.03 and 59.19 ±â€…15.38 years of age, respectively. Patients in the "positive PCR" were significantly less likely to have chronic kidney disease (6.69% vs 17.5%, P value: .022), consume calcium channel blockers (6.69% vs 18.75%, P value:0.012). At the univariable level, positive PCR was significantly associated with fewer odds for positive BNP (OR:0.46, P = .019); nevertheless, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for confounders (adjusted OR:0.56, P = .158). Unadjusted positive PCR results were not found to have a significant association with positive troponin or reduced EF. Likewise, multivariable regression revealed no association between positive PCR and positive troponin (aOR:1.28, P = .529) and reduced EF (aOR:0.65, P = .369). PCR positivity did not result in positive troponin and BNP and did not appear to decrease EF. In other words, serial troponin and BNP checks and initial echocardiography in coronavirus disease 2019 respiratory emergencies do not make significant differences in diagnostic and therapeutic management and inpatient outcomes of patients with positive or negative PCR and are not specific findings. Evidence suggests some coronavirus-induced cardiac complications will be manifested in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , RNA, Viral , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Troponin
16.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(11): 11-12, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Subclinical myocardial dysfunction may exist in post-COVID-19 patients and may carry significance in long term. METHODOLOGY: Subjects of long-COVID-19 with historically and radiologically significant pulmonary involvement (without documented cardiac involvement) were evaluated on outpatient follow-up echocardiographically when they had disproportionate shortness of breath (SOB), fatigue, or high pulse rate as perceived by the physicians. The common acute-phase symptoms were noted and scored retrospectively. The assessment included spirometry and measurement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) score with measurement of the left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) free wall global longitudinal strain as an adjunct to routine two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography and spirometry. The results were evaluated statistically with respect to the history of hospitalization. RESULTS: The hospitalized (n = 15) and nonhospitalized (n = 10) patients were demographically similar. However, the nonhospitalized patients had higher total symptom score (p = 0.03), anosmia (p = 0.017), and ageusia (p = 0.0019). At follow-up (>3 months of acute illness), the nonhospitalized patients had a better CAT score (p = 0.04), higher change in max pulse rate (p = 0.03), and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (p = 0.002), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) (p = 0.02), and left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) (-17.15 ± 1.19 vs -13.11 ± 1.91) (p = 0.0001). Overall, the two groups formed distinct clusters. The LVGLS and the maximum pulse rate difference in the two chair test (2CT) seem to contribute maximally to the variance between the two groups in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The subclinical myocardial dysfunction persisting in post-COVID patients (without suspected cardiac affection and lower neuroinflammatory symptoms in the acute phase) with significant pulmonary affection needs further evaluation. They demonstrate a higher max pulse rate difference in the 2CT. This real-world observation demands further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography, Doppler , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
17.
Eur J Pediatr ; 182(2): 845-854, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157267

ABSTRACT

In this multicenter retrospective study we aimed to evaluate the outcome of cardiac involvement in children affected by multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), assessed through cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Children referring to three Italian tertiary pediatric centers between February 2020 and November 2021 with a diagnosis of MIS-C, who underwent CMR during a follow-up visit, were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were collected. Twenty MIS-C patients (aged 9-17, median 12 years) were included in the study. Heart involvement at onset was testified by hypotension/shock (55%), laboratory evidence of myocardial involvement (100%), reduced LV ejection fraction (EF) on echocardiography (83%), and/or need for inotrope agents (40%); they all presented good clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic response to treatment. CMR was performed after a median interval of 3 months from discharge. Pericardial effusion and myocardial edema were found in 5% of patients. Mild residual left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was found in 20% of patients, all showing normal echocardiographic LVEF at discharge. Minimal myocardial scars were found in 25% by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). One patient was evaluated at two consecutive time points, showing partial resolution of a myocardial scar after 7 months from its first finding. CONCLUSION: Despite the severity of heart involvement in the acute MIS-C phase, the mid-term cardiac outcome is good. Direct cardiac tissue viral invasion may be involved in MIS-C pathogenesis. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Heart involvement is common in MIS-C, but conflicting findings have been shown regarding cardiac outcome when assessed through cardiac MRI. WHAT IS NEW: • Midterm cardiac MRI shows mild abnormalities in patients recovered from MIS-C with any grade of severity of cardiac involvement at presentation.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Child , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Gadolinium , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Stroke Volume , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging
18.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2371008.v1

ABSTRACT

Background Multiple reports have described myopericarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. However, data on the persistence of subclinical myocardial injury assessed by left ventricular (LV) longitudinal strain (LVLS) is limited.Objectives Our aim was to assess LV function longitudinally in our cohort of COVID-19 vaccine-related myopericarditis using ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), LVLS, and diastolic parameters.Methods Retrospective, single-center review of demographic, laboratory, and management data was performed on 20 patients meeting diagnostic criteria for myopericarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. Echocardiographic images were obtained on initial presentation (time 0), at a median of 12 days (7.5, 18.5; time 1), and at a median of 44 days (29.5, 83.5; time 2). FS was calculated by M-mode, EF by 5/6 area-length methods, LVLS by utilization of TOMTEC software, and diastolic function by tissue Doppler. All parameters were compared across pairs of these time points using Wilcoxon signed-rank test.Results Our cohort consisted predominantly of adolescent males (85%) with mild presentation of myopericarditis. The median EF was 61.6% (54.6, 68.0), 63.8% (60.7, 68.3), 61.4% (60.1, 64.6) at times 0, 1, and 2, respectively. Upon initial presentation, 47% of our cohort had LVLS < -18%. The median LVLS was − 18.6% (-16.9, -21.0) at time 0, -21.2% at time 1 (-19.4, -23.5) (p = 0.004) and − 20.8% (-18.7, -21.7) at time 2 (p = 0.004, as compared to time 0).Conclusions Though many of our patients had abnormal strain during acute illness, LVLS improved longitudinally, indicating myocardial recovery. LVLS can be used as marker of subclinical myocardial injury and risk stratification in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
19.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2340932.v1

ABSTRACT

Background Cardiac problems are frequent (20 to 25%) with COVID-19 and are associated with cardiac complications and in-hospital mortality. Existing research on the echocardiographic examination of COVID-19 focuses mostly on hospitalized patients with severe symptoms and in the acute phase of the disease, leaving out of the spotlight non-hospitalized individuals with mild symptoms. In this study, we wanted to determine the long-term influence of both severe and non-severe COVID-19 on echocardiographic changes. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted during Iran's third COVID-19 wave in November 2020 among healthcare workers with a history of COVID-19 but otherwise healthy. Initially, a total of 100 patients underwent the primary echocardiographic examination 6 to 8 weeks following COVID-19 onset, and 6 months after the COVID-19 diagnosis, 64 subjects underwent the secondary echocardiographic evaluations. Based on clinical or radiological evidence, individuals were categorized into two groups of non-severe and severe COVID-19. Results Of 64 participants, 42 (65.6%) were women. The patients ' mean age was 40.4±8.1 years. In the non-severe COVID-19 group, among left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic indices, stroke volume index and ejection fraction increased significantly (24.7±4.1 cc/m2 vs. 29.7±7.0 cc/m2, p-value<0.001 and 61.9% [59.8-64.5] vs. 63.8% [58.2-68.9], p-value=0.029, respectively). Among right ventricular indices, free-wall global longitudinal strain decreased significantly in the secondary echocardiogram: (-32.3±4.6% vs. -28.8±5.8%, p-value=0.002). In the severe COVID-19 group, from LV echocardiographic indices, global longitudinal strain increased significantly over the follow-up period (-20% [-21.4- -19] vs. -23.9% [-25.3--21.9], p-value=0.004) and from RV indices, the fractional area change showed a significant decrease (47.2% [42.3-52.2] vs. 36.4% [31.1-45], p-value=0.002). Conclusion Although some patterns of significant change were seen among echocardiographic indices, COVID-19, regardless of severity, did not lead to cardiac impairment in an otherwise healthy population. The current results may not present the outcomes of older adults or with a history of cardiac problems against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Stroke , COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Cardiac Complexes, Premature , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18038, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087313

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of long-Covid symptoms remains incompletely understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine cardiopulmonary limitations 6 months after surviving COVID-19 using pulmonary function tests, echocardiographic studies to the point of analysis of global-longitudinal-strain (GLS), which describes the cycling myocardium deformation and provides better data on left ventricular (LV) dysfunction than LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and validated questionnaires. Overall, 60 consecutive hospitalized patients were included (61 ± 2 years, 40% treated in the ICU). At follow-up (194 ± 3 days after discharge), fatigue was the most prevalent symptom (28%). Patients with fatigue were more symptomatic overall and characterized by worse quality of life (QoL) scores compared to patients without fatigue (all p < 0.05), mainly due to limited mobility and high symptom burden. While PFT variables and LVEF were normal in the vast majority of patients (LVEF = 52% (45-52%)), GLS was significantly reduced (- 15% (- 18 to - 14%)). However, GLS values were not different between patients with and without fatigue. In conclusion, fatigue was the most prevalent long-Covid symptom in our cohort, which was associated with worse QoL mainly due to limited mobility and the high burden of concomitant symptoms. Patients showed a subtle myocardial dysfunction 6 months after surviving COVID-19, but this did not relate to the presence of fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , Quality of Life , Ventricular Function, Left , Stroke Volume , Fatigue/complications , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
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