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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e059281, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816766

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent reports linked acute COVID-19 infection in critical patients to cardiac structure and function abnormalities. The left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction could result in obvious adverse prognostic impacts. The aim of this meta-analysis is to summarise the incidence, risk factors and the prognostic effect of imaging LV diastolic dysfunction in adult patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Databases to be used for the pertinent literature are PubMed, EMBase, ISI Knowledge via Web of Science, and preprint databases (MedRxiv and BioRxiv) (until May 2023) to identify all cohort studies in adult patients with COVID-19. The primary outcome will be the incidence of LV diastolic dysfunction assessed by echocardiography or cardiac MRI. Secondary outcomes will include the risk factors for LV diastolic dysfunction and the association with all-cause mortality during hospitalisation. Additional outcomes will be septal or lateral é, average E/é, E/A, peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity, left atrial volume index and LV wall thickness. Univariable or multivariable meta-regression and subgroup analyses will be conducted for related risk factors and the association of LV diastolic dysfunction with all-cause mortality. Sensitivity analyses will be used to assess the robustness of our results by removing each included study at one time to obtain and evaluate the remaining overall estimates of LV diastolic dysfunction incidence and related risk factors, association with all-cause mortality and other LV diastolic dysfunction parameters. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: There was no need for ethics approval for the systematic review protocol according to the Institutional Review Board/Independent Ethics Committee of Fuwai Hospital. This meta-analysis will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal for publication. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021256666; URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
2.
Microcirculation ; 29(3): e12750, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1697657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-c) is associated with severe cardiovascular impairment and eventually death. Pathophysiological mechanisms involved in myocardial injury were scarcely investigated, and cardiovascular outcomes are uncertain. Autopsy studies suggested that microvascular dysfunction may be relevant to LV impairment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate segmental LV longitudinal strain by 2DST echocardiography and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) by 13 N-ammonia PET-CT, in six surviving MIS-c patients. METHODS: Each patient generated 34 LV segments for combined 2DST and MRF analysis. MFR was considered abnormal when <2, borderline when between 2 and 2.5 and normal when >2.5. RESULTS: From July 2020 to February 2021, six patients were admitted with MIS-c: three males, aged 9.3 (6.6-15.7) years. Time from admission to the follow-up visit was 6.05 (2-10.3) months. Although all patients were asymptomatic and LV EF was ≥55%, 43/102 (42.1%) LV segments showed MFR <2.5. There was a modest positive correlation between segmental peak systolic longitudinal strain and MFR: r = .36, p = .03 for basal segments; r = .41, p = .022 for mid segments; r = .42, p = .021 for apical segments. Median peak systolic longitudinal strain was different among MRF categories: 18% (12%-24%) for abnormal, 18.5% (11%-35%) for borderline, and 21% (12%-32%) for normal MFR (p = .006). CONCLUSION: We provided preliminary evidence that surviving MIS-c patients may present subclinical impairment of myocardial microcirculation. Segmental cardiac strain assessment 2DST seems useful for MIS-c cardiovascular follow-up, given its good correlation with 13 N-ammonia PET-CT derived MFR.


Subject(s)
Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Ammonia , Child , Echocardiography/methods , Humans , Male , Microcirculation , Myocardium , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging
3.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(2): 341-348, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The association between COVID-19 infection and the development of autoimmune diseases is currently unknown, but there are already reports presenting induction of different autoantibodies by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Kikuchi-Fuimoto disease (KFD) as a form of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis of unknown origin. OBJECTIVE: Here we present a rare case of KFD with heart involvement after COVID-19 infection. To our best knowledge only a few cases of COVID-19-associated KFD were published so far. Based on presented case, we summarize the clinical course of KFD and its association with autoimmune diseases, as well we discuss the potential causes of perimyocarditis in this case. METHODS: We reviewed the literature regarding cases of "Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD)" and "COVID-19" and then "KFD" and "heart" or "myocarditis" by searching medical journal databases written in English in PubMed and Google Scholar. RESULTS: Only two cases of KFD after COVID infection have been described so far. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection can also be a new, potential causative agent of developing KFD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hepatomegaly/physiopathology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Splenomegaly/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Echocardiography , Hepatomegaly/diagnostic imaging , Hepatomegaly/etiology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/etiology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/pathology , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Splenomegaly/diagnostic imaging , Splenomegaly/etiology , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
4.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 43(4): 844-854, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620237

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is one of the most significant sequela of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children. Emerging literature has described myocardial dysfunction in MIS-C patients using traditional and two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in the acute phase. However, data regarding persistence of subclinical myocardial injury after recovery is limited. We aimed to detect these changes with deformation imaging, hypothesizing that left ventricular global longitudinal (GLS) and circumferential strain (GCS) would remain impaired in the chronic phase despite normalization of ventricular function parameters assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography. A retrospective, single-institution review of 22 patients with MIS-C was performed. Fractional shortening, GLS, and GCS, along with regional longitudinal (RLS) and circumferential strain (RCS) were compared across the acute, subacute, and chronic timepoints (presentation, 14-42, and > 42 days, respectively). Mean GLS improved from - 18.4% in the acute phase to - 20.1% in the chronic phase (p = 0.4). Mean GCS improved from - 19.4% in the acute phase to - 23.5% in the chronic phase (p = 0.03). RCS and RLS were impaired in the acute phase and showed a trend towards recovery by the chronic phase, with the exception of the basal anterolateral segment. In our longitudinal study of MIS-C patients, GLS and GCS were lower in the acute phase, corroborating with left ventricular dysfunction by traditional measures. Additionally, as function globally recovers, GLS and GCS also normalize. However, some regional segments continue to have decreased strain values which may be an important subclinical marker for future adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Left
5.
Indian Heart J ; 74(1): 51-55, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Covid-19 is multi-system viral infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus. Apart from having acute severe respiratory illness causing high mortality, the disease also has a variety of cardiovascular manifestations contributing to morbidity as well as mortality. Cardiac dysfunction and myocarditis are well established complications of Covid-19 as evident in multiple studies after the Covid-19 pandemic. However it is not sufficiently studied in Indian patients either by Echocardiography or by any other imaging modalities like cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODOLOGY: In this study, we analysed the severity of Left ventricular(LV) dysfunction in Covid-19 survivors. A total of 100 consecutive patients of Covid-19 after one month of discharge who had no underlying cardiovascular diseases underwent echocardiography and global longitudinal strain (GLS) imaging. This study cohort included patients with mild 42 (42%),moderate 46(46%) and severe 12(12%) Covid-19 disease as defined by computerised tomography (CT) severity score. RESULT: We observed that total 36(36%) patients had reduced ejection fraction(EF) which included 11 patients having EF <40% and remaining 25(25%) having EF 40-50% (p<0.002). Also 22 (22%) patients had abnormal global longitudinal strain (GLS) values with normal ejection fraction which is suggestive of subclinical myocarditis. We observed LV dysfunction in 7(19.5%) patients who had severe Covid-19 while mild to moderate LV dysfunction observed in 29(80.5%) non critical patients. CONCLUSION: In conclusion our study demonstrates that myocardial dysfunction is common in covid-19 regardless of disease severity. 2D-echocardiography with GLS is likely to detect early LV dysfunction among these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Survivors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left
6.
Am J Cardiol ; 165: 109-115, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568471

ABSTRACT

Evidence of the involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with COVID-19 is increasing. The evaluation of the subclinical cardiac involvement is crucial for risk stratification at admission, and left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) may be useful for this purpose. A total of 87 consecutive patients admitted to the COVID Center were enrolled from December 2020 to April 2021. A complete echocardiography examination was performed within 72 hours from admission. The main outcome was the need for mechanical ventilation by way of orotracheal intubation (OTI) and mortality, and the secondary outcome was the worsening of the respiratory function during hospitalization, interpreted as a decrease of the ratio between the partial pressure of oxygen and the fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) <100. Of 87 patients, 14 had severe disease leading to OTI or death, whereas 24 had a P/F <100. LVGLS was significantly impaired in patients with severe disease. After adjustment for risk factors, by considering LVGLS as continuous variable, the latter remained significantly associated with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (P/F <100) (hazard ratio [HR] 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18 to 1.88, p = 0.001) and OTI/death (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.38, p = 0.012). When using an LVGLS cutoff of -16.1%, LVGLS ≥ -16.1% was independently associated with a higher risk of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 4.0, 95% CI 1.4 to 11.1, p= 0.008) and OTI/death (HR 7.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 34.1, p = 0.024). LVGLS can detect high-risk patients at the admission, which can help to guide in starting early treatment of the admitted patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Echocardiography , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Survival Rate , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology
7.
J Pediatr ; 241: 237-241.e1, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474761

ABSTRACT

At midterm follow-up visits performed at a median of 7 months (IQR 6.0-8.4 months), 16 patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children had resolution of left ventricular dysfunction and most had resolution of coronary aneurysms. On cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, no patients had late gadolinium enhancement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronary Aneurysm/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology , Young Adult
8.
J Echocardiogr ; 20(1): 51-56, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465918

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has been associated with subclinical myocardial dysfunction during its acute phase and a recurring pattern of reduced basal left ventricular longitudinal strain on speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) in hospitalized patients. But a question still remains unanswered: speckle-tracking echocardiography might also be suitable to detect residual myocardial involvement after acute stage of COVID-19? METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 100 patients recovered from COVID-19 with STE to evaluate global (GLS) and segmentar longitudinal strain (LS) and compared with a control group of 100 healthy individuals. STE was performed at a median of 130.35 ± 76.06 days after COVID-19 diagnostic. Demographic and echocardiographic parameters are similar in both groups. Left ventricular ejection faction (LVEF) and GLS were normal in COVID-19 patients (66.20 ± 1.98% and - 19.51 ± 2.87%, respectively). A reduction in mean LS for the basal segments was found in COVID-19 (16.48 ± 5.41%) when compared to control group (19.09 ± 4.31%) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that COVID-19-induced cardiac involvement could persist after recovery of the disease and may be detected by deformation abnormalities using STE. COVID-19-induced myocardial involvement often shows specific LV deformation patterns due to pronounced edema and/or myocardial damage in basal LV segments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , COVID-19/complications , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Function, Left
9.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 23(3): e145-e152, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462574

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is a newly defined complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection that can result in cardiogenic shock in the pediatric population. Early detection of cardiac dysfunction is imperative in directing therapy and identifying patients at highest risk for deterioration. This study compares the strengths of conventional and strain echocardiography in identifying cardiac dysfunction in critically ill children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and their association with ICU therapeutic needs and clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: A large, quaternary care PICU. PATIENTS: Sixty-five pediatric patients admitted to the PICU with the diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children from March 2020 to March 2021. INTERVENTIONS: Global longitudinal strain four chamber was measured retrospectively by strain echocardiography and compared with conventional echocardiography. Cardiac dysfunction was defined by left ventricular ejection fraction less than 55% and global longitudinal strain four chamber greater than or equal to -17.2%. Clinical variables examined included cardiac biomarkers, immune therapies, and ICU interventions and outcomes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (37%) had abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction and 56 (86%) had abnormal global longitudinal strain four chamber. Between patients with normal and abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction, we failed to identify a difference in cardiac biomarker levels, vasoactive use, respiratory support needs, or ICU length of stay. Global longitudinal strain four chamber was associated with maximum cardiac biomarker levels. Abnormal global longitudinal strain four chamber was associated with greater odds of any vasoactive use (odds ratio, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.3-25.3; z-statistic, 2.3; p = 0.021). The number of days of vasoactive infusion was correlated with global longitudinal strain four chamber (r = 0.400; 95% CI, 2.4-3.9; p < 0.001). Children with abnormal strain had longer ICU length of stay (4.5 d vs 2 d; p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest strain echocardiography can detect abnormalities in cardiac function in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children patients unrecognized by conventional echocardiography. These abnormalities are associated with increased use of intensive care therapies. Evaluation of these patients with strain echocardiography may better identify those with myocardial dysfunction and need for more intensive therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Echocardiography , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Function, Left
10.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 43(2): 413-425, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437253

ABSTRACT

Cardiac involvement is a common and serious problem in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Echocardiographic evaluation of systolic and diastolic function by traditional, tissue Doppler and three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography was performed in consecutive 50 MIS-C patients during hospitalization and age-matched 40 healthy controls. On the day of worst left ventricular (LV) systolic function (echo-1), all left and right ventricular systolic function parameters were significantly lower (p < 0.001), E/A ratio was significantly lower, and averaged E/e' ratio was significantly higher (median 1.5 vs. 1.8, p < 0.05; 8.9 vs. 6.3, p < 0.001 respectively) in patients compared to control. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to 3D LV ejection fraction (LVEF) on the echo-1: Group 1; LVEF < 55%, 26 patients, and group 2; LVEF ≥ 55%, 24 patients. E/e' ratio was significantly higher in group 1 than group 2 and control at discharge (median 7.4 vs. 6.9, p = 0.005; 7.4 vs. 6.3, p < 0.001 respectively). Coronary ectasia was detected in 2 patients (z score: 2.53, 2.6 in the right coronary artery), and resolved at discharge. Compared with group 2, group 1 had significantly higher troponin-I (median 658 vs. 65 ng/L; p < 0.001), NT-pro BNP (median 14,233 vs. 1824 ng/L; p = 0.001), procalcitonin (median 10.9 vs. 2.1 µg/L; p = 0.009), ferritin (median 1234 vs. 308 µg/L; p = 0.003). The most common findings were ventricular systolic dysfunction recovering during hospitalization, and persisting LV diastolic dysfunction in the reduced LVEF group at discharge. Coronary artery involvement was rare in the acute phase of the disease. Also, in MIS-C patients, the correlation between LV systolic dysfunction and markers of inflammation and cardiac biomarkers should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , COVID-19/complications , Child , Echocardiography , Humans , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging
11.
Echocardiography ; 38(10): 1722-1730, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434679

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Myocardial injury during active coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection is well described; however, its persistence during recovery is unclear. We assessed left ventricle (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in COVID-19 recovered patients and its correlation with various parameters. METHODS: A total of 134 subjects within 30-45 days post recovery from COVID-19 infection and normal LV ejection fraction were enrolled. Routine blood investigations, inflammatory markers (on admission) and comprehensive echocardiography including STE were done for all. RESULTS: Of the 134 subjects, 121 (90.3%) were symptomatic during COVID-19 illness and were categorized as mild: 61 (45.5%), moderate: 50 (37.3%) and severe: 10 (7.5%) COVID-19 illness. Asymptomatic COVID-19 infection was reported in 13 (9.7%) patients. Subclinical LV and right ventricle (RV) dysfunction were seen in 40 (29.9%) and 14 (10.5%) patients, respectively. Impaired LVGLS was reported in 1 (7.7%), 8 (13.1%), 22 (44%) and 9 (90%) subjects with asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe disease, respectively. LVGLS was significantly lower in patients recovered from severe illness(mild: -21 ± 3.4%; moderate: -18.1 ± 6.9%; severe: -15.5 ± 3.1%; p < 0.0001). Subjects with reduced LVGLS had significantly higher interleukin-6 (p < 0.0001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.009), serum ferritin (p = 0.03), and troponin (p = 0.01) levels during index admission. CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical LV dysfunction was seen in nearly a third of recovered COVID-19 patients while 10.5% had RV dysfunction. Our study suggests a need for closer follow-up among COVID-19 recovered subjects to elucidate long-term cardiovascular outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Echocardiography , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Left
12.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(6): 2861-2869, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399424

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Increase in publications supporting myocardial involvement in the COVID-19 disease has led to need to gain insight into the the global burden of heart failure after pandemic. We examined the course of myocardial systolic function in patients without elevated troponin levels. Materials and methods: We performed a prospective study. Patients with high troponin levels were excluded from the study in order to definitively exclude complications known to cause permanent left ventricular systolic dysfunction, such as acute coronary syndromes. Two echocardiographic examinations were performed. The first evaluation was performed within the days of hospitalization, if possible, on the day when dyspnea is severe. The second evaluation was performed during the outpatient clinic controls one month after the patient was recovered. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured using the biplane method of disks (modified Simpson's rule). Results: In the first evaluation, LVEF was found to be significantly lower in the severe illness group than mild/moderate illness group (50 ± 6% and 59 ± 6%; p = 0.03). LVEF decrease (<50%) was found in fifteen patients (43 ± 4%) and detected as global hypokinesia but not segmental. All of these patients were in the severe illness group. In the second evaluation, LVEFs of the fifteen patients with decreased LVEF in the first evaluation were improved and detected in normal limits (first evaluation = 43 ± 4% and second evaluation = 55 ± 2%, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Considering patients without elevated troponin levels during COVID-19 infection, no permanent systolic dysfunction was detected after first month of recovery. We found that transient myocardial dysfunction may develop in the severe illness group with normal troponin levels, LVEF may decrease in the acute phase and improve with the recovery period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Troponin/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume
13.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(12): 1549-1566, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial involvement induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection might be important for long-term prognosis. The aim of this observational study was to characterize the myocardial effects during SARS-CoV-2 infections by echocardiography. RESULTS AND METHODS: An extended echocardiographic image acquisition protocol was performed in 18 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection assessing LV longitudinal, radial, and circumferential deformation including rotation, twist, and untwisting. Furthermore, LV deformation was analyzed in an age-matched control group of healthy individuals (n = 20). The most prevalent finding was a reduced longitudinal strain observed predominantly in more than one basal LV segment (n = 10/14 patients, 71%). This pattern reminded of a "reverse tako-tsubo" morphology that is not typical for other viral myocarditis. Additional findings included a biphasic pattern with maximum post-systolic or negative regional radial strain predominantly basal (n = 5/14 patients, 36%); the absence or dispersion of basal LV rotation (n = 6/14 patients, 43%); a reduced or positive regional circumferential strain in more than one segment (n = 7/14 patients, 50%); a net rotation showing late post-systolic twist or biphasic pattern (n = 8/14 patients, 57%); a net rotation showing polyphasic pattern and/or higher maximum net values during diastole (n = 8/14 patients, 57%). CONCLUSION: Myocardial involvement due to SARS-CoV-2-infection was highly prevalent in the present cohort-even in patients with mild symptoms. It appears to be characterized by specific speckle tracking deformation abnormalities in the basal LV segments. These data set the stage to prospectively test whether these parameters are helpful for risk stratification and for the long-term follow-up of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology , Ventricular Function, Left
15.
Am Heart J ; 242: 61-70, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause myocardial injury and myocarditis, and reports of persistent cardiac pathology after COVID-19 have raised concerns of long-term cardiac consequences. We aimed to assess the presence of abnormal cardiovascular resonance imaging (CMR) findings in patients recovered from moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and its association with markers of disease severity in the acute phase. METHODS: Fifty-eight (49%) survivors from the prospective COVID MECH study, underwent CMR median 175 [IQR 105-217] days after COVID-19 hospitalization. Abnormal CMR was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% or myocardial scar by late gadolinium enhancement. CMR indices were compared to healthy controls (n = 32), and to circulating biomarkers measured during the index hospitalization. RESULTS: Abnormal CMR was present in 12 (21%) patients, of whom 3 were classified with major pathology (scar and LVEF <50% or LVEF <40%). There was no difference in the need of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, and vital signs between patients with vs without abnormal CMR after 6 months. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viremia and concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers during the index hospitalization were not associated with persistent CMR pathology. Cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations on admission, were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but these associations were not significant after adjusting for demographics and established cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: CMR pathology 6 months after moderate-to-severe COVID-19 was present in 21% of patients and did not correlate with severity of the disease. Cardiovascular biomarkers during COVID-19 were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but with no significant association after adjusting for confounders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID MECH Study ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cicatrix/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cicatrix/etiology , Female , Gadolinium , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume , Survivors , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
16.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(10): 2979-2989, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356014

ABSTRACT

The cardiac sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a worldwide global pandemic, are still uncertain, particularly in the asymptomatic, low cardiac risk outpatient population. This study aims to evaluate the asymptomatic, low cardiac risk out-patient population who recently recovered from COVID-19, using 2-D left ventricular-global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) proven to be capable of detecting subclinical myocardial injury. Out of 305 COVID-19 positive patients, 70 asymptomatic out-patients were determined as the study group and 70 age and sex-matched healthy adults as the control group. The echocardiographic examination was performed with the Philips IE33 system, and LV-GLS was measured using commercially available software QLAB 9 (cardiac motion quantification; Philips Medical Systems). The absolute value of LV-GLS ≤ 18 did deem to be impaired LV-GLS. The absolute value of LV-GLS was statistically significantly lower in the COVID-19 group than in healthy controls (19.17 ± 2.65 vs. 20.07 ± 2.19, p = 0.03). The correlation between having recovered from COVID-19 and impaired LV-GLS (≤18) did detect with the Pearson correlation test (p = 0.02). Having recovered from COVID-19 was found as a predictor for detecting impaired LV-GLS (≤18) in the multivariable logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 0.133 (0.038-0.461); 95% CI, p = 0.001). This study suggests that COVID-19 may cause subclinical LV dysfunction detected by LV-GLS during early recovery even in a population of patients at low cardiac risk, asymptomatic, and recovered with home quarantine. The study findings indicate that the long-term cardiovascular follow-up of these patients may be more important than thought.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , Humans , Outpatients , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left
17.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(10): 2957-2964, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279470

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 infection, which is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has rapidly emerged as a global public health issue. Cardiac complications secondary to this infection are common and associated with mortality. This study aimed to evaluate whether subclinical myocardial dysfunction exists in non-hospitalized mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients using left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS). In this cross-sectional, single-center study, data were collected from non-hospitalized mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients between January 01 and February 01, 2021. Fifty (26 male, 24 female) COVID-19 patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were included in the study. Apical four-, three-, and two-chamber images were analyzed longitudinally by conventional methods and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) for left ventricle functions. The mean age of the COVID-19 patients was 39.5 ± 8.96, and 52% of them were male. The most prevalent presenting symptoms were fever [in 34 (68%)], asthenia [in 30 (60%)], loss of appetite [in 21 (42%)], myalgia [in 20 (40%)], and cough [in 13 (26%)]. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly higher in the COVID-19 patients than in the controls (10.84 ± 12.44 vs. 4.50 ± 2.81, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of standard echocardiography and Doppler parameters (p > 0.05). Left ventricular longitudinal strain and strain velocity parameters were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy individuals. LV-GLS values (- 21.72 ± 3.85% vs. - 23.11 ± 4.16%; p = 0.003) were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients compared with the healthy controls. Mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients also have subclinical myocardial dysfunction similar to hospitalized patients. STE has the potential for detecting subclinical LV systolic dysfunction, and can provide useful information regarding cardiac status in mildly symptomatic COVID-19 population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left
18.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 29: 45-49, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury is a complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We describe a large multi-center experience of COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury, examining the prognostic role left ventricular function plays on short-term outcomes. METHODS/MATERIALS: We included adult COVID-19 patients admitted to our health system with evidence of myocardial injury and who underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) during index admission. Patients were dichotomized into those with reduced ejection fraction (EF; <50%) and preserved EF (≥50%). RESULTS: Across our 11-hospital system, 5032 adult patients were admitted with COVID-19 from March-September 2020. Of these, 235 had evidence of myocardial injury (troponin ≥1 ng/mL). Included were 134 patients who underwent TTE, of whom 43.3% (n = 58) had reduced EF and 56.7% (n = 76) preserved EF. A subset of 6 patients had newly reduced EF, with 5 demonstrating evidence of stress cardiomyopathy and subsequently dying. Overall, mortality was high in those with reduced EF and preserved EF (in-hospital: 34.5% vs. 28.9%; p = 0.494; 6 months: 63.6% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.167; Kaplan-Meier estimates: p = 0.2886). Readmissions were frequent in both groups (30 days: 22.2% vs. 26.0%; p = 0.162; 6 months: 52.0% vs. 54.5%; p = 0.839). CONCLUSIONS: Many COVID-19 patients admitted with evidence of myocardial injury did not undergo TTE. For those who did, short-term mortality was high. Patients who survived hospitalization had frequent readmissions. In patients with newly reduced EF, most had evidence of stress cardiomyopathy and expired. Larger studies are needed to fully evaluate the prognosis of COVID-19 patients with evidence of myocardial injury and left ventricular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Left
19.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(7): 2227-2233, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135168

ABSTRACT

Highly sensitive troponin (hs-TnI) levels are frequently elevated in COVID-19 patients and are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality during hospitalization. However, no data exists on cardiac involvement in patients recovered from COVID-19 infection. We aimed to evaluate by global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) whether there is subclinical myocardial deformation after COVID-19 infection. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) was performed within 29.5 ± 4.5 days after COVID-19 treatment. The standard GLS limit was identified at < -18%. The patients were divided into two groups according to their hs-TnI levels during hospitalization as with (> 11.6 ng/dl) and without (< 11.6 ng/dl) myocardial injury. Patients' (n = 74) mean age was 59.9 years, and women were in the majority (60.8%). Of the patients, 43.2% of them were hypertensive, and 10.9% were diabetic. Abnormal LV-GLS values (> -18) were measured in 28 patients (37.8%). While 16 (57.1%) of these patients were in the group with myocardial injury, 12 (26.1%) of them were in the group without myocardial injury (p = 0.014). D-dimer, C reactive protein, white blood cell levels were higher in the group with myocardial injury (All p values < 0.05). Electrocardiographically, 9 (12.2%) patients had T wave inversion, while two patients had a bundle branch block. Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction was observed in approximately one-third of the patients at the one-month follow-up after COVID-19 infection. This rate was higher in those who develop myocardial injury during hospitalization. This result suggests that patients recovered from COVID-19 infection should be evaluated and followed in terms of cardiac involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Electrocardiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
20.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(8): 1117-1129, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101247

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has rapidly spread around the world and threatened global health. Although this disease mainly affects the respiratory system, there is increasing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 also has effects on the cardiovascular system. Echocardiography is a valuable tool in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. It is cost-effective, widely available and provides information that can influence management. Given the risk of personnel infection and equipment contamination during echocardiography, leading world societies have recommended performing echocardiography only when a clinical benefit is likely, favouring focussed evaluations and using smaller portable equipment. In the past months, multiple reports have described a wide pattern of echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with COVID-19. This review summarises these findings and discusses the possible mechanisms involved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers/blood , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/virology
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