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1.
Biomolecules ; 11(10)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis often progresses to heart failure because there is no effective, etiology-targeted therapy of this disease. Simvastatin has been shown to be cardioprotective by decreasing matrix metalloproteinases' (MMPs) activity. The study was designed to determine whether simvastatin inhibits MMPs activity, decreases the severity of inflammation and contractile dysfunction of the heart in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). METHODS: Simvastatin (3 or 30 mg/kg/day) was given to experimental rats with EAM by gastric gavage for 21 days. Then transthoracic echocardiography was performed, MMPs activity and troponin I level were determined and tissue samples were assessed under a light and transmission electron microscope. RESULTS: Hearts treated with simvastatin did not show left ventricular enlargement. As a result of EAM, there was an enhanced activation of MMP-9, which was significantly reduced in the high-dose simvastatin group compared to the low-dose group. It was accompanied by prevention of myofilaments degradation and reduction of severity of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: The cardioprotective effects of simvastatin in the acute phase of EAM are, at least in part, due to its ability to decrease MMP-9 activity and subsequent decline in myofilaments degradation and suppression of inflammation. These effects were achieved in doses equivalent to therapeutic doses in humans.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/drug therapy , Metalloproteases/genetics , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Echocardiography , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Metalloproteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Models, Animal , Myocarditis/genetics , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/pathology , Rats , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/prevention & control
2.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463839

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children can trigger cardiovascular manifestations potentially requiring an intensive treatment and defining a new entity named Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), whose features partially overlap with Kawasaki Disease (KD). A cross-sectional study including all diagnoses of MIS-C and KD from April 2020 to May 2021 in our metropolitan area was conducted evaluating clinical, laboratory (including immunological response, cytokines, and markers of myocardial damage), and cardiac (coronary and non-coronary) features at onset of the diseases. Evolution of ventricular dysfunction, valve regurgitations, and coronary lesions was documented. The severity of the disease was also considered based on the need for inotropic support and ICU admission. Twenty-four MIS-C were diagnosed (14 boys, median age 82 months): 13/24 cases (54.17%) presented left ventricular dysfunction, 12/24 (50%) required inotropic support, and 10/24 (41.67%) developed coronary anomalies (CALs). All patients received steroids and IVIG at a median time of 5 days (IQR1:4, IQR3:6.5) from onset of fever and heart function normalized 6 days (IQR1: 5, IQR3: 7) after therapy, while CALs persisted in one. One patient (12.5%) required infliximab because of refractory disease and still presented CALs 18 days after therapy. During the same study period, 15 KD were diagnosed: none had ventricular dysfunction, while 7/15 (46.67%) developed CALs. Three out of 15 patients (20%) still presented CALs 46 days from onset. Compared to KD, MIS-C pts have significantly higher IL8 and similar lymphocytes subpopulations. Despite a more severe presentation and initial cardiac findings compared to KD, the myocardial injury in MIS-C has a rapid response to immunomodulatory treatment (median time 6 days), in terms of ventricular function, valve regurgitations, and troponin. Incidence of CALs is similar at onset, but it tends to regress in most of the cases of MIS-C differently than in KD where CALs persist in up to 40% in the subacute stage after treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury associated with cytokine release frequently occurs in SARS-CoV-2 mediated coronavirus disease (COVID19) and mortality is particularly high in these patients. The mechanistic role of the COVID19 associated cytokine-storm for the concomitant cardiac dysfunction and associated arrhythmias is unclear. Moreover, the role of anti-inflammatory therapy to mitigate cardiac dysfunction remains elusive. AIMS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of COVID19-associated inflammatory response on cardiac cellular function as well as its cardiac arrhythmogenic potential in rat and induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM). In addition, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of the IL-1ß antagonist Canakinumab using state of the art in-vitro confocal and ratiometric high-throughput microscopy. RESULTS: Isolated rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were exposed to control or COVID19 serum from intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe ARDS and impaired cardiac function (LVEF 41±5%; 1/3 of patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; CK 154±43 U/l). Rat cardiomyocytes showed an early increase of myofilament sensitivity, a decrease of Ca2+ transient amplitudes and altered baseline [Ca2+] upon exposure to patient serum. In addition, we used iPS-CM to explore the long-term effect of patient serum on cardiac electrical and mechanical function. In iPS-CM, spontaneous Ca2+ release events were more likely to occur upon incubation with COVID19 serum and nuclear as well as cytosolic Ca2+ release were altered. Co-incubation with Canakinumab had no effect on pro-arrhythmogenic Ca2+ release or Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling, nor significantly influenced cellular automaticity. CONCLUSION: Serum derived from COVID19 patients exerts acute cardio-depressant and chronic pro-arrhythmogenic effects in rat and iPS-derived cardiomyocytes. Canakinumab had no beneficial effect on cellular Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling. The presented method utilizing iPS-CM and in-vitro Ca2+ imaging might serve as a novel tool for precision medicine. It allows to investigate cytokine related cardiac dysfunction and pharmacological approaches useful therein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 , Calcium Signaling/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Calcium/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology
4.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2838-2852, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643370

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in viral myocarditis is attributed to myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, inducing acute and long-time cardiac damage. Interventions are not established. On the basis of the link between inflammation, fibrosis, aldosterone, and extracellular matrix regulation, we aimed to investigate the effect of an early intervention with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) eplerenone on cardiac remodelling in a murine model of persistent coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis. METHODS AND RESULTS: SWR/J mice were infected with 5 × 104 plaque-forming units of CVB3 (Nancy strain) and daily treated either with eplerenone (200 mg/kg body weight) or with placebo starting from Day 1. At Day 8 or 28 post infection, mice were haemodynamically characterized and subsequently sacrificed for immunohistological and molecular biology analyses. Eplerenone did not influence CVB3 load. Already at Day 8, 1.8-fold (P < 0.05), 1.4-fold (P < 0.05), 3.2-fold (P < 0.01), and 2.1-fold (P < 0.001) reduction in LV intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression, presence of monocytes/macrophages, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, respectively, was observed in eplerenone-treated vs. untreated CVB3-infected mice. In vitro, eplerenone led to 1.4-fold (P < 0.01) and 1.2-fold (P < 0.01) less CVB3-induced cardiomyocyte oxidative stress and apoptosis. Furthermore, collagen production was 1.1-fold (P < 0.05) decreased in cardiac fibroblasts cultured with medium of eplerenone-treated vs. untreated CVB3-infected HL-1 cardiomyocytes. These ameliorations were in vivo translated into prevention of cardiac fibrosis, as shown by 1.4-fold (P < 0.01) and 2.1-fold (P < 0.001) lower collagen content in the LV of eplerenone-treated vs. untreated CVB3-infected mice at Days 8 and 28, respectively. This resulted in an early and long-lasting improvement of LV dimension and function, as indicated by reduced LV end-systolic volume and end-diastolic volume, and an increase in LV contractility (dP/dtmax ) and LV relaxation (dP/dtmin ), respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Early intervention with the MRA eplerenone modulates the acute host and defence reaction and prevents cardiac disease progression in experimental CVB3-induced myocarditis without aggravation of viral load. The findings advocate for an initiation of therapy of viral myocarditis as early as possible, even before the onset of inflammation-induced myocardial dysfunction. This may also have implications for coronavirus disease-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Endomyocardial Fibrosis/prevention & control , Enterovirus B, Human/pathogenicity , Eplerenone/pharmacology , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology , Analysis of Variance , Animals , Biopsy, Needle , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Progression , Endomyocardial Fibrosis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinases/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Myocarditis/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
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