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1.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e934066, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Since Emergency Use Authorization of COVID-19 vaccines in December 2020, more is becoming known about their adverse effects. Growing numbers of myopericarditis cases after COVID-19 vaccination are being reported, mostly in younger adults. While most of these patients have recovered rapidly and without complications, it is still unclear whether patients who are older and have greater cardiac dysfunction secondary to myopericarditis will also experience the same recovery. CASE REPORT We report the case of a middle-aged man with myopericarditis and significant left ventricular dysfunction after the second dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. He presented several days after vaccination, and with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory treatment, he quickly recovered ventricular function, and symptoms resolved within 1 week after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS Vaccines are a key tool in combating the COVID-19 pandemic, yet many people are hesitant to seek vaccination, perhaps for fear of adverse events. Our report of a middle-aged patient with significant left ventricular dysfunction, who still experienced rapid recovery, should reassure the public about the safety of vaccines. Such rare adverse effects should not deter people from receiving COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
2.
N Engl J Med ; 385(20): 1845-1855, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with symptomatic heart failure, sacubitril-valsartan has been found to reduce the risk of hospitalization and death from cardiovascular causes more effectively than an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. Trials comparing the effects of these drugs in patients with acute myocardial infarction have been lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with myocardial infarction complicated by a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary congestion, or both to receive either sacubitril-valsartan (97 mg of sacubitril and 103 mg of valsartan twice daily) or ramipril (5 mg twice daily) in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure (outpatient symptomatic heart failure or heart failure leading to hospitalization), whichever occurred first. RESULTS: A total of 5661 patients underwent randomization; 2830 were assigned to receive sacubitril-valsartan and 2831 to receive ramipril. Over a median of 22 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 338 patients (11.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 373 patients (13.2%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.04; P = 0.17). Death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 308 patients (10.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 335 patients (11.8%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.07); death from cardiovascular causes in 168 (5.9%) and 191 (6.7%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.08); and death from any cause in 213 (7.5%) and 242 (8.5%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.05). Treatment was discontinued because of an adverse event in 357 patients (12.6%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 379 patients (13.4%) in the ramipril group. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan was not associated with a significantly lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure than ramipril among patients with acute myocardial infarction. (Funded by Novartis; PARADISE-MI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02924727.).


Subject(s)
Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Ramipril/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Aged , Aminobutyrates/adverse effects , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Biphenyl Compounds/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypotension/chemically induced , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Ramipril/adverse effects , Stroke Volume , Valsartan/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 528, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The value of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in cardiogenic shock, especially the combination of the ECMELLA approach (Impella combined with ECMO), remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 33-year-old female patient was submitted to a local emergency department with a flu-like infection and febrile temperatures up to 39 °C. The patient was tested positive for type-A influenza, however negative for SARS-CoV-2. Despite escalated invasive ventilation, refractory hypercapnia (paCO2: 22 kPa) with severe respiratory acidosis (pH: 6.9) and a rising norepinephrine rate occurred within a few hours. Due to a Horovitz-Index < 100, out-of-centre veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO)-implantation was performed. A CT-scan done because of anisocoria revealed an extended dissection of the right vertebral artery. While the initial left ventricular function was normal, echocardiography revealed severe global hypokinesia. After angiographic exclusion of coronary artery stenoses, we geared up LV unloading by additional implantation of an Impella CP and expanded the vv-ECMO to a veno-venous-arterial ECMO (vva-ECMO). Clinically relevant bleeding from the punctured femoral arteries resulted in massive transfusion and was treated by vascular surgery later on. Under continued MCS, LVEF increased to approximately 40% 2 days after the initiation of ECMELLA. After weaning, the Impella CP was explanted at day 5 and the vva-ECMO was removed on day 9, respectively. The patient was discharged in an unaffected neurological condition to rehabilitation 25 days after the initial admission. CONCLUSIONS: This exceptional case exemplifies the importance of aggressive MCS in severe cardiogenic shock, which may be especially promising in younger patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and potentially reversible causes of cardiogenic shock. This case impressively demonstrates that especially young patients may achieve complete neurological restoration, even though the initial prognosis may appear unfavourable.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart-Assist Devices , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Deterioration , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
4.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021204, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404258

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)  have been the most common cause of death worldwide for decades. Until recently the most affected patients were middle-aged and elderly, predominantly men, with more frequent ST elevation myocardial infarction  (STEMI) caused by obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). However, in the last two decades we have noticed an increased incidence of ischemia with non-obstructive coronary arteries (INOCA), which includes myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) and non-myocardial infarction syndromes, such as microvascular and vasospastic angina, conditions that have been particularly pronounced in women and young adults - the population we considered low-risky till than. Therefore, it has become apparent that for this group of patients conventional methods of assessing the risk of future cardiovascular (CV) events are no longer specific and sensitive enough. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is another disease, the incidence of which has been rising rapidly during last two decades, and predominantly affects elderly population. Although the etiology and pathophysiology of INOCA and HFpEF are complex and not fully understood, there is no doubt that the underlying cause of both conditions is endothelial dysfunction (ED) which further promotes the development of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Plasma biomarkers of ED, as well as natriuretic peptides (NPs), have been intensively investigated recently, and some of them have great potential for early detection and better assessment of CV risk in the future.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Failure , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury associated with cytokine release frequently occurs in SARS-CoV-2 mediated coronavirus disease (COVID19) and mortality is particularly high in these patients. The mechanistic role of the COVID19 associated cytokine-storm for the concomitant cardiac dysfunction and associated arrhythmias is unclear. Moreover, the role of anti-inflammatory therapy to mitigate cardiac dysfunction remains elusive. AIMS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of COVID19-associated inflammatory response on cardiac cellular function as well as its cardiac arrhythmogenic potential in rat and induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM). In addition, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of the IL-1ß antagonist Canakinumab using state of the art in-vitro confocal and ratiometric high-throughput microscopy. RESULTS: Isolated rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were exposed to control or COVID19 serum from intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe ARDS and impaired cardiac function (LVEF 41±5%; 1/3 of patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; CK 154±43 U/l). Rat cardiomyocytes showed an early increase of myofilament sensitivity, a decrease of Ca2+ transient amplitudes and altered baseline [Ca2+] upon exposure to patient serum. In addition, we used iPS-CM to explore the long-term effect of patient serum on cardiac electrical and mechanical function. In iPS-CM, spontaneous Ca2+ release events were more likely to occur upon incubation with COVID19 serum and nuclear as well as cytosolic Ca2+ release were altered. Co-incubation with Canakinumab had no effect on pro-arrhythmogenic Ca2+ release or Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling, nor significantly influenced cellular automaticity. CONCLUSION: Serum derived from COVID19 patients exerts acute cardio-depressant and chronic pro-arrhythmogenic effects in rat and iPS-derived cardiomyocytes. Canakinumab had no beneficial effect on cellular Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling. The presented method utilizing iPS-CM and in-vitro Ca2+ imaging might serve as a novel tool for precision medicine. It allows to investigate cytokine related cardiac dysfunction and pharmacological approaches useful therein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 , Calcium Signaling/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Calcium/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology
7.
Am Heart J ; 242: 61-70, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause myocardial injury and myocarditis, and reports of persistent cardiac pathology after COVID-19 have raised concerns of long-term cardiac consequences. We aimed to assess the presence of abnormal cardiovascular resonance imaging (CMR) findings in patients recovered from moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and its association with markers of disease severity in the acute phase. METHODS: Fifty-eight (49%) survivors from the prospective COVID MECH study, underwent CMR median 175 [IQR 105-217] days after COVID-19 hospitalization. Abnormal CMR was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% or myocardial scar by late gadolinium enhancement. CMR indices were compared to healthy controls (n = 32), and to circulating biomarkers measured during the index hospitalization. RESULTS: Abnormal CMR was present in 12 (21%) patients, of whom 3 were classified with major pathology (scar and LVEF <50% or LVEF <40%). There was no difference in the need of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, and vital signs between patients with vs without abnormal CMR after 6 months. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viremia and concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers during the index hospitalization were not associated with persistent CMR pathology. Cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations on admission, were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but these associations were not significant after adjusting for demographics and established cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: CMR pathology 6 months after moderate-to-severe COVID-19 was present in 21% of patients and did not correlate with severity of the disease. Cardiovascular biomarkers during COVID-19 were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but with no significant association after adjusting for confounders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID MECH Study ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cicatrix/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cicatrix/etiology , Female , Gadolinium , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume , Survivors , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
8.
N Engl J Med ; 385(1): 23-34, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The assessment of real-world effectiveness of immunomodulatory medications for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may guide therapy. METHODS: We analyzed surveillance data on inpatients younger than 21 years of age who had MIS-C and were admitted to 1 of 58 U.S. hospitals between March 15 and October 31, 2020. The effectiveness of initial immunomodulatory therapy (day 0, indicating the first day any such therapy for MIS-C was given) with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) plus glucocorticoids, as compared with IVIG alone, was evaluated with propensity-score matching and inverse probability weighting, with adjustment for baseline MIS-C severity and demographic characteristics. The primary outcome was cardiovascular dysfunction (a composite of left ventricular dysfunction or shock resulting in the use of vasopressors) on or after day 2. Secondary outcomes included the components of the primary outcome, the receipt of adjunctive treatment (glucocorticoids in patients not already receiving glucocorticoids on day 0, a biologic, or a second dose of IVIG) on or after day 1, and persistent or recurrent fever on or after day 2. RESULTS: A total of 518 patients with MIS-C (median age, 8.7 years) received at least one immunomodulatory therapy; 75% had been previously healthy, and 9 died. In the propensity-score-matched analysis, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids (103 patients) was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular dysfunction on or after day 2 than IVIG alone (103 patients) (17% vs. 31%; risk ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.94). The risks of the components of the composite outcome were also lower among those who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids: left ventricular dysfunction occurred in 8% and 17% of the patients, respectively (risk ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.19 to 1.15), and shock resulting in vasopressor use in 13% and 24% (risk ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.00). The use of adjunctive therapy was lower among patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids than among those who received IVIG alone (34% vs. 70%; risk ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.65), but the risk of fever was unaffected (31% and 40%, respectively; risk ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.53 to 1.13). The inverse-probability-weighted analysis confirmed the results of the propensity-score-matched analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Among children and adolescents with MIS-C, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids was associated with a lower risk of new or persistent cardiovascular dysfunction than IVIG alone. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/prevention & control , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunomodulation , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Propensity Score , Public Health Surveillance , Shock/etiology , Shock/prevention & control , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Young Adult
9.
Cardiol Young ; 31(3): 485-487, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131993

ABSTRACT

A four- and a half-month-old girl with severe dilated cardiomyopathy due to neonatal enterovirus myocarditis, treated with diuretics and milrinone for the past 4 months, was infected with SARS-CoV-2. The disease course was characterised by high fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Cardiac function, as measured by echocardiography, remained stable. The treatment focused on maintaining a normal heart rate and a stable fluid balance. In children with severe underlying cardiac disease, even a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection can require close monitoring and compound treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Tachycardia/physiopathology , Tachypnea/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Vomiting/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/drug therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/etiology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/metabolism , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Enterovirus Infections/complications , Female , Heart Rate , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Infant , Milrinone/therapeutic use , Myocarditis/complications , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Troponin T/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Waiting Lists , Water-Electrolyte Balance
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1196-1200, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067635
11.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 42(10): 1567-1574, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054010

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a multiorgan systemic inflammatory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus. Patients with COVID-19 often exhibit cardiac dysfunction and myocardial injury, but imaging evidence is lacking. In the study we detected and evaluated the severity of myocardial dysfunction in COVID-19 patient population using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2-D STE). A total of 218 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 who had no underlying cardiovascular diseases were enrolled and underwent transthoracic echocardiography. This study cohort included 52 (23.8%) critically ill and 166 noncritically ill patients. Global longitudinal strains (GLSs) and layer-specific longitudinal strains (LSLSs) were obtained using 2-D STE. Changes in GLS were correlated with the clinical parameters. We showed that GLS was reduced (<-21.0%) in about 83% of the patients. GLS reduction was more common in critically sick patients (98% vs. 78.3%, P < 0.001), and the mean GLS was significantly lower in the critically sick patients than those noncritical (-13.7% ± 3.4% vs. -17.4% ± 3.2%, P < 0.001). The alteration of GLS was more prominent in the subepicardium than in the subendocardium (P < 0.001). GLS was correlated to mean serum pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2, RR = 0.42, P < 0.0001), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, R = -0.20, P = 0.006) and inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-6 (R = -0.21, P = 0.003). In conclusions, our results demonstrate that myocardial dysfunction is common in COVID-19 patients, particularly those who are critically sick. Changes in indices of myocardial strain were associated with indices of inflammatory markers and hypoxia, suggesting partly secondary nature of myocardial dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Left , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
12.
Indian Pediatr ; 57(11): 1015-1019, 2020 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We describe the presentation, treatment and outcome of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome with COVID-19 (MIS-C) in Mumbai metropolitan area in India. METHOD: This is an observational study conducted at four tertiary hospitals in Mumbai. Parameters including demographics, symptomatology, laboratory markers, medications and outcome were obtained from patient hospital records and analyzed in patients treated for MIS-C (as per WHO criteria) from 1 May, 2020 to 15 July, 2020. RESULTS: 23 patients (11 males) with median (range) age of 7.2 (0.8-14) years were included. COVID-19 RT-PCR or antibody was positive in 39.1% and 30.4%, respectively; 34.8% had a positive contact. 65% patients presented in shock; these children had a higher age (P=0.05), and significantly higher incidence of myocarditis with elevated troponin, NT pro BNP and left ventri-cular dysfunction, along with significant neutrophilia and lympho-penia, as compared to those without shock. Coronary artery dilation was seen in 26% patients overall. Steroids were used most commonly for treatment (96%), usually along with intra-venous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (65%). Outcome was good with only one death. CONCLUSION: Initial data on MIS-C from India is presented. Further studies and longer surveillance of patients with MIS-C are required to improve our diagnostic, treatment and surveillance criteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , India/epidemiology , Infant , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Neutrophils/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/blood , Shock/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Troponin/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
13.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(4): 387.e1-387.e9, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the new coronavirus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome and atypical pneumonia. In nonpregnant women, studies have shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causes cardiac injury, which can result in myocardial inflammation and damage. Despite many studies investigating the extent of cardiac compromise in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019, little is known regarding its impact on pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to illustrate the clinical, laboratory, radiologic findings and outcomes of pregnant patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who developed myocardial injury with ventricular dysfunction. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed the paper records of 15 pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019, who developed myocardial injury on a single tertiary care hospital in the Dominican Republic. Patients' baseline characteristics, clinical picture, and laboratory and radiologic findings were presented, and maternal and fetal outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 154 pregnant patients diagnosed as having coronavirus disease 2019 at our hospital during the study period, 15 (9.7%), developed myocardial injury. These patients' mean age and gestational age were 29.87±5.83 and 32.31±3.68, respectively. Furthermore, 66.7% of patients presented with shortness of breath and 16.3% with palpitations. All patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 86.6% needed intubation. Patients developed myocardial injury, confirmed with highly elevated troponin (34.6 [14.4-55.5 ng/mL]), and pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations (209 [184-246 pg/mL]). In addition, all patients developed left ventricular dysfunction demonstrated by an echocardiogram with a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 37.67±6.4. Unfortunately, 2 patients who presented with palpitations died a few days after admission. CONCLUSION: Our study showed coronavirus disease 2019 induced myocardial injury and left ventricular dysfunction in pregnant women with a 13.3% mortality rate, which was attributed to malignant arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
14.
Chest ; 159(5): 1974-1985, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury has been reported in up to 30% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, cardiac injury is defined mainly by troponin elevation without description of associated structural abnormalities and its time course has not been studied. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities as well as their time course in critically ill COVID-19 patients? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The cardiac function of 43 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to two ICUs was assessed prospectively and repeatedly, combining ECG, cardiac biomarker, and transthoracic echocardiographic analyses from ICU admission to ICU discharge or death or to a maximum follow-up of 14 days. Cardiac injury was defined by troponin elevation and newly diagnosed ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities, or both. RESULTS: At baseline, 49% of patients demonstrated a cardiac injury, and 70% of patients experienced cardiac injury within the first 14 days of ICU stay, with a median time of occurrence of 3 days (range, 0-7 days). The most frequent abnormalities were ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of left ventricular (LV) abnormalities (87% of patients with cardiac injury), right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction (47%), pericardial effusion (43%), new-onset atrial arrhythmias (33%), LV relaxation impairment (33%), and LV systolic dysfunction (13%). Between baseline and day 14, the incidence of pericardial effusion and of new-onset atrial arrhythmias increased and the incidence of ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of LV abnormalities as well as the incidence of LV relaxation impairment remained stable, whereas the incidence of RV and LV systolic dysfunction decreased. INTERPRETATION: Cardiac injury is common and early in critically ill COVID-19 patients. ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of LV abnormalities were the most frequent abnormalities, and patients with cardiac injury experienced more RV than LV systolic dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Echocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases , Troponin/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , France/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
15.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 162-166, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938417

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging the care for cardiovascular patients, resulting in serious consequences with increasing mortality in pre-diseased heart failure patients. In the current state of the pandemic, the physiopathology of COVID-19 affecting pre-diseased hearts and the management of terminal heart failure in COVID-19 patients remain unclear. We outline the findings of a young COVID-19 patient suffering from idiopathic cardiomyopathy who was treated for acute multi-organ failure and required cardiac surgery with implantation of a temporary right ventricular and durable left ventricular assist device (LVAD). For deeper translational insights, we used in-depth tissue analysis by electron and light sheet fluorescence microscopy revealing evidence for spatial distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the heart. This indicates that in-depth analysis may represent a valuable tool in understanding indistinct clinical cases. We conclude that COVID-19 directly affects pre-diseased hearts, but the consequences can be treated successfully with LVAD implantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/etiology , Heart-Assist Devices , Adult , Biopsy , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/pathology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/therapy , Humans , Male , Prosthesis Implantation , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
18.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(10): 739-749, 2020 Oct.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792878

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, can lead to cardiac impairment with various types of clinical manifestations, including heart failure and cardiogenic shock. A possible expression of cardiac impairment is non-ischemic ventricular dysfunction, which can be related to different pathological conditions, such as myocarditis, stress and cytokine-related ventricular dysfunction. The diagnosis of these pathological conditions can be challenging during COVID-19; furthermore, their prevalence and prognostic significance have not been elucidated yet. The purpose of this review is to take stock of the various aspects of non-ischemic ventricular dysfunction that may occur during COVID-19 and of the diagnostic implications related to the use of cardiac imaging techniques.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Troponin/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology
19.
Echocardiography ; 37(9): 1465-1469, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733239

ABSTRACT

A previously healthy 49-year-old male patient presented with COVID-19 infection and required mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to severe hypoxemia. Echocardiography showed cardiac dysfunction with an apical sparing strain pattern, which rapidly normalized within a week. Apical sparing myocardial strain in patients with COVID-19 infection may suggest reverse-type stress cardiomyopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Remission, Spontaneous , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
20.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(3): 393-394, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602145
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