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1.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e934066, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Since Emergency Use Authorization of COVID-19 vaccines in December 2020, more is becoming known about their adverse effects. Growing numbers of myopericarditis cases after COVID-19 vaccination are being reported, mostly in younger adults. While most of these patients have recovered rapidly and without complications, it is still unclear whether patients who are older and have greater cardiac dysfunction secondary to myopericarditis will also experience the same recovery. CASE REPORT We report the case of a middle-aged man with myopericarditis and significant left ventricular dysfunction after the second dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. He presented several days after vaccination, and with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory treatment, he quickly recovered ventricular function, and symptoms resolved within 1 week after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS Vaccines are a key tool in combating the COVID-19 pandemic, yet many people are hesitant to seek vaccination, perhaps for fear of adverse events. Our report of a middle-aged patient with significant left ventricular dysfunction, who still experienced rapid recovery, should reassure the public about the safety of vaccines. Such rare adverse effects should not deter people from receiving COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
2.
N Engl J Med ; 385(20): 1845-1855, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with symptomatic heart failure, sacubitril-valsartan has been found to reduce the risk of hospitalization and death from cardiovascular causes more effectively than an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. Trials comparing the effects of these drugs in patients with acute myocardial infarction have been lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with myocardial infarction complicated by a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary congestion, or both to receive either sacubitril-valsartan (97 mg of sacubitril and 103 mg of valsartan twice daily) or ramipril (5 mg twice daily) in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure (outpatient symptomatic heart failure or heart failure leading to hospitalization), whichever occurred first. RESULTS: A total of 5661 patients underwent randomization; 2830 were assigned to receive sacubitril-valsartan and 2831 to receive ramipril. Over a median of 22 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 338 patients (11.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 373 patients (13.2%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.04; P = 0.17). Death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 308 patients (10.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 335 patients (11.8%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.07); death from cardiovascular causes in 168 (5.9%) and 191 (6.7%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.08); and death from any cause in 213 (7.5%) and 242 (8.5%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.05). Treatment was discontinued because of an adverse event in 357 patients (12.6%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 379 patients (13.4%) in the ramipril group. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan was not associated with a significantly lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure than ramipril among patients with acute myocardial infarction. (Funded by Novartis; PARADISE-MI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02924727.).


Subject(s)
Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Ramipril/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Aged , Aminobutyrates/adverse effects , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Biphenyl Compounds/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypotension/chemically induced , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Ramipril/adverse effects , Stroke Volume , Valsartan/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 528, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The value of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in cardiogenic shock, especially the combination of the ECMELLA approach (Impella combined with ECMO), remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 33-year-old female patient was submitted to a local emergency department with a flu-like infection and febrile temperatures up to 39 °C. The patient was tested positive for type-A influenza, however negative for SARS-CoV-2. Despite escalated invasive ventilation, refractory hypercapnia (paCO2: 22 kPa) with severe respiratory acidosis (pH: 6.9) and a rising norepinephrine rate occurred within a few hours. Due to a Horovitz-Index < 100, out-of-centre veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO)-implantation was performed. A CT-scan done because of anisocoria revealed an extended dissection of the right vertebral artery. While the initial left ventricular function was normal, echocardiography revealed severe global hypokinesia. After angiographic exclusion of coronary artery stenoses, we geared up LV unloading by additional implantation of an Impella CP and expanded the vv-ECMO to a veno-venous-arterial ECMO (vva-ECMO). Clinically relevant bleeding from the punctured femoral arteries resulted in massive transfusion and was treated by vascular surgery later on. Under continued MCS, LVEF increased to approximately 40% 2 days after the initiation of ECMELLA. After weaning, the Impella CP was explanted at day 5 and the vva-ECMO was removed on day 9, respectively. The patient was discharged in an unaffected neurological condition to rehabilitation 25 days after the initial admission. CONCLUSIONS: This exceptional case exemplifies the importance of aggressive MCS in severe cardiogenic shock, which may be especially promising in younger patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and potentially reversible causes of cardiogenic shock. This case impressively demonstrates that especially young patients may achieve complete neurological restoration, even though the initial prognosis may appear unfavourable.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart-Assist Devices , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Deterioration , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
4.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463839

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children can trigger cardiovascular manifestations potentially requiring an intensive treatment and defining a new entity named Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), whose features partially overlap with Kawasaki Disease (KD). A cross-sectional study including all diagnoses of MIS-C and KD from April 2020 to May 2021 in our metropolitan area was conducted evaluating clinical, laboratory (including immunological response, cytokines, and markers of myocardial damage), and cardiac (coronary and non-coronary) features at onset of the diseases. Evolution of ventricular dysfunction, valve regurgitations, and coronary lesions was documented. The severity of the disease was also considered based on the need for inotropic support and ICU admission. Twenty-four MIS-C were diagnosed (14 boys, median age 82 months): 13/24 cases (54.17%) presented left ventricular dysfunction, 12/24 (50%) required inotropic support, and 10/24 (41.67%) developed coronary anomalies (CALs). All patients received steroids and IVIG at a median time of 5 days (IQR1:4, IQR3:6.5) from onset of fever and heart function normalized 6 days (IQR1: 5, IQR3: 7) after therapy, while CALs persisted in one. One patient (12.5%) required infliximab because of refractory disease and still presented CALs 18 days after therapy. During the same study period, 15 KD were diagnosed: none had ventricular dysfunction, while 7/15 (46.67%) developed CALs. Three out of 15 patients (20%) still presented CALs 46 days from onset. Compared to KD, MIS-C pts have significantly higher IL8 and similar lymphocytes subpopulations. Despite a more severe presentation and initial cardiac findings compared to KD, the myocardial injury in MIS-C has a rapid response to immunomodulatory treatment (median time 6 days), in terms of ventricular function, valve regurgitations, and troponin. Incidence of CALs is similar at onset, but it tends to regress in most of the cases of MIS-C differently than in KD where CALs persist in up to 40% in the subacute stage after treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology
5.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021204, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404258

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)  have been the most common cause of death worldwide for decades. Until recently the most affected patients were middle-aged and elderly, predominantly men, with more frequent ST elevation myocardial infarction  (STEMI) caused by obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). However, in the last two decades we have noticed an increased incidence of ischemia with non-obstructive coronary arteries (INOCA), which includes myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) and non-myocardial infarction syndromes, such as microvascular and vasospastic angina, conditions that have been particularly pronounced in women and young adults - the population we considered low-risky till than. Therefore, it has become apparent that for this group of patients conventional methods of assessing the risk of future cardiovascular (CV) events are no longer specific and sensitive enough. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is another disease, the incidence of which has been rising rapidly during last two decades, and predominantly affects elderly population. Although the etiology and pathophysiology of INOCA and HFpEF are complex and not fully understood, there is no doubt that the underlying cause of both conditions is endothelial dysfunction (ED) which further promotes the development of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Plasma biomarkers of ED, as well as natriuretic peptides (NPs), have been intensively investigated recently, and some of them have great potential for early detection and better assessment of CV risk in the future.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Failure , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
6.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(12): 1549-1566, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial involvement induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection might be important for long-term prognosis. The aim of this observational study was to characterize the myocardial effects during SARS-CoV-2 infections by echocardiography. RESULTS AND METHODS: An extended echocardiographic image acquisition protocol was performed in 18 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection assessing LV longitudinal, radial, and circumferential deformation including rotation, twist, and untwisting. Furthermore, LV deformation was analyzed in an age-matched control group of healthy individuals (n = 20). The most prevalent finding was a reduced longitudinal strain observed predominantly in more than one basal LV segment (n = 10/14 patients, 71%). This pattern reminded of a "reverse tako-tsubo" morphology that is not typical for other viral myocarditis. Additional findings included a biphasic pattern with maximum post-systolic or negative regional radial strain predominantly basal (n = 5/14 patients, 36%); the absence or dispersion of basal LV rotation (n = 6/14 patients, 43%); a reduced or positive regional circumferential strain in more than one segment (n = 7/14 patients, 50%); a net rotation showing late post-systolic twist or biphasic pattern (n = 8/14 patients, 57%); a net rotation showing polyphasic pattern and/or higher maximum net values during diastole (n = 8/14 patients, 57%). CONCLUSION: Myocardial involvement due to SARS-CoV-2-infection was highly prevalent in the present cohort-even in patients with mild symptoms. It appears to be characterized by specific speckle tracking deformation abnormalities in the basal LV segments. These data set the stage to prospectively test whether these parameters are helpful for risk stratification and for the long-term follow-up of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology , Ventricular Function, Left
8.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury associated with cytokine release frequently occurs in SARS-CoV-2 mediated coronavirus disease (COVID19) and mortality is particularly high in these patients. The mechanistic role of the COVID19 associated cytokine-storm for the concomitant cardiac dysfunction and associated arrhythmias is unclear. Moreover, the role of anti-inflammatory therapy to mitigate cardiac dysfunction remains elusive. AIMS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of COVID19-associated inflammatory response on cardiac cellular function as well as its cardiac arrhythmogenic potential in rat and induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM). In addition, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of the IL-1ß antagonist Canakinumab using state of the art in-vitro confocal and ratiometric high-throughput microscopy. RESULTS: Isolated rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were exposed to control or COVID19 serum from intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe ARDS and impaired cardiac function (LVEF 41±5%; 1/3 of patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; CK 154±43 U/l). Rat cardiomyocytes showed an early increase of myofilament sensitivity, a decrease of Ca2+ transient amplitudes and altered baseline [Ca2+] upon exposure to patient serum. In addition, we used iPS-CM to explore the long-term effect of patient serum on cardiac electrical and mechanical function. In iPS-CM, spontaneous Ca2+ release events were more likely to occur upon incubation with COVID19 serum and nuclear as well as cytosolic Ca2+ release were altered. Co-incubation with Canakinumab had no effect on pro-arrhythmogenic Ca2+ release or Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling, nor significantly influenced cellular automaticity. CONCLUSION: Serum derived from COVID19 patients exerts acute cardio-depressant and chronic pro-arrhythmogenic effects in rat and iPS-derived cardiomyocytes. Canakinumab had no beneficial effect on cellular Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling. The presented method utilizing iPS-CM and in-vitro Ca2+ imaging might serve as a novel tool for precision medicine. It allows to investigate cytokine related cardiac dysfunction and pharmacological approaches useful therein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 , Calcium Signaling/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Calcium/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology
9.
Am Heart J ; 242: 61-70, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause myocardial injury and myocarditis, and reports of persistent cardiac pathology after COVID-19 have raised concerns of long-term cardiac consequences. We aimed to assess the presence of abnormal cardiovascular resonance imaging (CMR) findings in patients recovered from moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and its association with markers of disease severity in the acute phase. METHODS: Fifty-eight (49%) survivors from the prospective COVID MECH study, underwent CMR median 175 [IQR 105-217] days after COVID-19 hospitalization. Abnormal CMR was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% or myocardial scar by late gadolinium enhancement. CMR indices were compared to healthy controls (n = 32), and to circulating biomarkers measured during the index hospitalization. RESULTS: Abnormal CMR was present in 12 (21%) patients, of whom 3 were classified with major pathology (scar and LVEF <50% or LVEF <40%). There was no difference in the need of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, and vital signs between patients with vs without abnormal CMR after 6 months. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viremia and concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers during the index hospitalization were not associated with persistent CMR pathology. Cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations on admission, were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but these associations were not significant after adjusting for demographics and established cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: CMR pathology 6 months after moderate-to-severe COVID-19 was present in 21% of patients and did not correlate with severity of the disease. Cardiovascular biomarkers during COVID-19 were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but with no significant association after adjusting for confounders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID MECH Study ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cicatrix/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cicatrix/etiology , Female , Gadolinium , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume , Survivors , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
10.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(10): 2979-2989, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356014

ABSTRACT

The cardiac sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a worldwide global pandemic, are still uncertain, particularly in the asymptomatic, low cardiac risk outpatient population. This study aims to evaluate the asymptomatic, low cardiac risk out-patient population who recently recovered from COVID-19, using 2-D left ventricular-global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) proven to be capable of detecting subclinical myocardial injury. Out of 305 COVID-19 positive patients, 70 asymptomatic out-patients were determined as the study group and 70 age and sex-matched healthy adults as the control group. The echocardiographic examination was performed with the Philips IE33 system, and LV-GLS was measured using commercially available software QLAB 9 (cardiac motion quantification; Philips Medical Systems). The absolute value of LV-GLS ≤ 18 did deem to be impaired LV-GLS. The absolute value of LV-GLS was statistically significantly lower in the COVID-19 group than in healthy controls (19.17 ± 2.65 vs. 20.07 ± 2.19, p = 0.03). The correlation between having recovered from COVID-19 and impaired LV-GLS (≤18) did detect with the Pearson correlation test (p = 0.02). Having recovered from COVID-19 was found as a predictor for detecting impaired LV-GLS (≤18) in the multivariable logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 0.133 (0.038-0.461); 95% CI, p = 0.001). This study suggests that COVID-19 may cause subclinical LV dysfunction detected by LV-GLS during early recovery even in a population of patients at low cardiac risk, asymptomatic, and recovered with home quarantine. The study findings indicate that the long-term cardiovascular follow-up of these patients may be more important than thought.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , Humans , Outpatients , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left
11.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14470, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Covid-19 is an extremely contagious illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The cardiac involvement in such a public health emergency disease has not been well studied and a conflicting evidence exists on this issue. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review article aimed to compile and illustrate clinical characteristics, diagnostic findings, management, and outcomes manifesting in myocarditis linked with Covid-19. METHODS: A literature search was accomplished for published eligible articles with MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases. All eligible case reports and case series were included from around the world without any language restrictions. For this review, inclusion criteria were laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection cases reporting a diagnosis of acute myocarditis. RESULTS: Data from 41 studies describing myocarditis in 42 Covid-19 patients was obtained. The median age of these patients was 43.4 years, with 71.4% of them being men. Fever was the most prevalent presenting symptoms seen in 57% of patients. Hypertension was the most pervasive comorbidity accompanying these patients. Cardiac biomarkers troponin and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were raised in almost 90% and 87% of patients, respectively. Electrocardiogram findings were nonspecific and included ST-segment and T-wave changes. Echocardiogram commonly showed left ventricular systolic dysfunction with increased heart size. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) exhibited myocardial edema and injury. The most prevalent histopathological feature appreciated was diffuse lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates. Antivirals and corticosteroids were the most frequently used medications. About 38% of patients also needed vasopressor assistance. Out of 42 patients, 67% recovered, and eight died. CONCLUSION: Because of the risk of a sudden worsening of patients conditions and myocarditis association with considerable mortality and morbidity, a knowledge of this cardiac complication of Covid-19 disease is crucial for healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , Echocardiography , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(10): 2957-2964, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279470

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 infection, which is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has rapidly emerged as a global public health issue. Cardiac complications secondary to this infection are common and associated with mortality. This study aimed to evaluate whether subclinical myocardial dysfunction exists in non-hospitalized mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients using left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS). In this cross-sectional, single-center study, data were collected from non-hospitalized mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients between January 01 and February 01, 2021. Fifty (26 male, 24 female) COVID-19 patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were included in the study. Apical four-, three-, and two-chamber images were analyzed longitudinally by conventional methods and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) for left ventricle functions. The mean age of the COVID-19 patients was 39.5 ± 8.96, and 52% of them were male. The most prevalent presenting symptoms were fever [in 34 (68%)], asthenia [in 30 (60%)], loss of appetite [in 21 (42%)], myalgia [in 20 (40%)], and cough [in 13 (26%)]. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly higher in the COVID-19 patients than in the controls (10.84 ± 12.44 vs. 4.50 ± 2.81, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of standard echocardiography and Doppler parameters (p > 0.05). Left ventricular longitudinal strain and strain velocity parameters were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy individuals. LV-GLS values (- 21.72 ± 3.85% vs. - 23.11 ± 4.16%; p = 0.003) were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients compared with the healthy controls. Mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients also have subclinical myocardial dysfunction similar to hospitalized patients. STE has the potential for detecting subclinical LV systolic dysfunction, and can provide useful information regarding cardiac status in mildly symptomatic COVID-19 population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left
13.
N Engl J Med ; 385(1): 23-34, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The assessment of real-world effectiveness of immunomodulatory medications for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may guide therapy. METHODS: We analyzed surveillance data on inpatients younger than 21 years of age who had MIS-C and were admitted to 1 of 58 U.S. hospitals between March 15 and October 31, 2020. The effectiveness of initial immunomodulatory therapy (day 0, indicating the first day any such therapy for MIS-C was given) with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) plus glucocorticoids, as compared with IVIG alone, was evaluated with propensity-score matching and inverse probability weighting, with adjustment for baseline MIS-C severity and demographic characteristics. The primary outcome was cardiovascular dysfunction (a composite of left ventricular dysfunction or shock resulting in the use of vasopressors) on or after day 2. Secondary outcomes included the components of the primary outcome, the receipt of adjunctive treatment (glucocorticoids in patients not already receiving glucocorticoids on day 0, a biologic, or a second dose of IVIG) on or after day 1, and persistent or recurrent fever on or after day 2. RESULTS: A total of 518 patients with MIS-C (median age, 8.7 years) received at least one immunomodulatory therapy; 75% had been previously healthy, and 9 died. In the propensity-score-matched analysis, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids (103 patients) was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular dysfunction on or after day 2 than IVIG alone (103 patients) (17% vs. 31%; risk ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.94). The risks of the components of the composite outcome were also lower among those who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids: left ventricular dysfunction occurred in 8% and 17% of the patients, respectively (risk ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.19 to 1.15), and shock resulting in vasopressor use in 13% and 24% (risk ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.00). The use of adjunctive therapy was lower among patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids than among those who received IVIG alone (34% vs. 70%; risk ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.65), but the risk of fever was unaffected (31% and 40%, respectively; risk ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.53 to 1.13). The inverse-probability-weighted analysis confirmed the results of the propensity-score-matched analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Among children and adolescents with MIS-C, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids was associated with a lower risk of new or persistent cardiovascular dysfunction than IVIG alone. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/prevention & control , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunomodulation , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Propensity Score , Public Health Surveillance , Shock/etiology , Shock/prevention & control , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Young Adult
14.
Hipertens Riesgo Vasc ; 37(2): 82-85, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207028

ABSTRACT

Malignant arterial hypertension is still present in current clinical care despite the fact that for more than three decades we have had a wide range of antihypertensive drugs to control high blood pressure. It is essential to know how to detect it in time due to its high risk to life, with poor short-term prognosis if not treated properly. It may present with nonspecific, but potentially serious, clinical symptoms or manifest clinically as a hypertensive emergency accompanied by hypertensive encephalopathy and multi-organ failure. We present a case of a 49-year-old woman, attended in our hospital who had an initial hypertension of 223/170mmHg accompanied by multi-organ failure, who progressed satisfactorily with antihypertensive treatment.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Hypertension, Malignant/physiopathology , Hypertensive Encephalopathy/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Malignant/drug therapy , Middle Aged
15.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(8): 2451-2464, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) disease has spread rapidly and posed a great threat to global public health. The laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes of the disease in discharged patients remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the laboratory and echocardiographic findings of patients with COVID-19 after discharge and the relation between left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) and inflammatory parameters in discharged patients. METHODS: A total of 75 patients recovering from COVID-19 as the study group were prospectively recruited from the COVID-19 outpatient clinic for their follow-up visits at a median 6 months after discharge. Patients were classified into groups according to pneumonia severity and impairment in LVGLS. Laboratory findings of patients both at admission and after discharge were evaluated and the relation with pneumonia severity at admission and LVGLS after discharge were analyzed. RESULTS: Serum ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) levels after discharge were significantly higher in the study group than the control group (n = 44). Ferritin was found to be related to pneumonia severity. Serum ferritin and LDH values after discharge were significantly higher in patients with impaired LVGLS than those with preserved. There was a significant correlation between LVGLS, serum ferritin and LDH values after discharge (r = -0.252, p = 0.012; r = -0.268, p = 0.005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should pay close attention to the serum ferritin and LDH levels in discharged patients for predicting the severity of COVID-19 disease and early identification of subclinical left ventricular myocardial dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Adult , Echocardiography , Female , Ferritins/blood , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 29: 45-49, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury is a complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We describe a large multi-center experience of COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury, examining the prognostic role left ventricular function plays on short-term outcomes. METHODS/MATERIALS: We included adult COVID-19 patients admitted to our health system with evidence of myocardial injury and who underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) during index admission. Patients were dichotomized into those with reduced ejection fraction (EF; <50%) and preserved EF (≥50%). RESULTS: Across our 11-hospital system, 5032 adult patients were admitted with COVID-19 from March-September 2020. Of these, 235 had evidence of myocardial injury (troponin ≥1 ng/mL). Included were 134 patients who underwent TTE, of whom 43.3% (n = 58) had reduced EF and 56.7% (n = 76) preserved EF. A subset of 6 patients had newly reduced EF, with 5 demonstrating evidence of stress cardiomyopathy and subsequently dying. Overall, mortality was high in those with reduced EF and preserved EF (in-hospital: 34.5% vs. 28.9%; p = 0.494; 6 months: 63.6% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.167; Kaplan-Meier estimates: p = 0.2886). Readmissions were frequent in both groups (30 days: 22.2% vs. 26.0%; p = 0.162; 6 months: 52.0% vs. 54.5%; p = 0.839). CONCLUSIONS: Many COVID-19 patients admitted with evidence of myocardial injury did not undergo TTE. For those who did, short-term mortality was high. Patients who survived hospitalization had frequent readmissions. In patients with newly reduced EF, most had evidence of stress cardiomyopathy and expired. Larger studies are needed to fully evaluate the prognosis of COVID-19 patients with evidence of myocardial injury and left ventricular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Left
17.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(7): 2227-2233, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135168

ABSTRACT

Highly sensitive troponin (hs-TnI) levels are frequently elevated in COVID-19 patients and are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality during hospitalization. However, no data exists on cardiac involvement in patients recovered from COVID-19 infection. We aimed to evaluate by global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) whether there is subclinical myocardial deformation after COVID-19 infection. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) was performed within 29.5 ± 4.5 days after COVID-19 treatment. The standard GLS limit was identified at < -18%. The patients were divided into two groups according to their hs-TnI levels during hospitalization as with (> 11.6 ng/dl) and without (< 11.6 ng/dl) myocardial injury. Patients' (n = 74) mean age was 59.9 years, and women were in the majority (60.8%). Of the patients, 43.2% of them were hypertensive, and 10.9% were diabetic. Abnormal LV-GLS values (> -18) were measured in 28 patients (37.8%). While 16 (57.1%) of these patients were in the group with myocardial injury, 12 (26.1%) of them were in the group without myocardial injury (p = 0.014). D-dimer, C reactive protein, white blood cell levels were higher in the group with myocardial injury (All p values < 0.05). Electrocardiographically, 9 (12.2%) patients had T wave inversion, while two patients had a bundle branch block. Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction was observed in approximately one-third of the patients at the one-month follow-up after COVID-19 infection. This rate was higher in those who develop myocardial injury during hospitalization. This result suggests that patients recovered from COVID-19 infection should be evaluated and followed in terms of cardiac involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Electrocardiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
18.
Cardiol Young ; 31(3): 485-487, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131993

ABSTRACT

A four- and a half-month-old girl with severe dilated cardiomyopathy due to neonatal enterovirus myocarditis, treated with diuretics and milrinone for the past 4 months, was infected with SARS-CoV-2. The disease course was characterised by high fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Cardiac function, as measured by echocardiography, remained stable. The treatment focused on maintaining a normal heart rate and a stable fluid balance. In children with severe underlying cardiac disease, even a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection can require close monitoring and compound treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Tachycardia/physiopathology , Tachypnea/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Vomiting/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/drug therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/etiology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/metabolism , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Enterovirus Infections/complications , Female , Heart Rate , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Infant , Milrinone/therapeutic use , Myocarditis/complications , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Troponin T/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Waiting Lists , Water-Electrolyte Balance
19.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(8): 1117-1129, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101247

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has rapidly spread around the world and threatened global health. Although this disease mainly affects the respiratory system, there is increasing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 also has effects on the cardiovascular system. Echocardiography is a valuable tool in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. It is cost-effective, widely available and provides information that can influence management. Given the risk of personnel infection and equipment contamination during echocardiography, leading world societies have recommended performing echocardiography only when a clinical benefit is likely, favouring focussed evaluations and using smaller portable equipment. In the past months, multiple reports have described a wide pattern of echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with COVID-19. This review summarises these findings and discusses the possible mechanisms involved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers/blood , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/virology
20.
Pediatrics ; 147(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083679

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a serious postinfectious immune dysregulation associated with coronavirus disease 2019 that may present with severe and life-threatening cardiovascular dysfunction, hemodynamic instability, shock, and multisystem organ failure. Optimal treatment is unknown. Current standard of care consists of nonspecific anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic therapies. Interventions that target MIS-C's distinctive clinical features and immunophenotype are indicated. Remestemcel-L, an investigational mesenchymal stromal cell therapy, is a promising candidate for treatment of MIS-C because of its beneficial anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, endothelial function and vascular stabilizing effects, which align well with the pathophysiology of MIS-C. Here, we present the first two patients with life-threatening MIS-C ever treated with remestemcel-L under an expanded access program. Both were previously healthy children without any indication of previous coronavirus disease 2019 infection or exposure. They presented with severe clinical illness including myocardial dysfunction, hemodynamic instability, hypotension, acute kidney injury, and shock. At the time of hospital admission, both had negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results and positive serology results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Both children received standard of care MIS-C treatment. Although the patients showed some clinical improvement, left ventricular ejection fraction remained reduced and inflammatory biomarkers remained significantly elevated. When treated with two intravenous doses of remestemcel-L separated by 48 hours, rapid normalization of left ventricular ejection fraction, notable reductions in biomarkers of systemic and cardiac inflammation, and improved clinical status occurred. Neither child experienced adverse effects associated with remestemcel-L administration. This treatment appears promising as a novel immunomodulatory cellular therapy for children with clinically significant cardiovascular manifestations of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
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