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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580702

ABSTRACT

Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is common in a significant number of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This study was conducted to assess whether the improved mitochondrial bioenergetics by cardiometabolic drug meldonium can attenuate the development of ventricular dysfunction in experimental RV and LV dysfunction models, which resemble ventricular dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Effects of meldonium were assessed in rats with pulmonary hypertension-induced RV failure and in mice with inflammation-induced LV dysfunction. Rats with RV failure showed decreased RV fractional area change (RVFAC) and hypertrophy. Treatment with meldonium attenuated the development of RV hypertrophy and increased RVFAC by 50%. Mice with inflammation-induced LV dysfunction had decreased LV ejection fraction (LVEF) by 30%. Treatment with meldonium prevented the decrease in LVEF. A decrease in the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation with a concomitant increase in pyruvate metabolism was noted in the cardiac fibers of the rats and mice with RV and LV failure, respectively. Meldonium treatment in both models restored mitochondrial bioenergetics. The results show that meldonium treatment prevents the development of RV and LV systolic dysfunction by enhancing mitochondrial function in experimental models of ventricular dysfunction that resembles cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Methylhydrazines/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelium/drug effects , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Male , Methylhydrazines/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitochondria/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/drug therapy
2.
Biomolecules ; 11(10)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis often progresses to heart failure because there is no effective, etiology-targeted therapy of this disease. Simvastatin has been shown to be cardioprotective by decreasing matrix metalloproteinases' (MMPs) activity. The study was designed to determine whether simvastatin inhibits MMPs activity, decreases the severity of inflammation and contractile dysfunction of the heart in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). METHODS: Simvastatin (3 or 30 mg/kg/day) was given to experimental rats with EAM by gastric gavage for 21 days. Then transthoracic echocardiography was performed, MMPs activity and troponin I level were determined and tissue samples were assessed under a light and transmission electron microscope. RESULTS: Hearts treated with simvastatin did not show left ventricular enlargement. As a result of EAM, there was an enhanced activation of MMP-9, which was significantly reduced in the high-dose simvastatin group compared to the low-dose group. It was accompanied by prevention of myofilaments degradation and reduction of severity of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: The cardioprotective effects of simvastatin in the acute phase of EAM are, at least in part, due to its ability to decrease MMP-9 activity and subsequent decline in myofilaments degradation and suppression of inflammation. These effects were achieved in doses equivalent to therapeutic doses in humans.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/drug therapy , Metalloproteases/genetics , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Echocardiography , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Metalloproteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Models, Animal , Myocarditis/genetics , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/pathology , Rats , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/prevention & control
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury associated with cytokine release frequently occurs in SARS-CoV-2 mediated coronavirus disease (COVID19) and mortality is particularly high in these patients. The mechanistic role of the COVID19 associated cytokine-storm for the concomitant cardiac dysfunction and associated arrhythmias is unclear. Moreover, the role of anti-inflammatory therapy to mitigate cardiac dysfunction remains elusive. AIMS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of COVID19-associated inflammatory response on cardiac cellular function as well as its cardiac arrhythmogenic potential in rat and induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM). In addition, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of the IL-1ß antagonist Canakinumab using state of the art in-vitro confocal and ratiometric high-throughput microscopy. RESULTS: Isolated rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were exposed to control or COVID19 serum from intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe ARDS and impaired cardiac function (LVEF 41±5%; 1/3 of patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; CK 154±43 U/l). Rat cardiomyocytes showed an early increase of myofilament sensitivity, a decrease of Ca2+ transient amplitudes and altered baseline [Ca2+] upon exposure to patient serum. In addition, we used iPS-CM to explore the long-term effect of patient serum on cardiac electrical and mechanical function. In iPS-CM, spontaneous Ca2+ release events were more likely to occur upon incubation with COVID19 serum and nuclear as well as cytosolic Ca2+ release were altered. Co-incubation with Canakinumab had no effect on pro-arrhythmogenic Ca2+ release or Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling, nor significantly influenced cellular automaticity. CONCLUSION: Serum derived from COVID19 patients exerts acute cardio-depressant and chronic pro-arrhythmogenic effects in rat and iPS-derived cardiomyocytes. Canakinumab had no beneficial effect on cellular Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling. The presented method utilizing iPS-CM and in-vitro Ca2+ imaging might serve as a novel tool for precision medicine. It allows to investigate cytokine related cardiac dysfunction and pharmacological approaches useful therein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 , Calcium Signaling/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Calcium/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology
4.
Cardiol Young ; 31(3): 485-487, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131993

ABSTRACT

A four- and a half-month-old girl with severe dilated cardiomyopathy due to neonatal enterovirus myocarditis, treated with diuretics and milrinone for the past 4 months, was infected with SARS-CoV-2. The disease course was characterised by high fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Cardiac function, as measured by echocardiography, remained stable. The treatment focused on maintaining a normal heart rate and a stable fluid balance. In children with severe underlying cardiac disease, even a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection can require close monitoring and compound treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Tachycardia/physiopathology , Tachypnea/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Vomiting/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/drug therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/etiology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/metabolism , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Enterovirus Infections/complications , Female , Heart Rate , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Infant , Milrinone/therapeutic use , Myocarditis/complications , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Troponin T/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Waiting Lists , Water-Electrolyte Balance
6.
Circulation ; 142(5): 429-436, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury and myocarditis have been described in adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children is typically minimally symptomatic. We report a series of febrile pediatric patients with acute heart failure potentially associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children as defined by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS: Over a 2-month period, contemporary with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in France and Switzerland, we retrospectively collected clinical, biological, therapeutic, and early outcomes data in children who were admitted to pediatric intensive care units in 14 centers for cardiogenic shock, left ventricular dysfunction, and severe inflammatory state. RESULTS: Thirty-five children were identified and included in the study. Median age at admission was 10 years (range, 2-16 years). Comorbidities were present in 28%, including asthma and overweight. Gastrointestinal symptoms were prominent. Left ventricular ejection fraction was <30% in one-third; 80% required inotropic support with 28% treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Inflammation markers were suggestive of cytokine storm (interleukin-6 median, 135 pg/mL) and macrophage activation (D-dimer median, 5284 ng/mL). Mean BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) was elevated (5743 pg/mL). Thirty-one of 35 patients (88%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection by polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swab or serology. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin, with adjunctive steroid therapy used in one-third. Left ventricular function was restored in the 25 of 35 of those discharged from the intensive care unit. No patient died, and all patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were successfully weaned. CONCLUSIONS: Children may experience an acute cardiac decompensation caused by severe inflammatory state after SARS-CoV-2 infection (multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children). Treatment with immunoglobulin appears to be associated with recovery of left ventricular systolic function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/virology , Inflammation/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Male , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume/physiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Function, Left/immunology
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