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1.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(2): 341-348, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The association between COVID-19 infection and the development of autoimmune diseases is currently unknown, but there are already reports presenting induction of different autoantibodies by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Kikuchi-Fuimoto disease (KFD) as a form of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis of unknown origin. OBJECTIVE: Here we present a rare case of KFD with heart involvement after COVID-19 infection. To our best knowledge only a few cases of COVID-19-associated KFD were published so far. Based on presented case, we summarize the clinical course of KFD and its association with autoimmune diseases, as well we discuss the potential causes of perimyocarditis in this case. METHODS: We reviewed the literature regarding cases of "Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD)" and "COVID-19" and then "KFD" and "heart" or "myocarditis" by searching medical journal databases written in English in PubMed and Google Scholar. RESULTS: Only two cases of KFD after COVID infection have been described so far. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection can also be a new, potential causative agent of developing KFD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hepatomegaly/physiopathology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Splenomegaly/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Echocardiography , Hepatomegaly/diagnostic imaging , Hepatomegaly/etiology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/etiology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/pathology , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Splenomegaly/diagnostic imaging , Splenomegaly/etiology , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
2.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 528, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The value of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in cardiogenic shock, especially the combination of the ECMELLA approach (Impella combined with ECMO), remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 33-year-old female patient was submitted to a local emergency department with a flu-like infection and febrile temperatures up to 39 °C. The patient was tested positive for type-A influenza, however negative for SARS-CoV-2. Despite escalated invasive ventilation, refractory hypercapnia (paCO2: 22 kPa) with severe respiratory acidosis (pH: 6.9) and a rising norepinephrine rate occurred within a few hours. Due to a Horovitz-Index < 100, out-of-centre veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO)-implantation was performed. A CT-scan done because of anisocoria revealed an extended dissection of the right vertebral artery. While the initial left ventricular function was normal, echocardiography revealed severe global hypokinesia. After angiographic exclusion of coronary artery stenoses, we geared up LV unloading by additional implantation of an Impella CP and expanded the vv-ECMO to a veno-venous-arterial ECMO (vva-ECMO). Clinically relevant bleeding from the punctured femoral arteries resulted in massive transfusion and was treated by vascular surgery later on. Under continued MCS, LVEF increased to approximately 40% 2 days after the initiation of ECMELLA. After weaning, the Impella CP was explanted at day 5 and the vva-ECMO was removed on day 9, respectively. The patient was discharged in an unaffected neurological condition to rehabilitation 25 days after the initial admission. CONCLUSIONS: This exceptional case exemplifies the importance of aggressive MCS in severe cardiogenic shock, which may be especially promising in younger patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and potentially reversible causes of cardiogenic shock. This case impressively demonstrates that especially young patients may achieve complete neurological restoration, even though the initial prognosis may appear unfavourable.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart-Assist Devices , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Deterioration , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
3.
J Pediatr ; 240: 292-296, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490349

ABSTRACT

We compared cardiac findings in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and Kawasaki disease in the first 6 months of the 2020 coronavirus disease pandemic to patients with Kawasaki disease during 2016-2019. We saw a high rate of coronary aneurysms in 2020, with a similar rate of coronary involvement but greater volume and incidence of cardiac dysfunction compared with previous years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Aneurysm/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronary Aneurysm/complications , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Los Angeles , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
4.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(12): 1549-1566, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial involvement induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection might be important for long-term prognosis. The aim of this observational study was to characterize the myocardial effects during SARS-CoV-2 infections by echocardiography. RESULTS AND METHODS: An extended echocardiographic image acquisition protocol was performed in 18 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection assessing LV longitudinal, radial, and circumferential deformation including rotation, twist, and untwisting. Furthermore, LV deformation was analyzed in an age-matched control group of healthy individuals (n = 20). The most prevalent finding was a reduced longitudinal strain observed predominantly in more than one basal LV segment (n = 10/14 patients, 71%). This pattern reminded of a "reverse tako-tsubo" morphology that is not typical for other viral myocarditis. Additional findings included a biphasic pattern with maximum post-systolic or negative regional radial strain predominantly basal (n = 5/14 patients, 36%); the absence or dispersion of basal LV rotation (n = 6/14 patients, 43%); a reduced or positive regional circumferential strain in more than one segment (n = 7/14 patients, 50%); a net rotation showing late post-systolic twist or biphasic pattern (n = 8/14 patients, 57%); a net rotation showing polyphasic pattern and/or higher maximum net values during diastole (n = 8/14 patients, 57%). CONCLUSION: Myocardial involvement due to SARS-CoV-2-infection was highly prevalent in the present cohort-even in patients with mild symptoms. It appears to be characterized by specific speckle tracking deformation abnormalities in the basal LV segments. These data set the stage to prospectively test whether these parameters are helpful for risk stratification and for the long-term follow-up of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology , Ventricular Function, Left
5.
Am Heart J ; 242: 61-70, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause myocardial injury and myocarditis, and reports of persistent cardiac pathology after COVID-19 have raised concerns of long-term cardiac consequences. We aimed to assess the presence of abnormal cardiovascular resonance imaging (CMR) findings in patients recovered from moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and its association with markers of disease severity in the acute phase. METHODS: Fifty-eight (49%) survivors from the prospective COVID MECH study, underwent CMR median 175 [IQR 105-217] days after COVID-19 hospitalization. Abnormal CMR was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% or myocardial scar by late gadolinium enhancement. CMR indices were compared to healthy controls (n = 32), and to circulating biomarkers measured during the index hospitalization. RESULTS: Abnormal CMR was present in 12 (21%) patients, of whom 3 were classified with major pathology (scar and LVEF <50% or LVEF <40%). There was no difference in the need of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, and vital signs between patients with vs without abnormal CMR after 6 months. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viremia and concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers during the index hospitalization were not associated with persistent CMR pathology. Cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations on admission, were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but these associations were not significant after adjusting for demographics and established cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: CMR pathology 6 months after moderate-to-severe COVID-19 was present in 21% of patients and did not correlate with severity of the disease. Cardiovascular biomarkers during COVID-19 were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but with no significant association after adjusting for confounders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID MECH Study ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cicatrix/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cicatrix/etiology , Female , Gadolinium , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume , Survivors , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
6.
Hipertens Riesgo Vasc ; 37(2): 82-85, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207028

ABSTRACT

Malignant arterial hypertension is still present in current clinical care despite the fact that for more than three decades we have had a wide range of antihypertensive drugs to control high blood pressure. It is essential to know how to detect it in time due to its high risk to life, with poor short-term prognosis if not treated properly. It may present with nonspecific, but potentially serious, clinical symptoms or manifest clinically as a hypertensive emergency accompanied by hypertensive encephalopathy and multi-organ failure. We present a case of a 49-year-old woman, attended in our hospital who had an initial hypertension of 223/170mmHg accompanied by multi-organ failure, who progressed satisfactorily with antihypertensive treatment.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Hypertension, Malignant/physiopathology , Hypertensive Encephalopathy/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Malignant/drug therapy , Middle Aged
7.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(8): 2451-2464, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) disease has spread rapidly and posed a great threat to global public health. The laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes of the disease in discharged patients remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the laboratory and echocardiographic findings of patients with COVID-19 after discharge and the relation between left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) and inflammatory parameters in discharged patients. METHODS: A total of 75 patients recovering from COVID-19 as the study group were prospectively recruited from the COVID-19 outpatient clinic for their follow-up visits at a median 6 months after discharge. Patients were classified into groups according to pneumonia severity and impairment in LVGLS. Laboratory findings of patients both at admission and after discharge were evaluated and the relation with pneumonia severity at admission and LVGLS after discharge were analyzed. RESULTS: Serum ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) levels after discharge were significantly higher in the study group than the control group (n = 44). Ferritin was found to be related to pneumonia severity. Serum ferritin and LDH values after discharge were significantly higher in patients with impaired LVGLS than those with preserved. There was a significant correlation between LVGLS, serum ferritin and LDH values after discharge (r = -0.252, p = 0.012; r = -0.268, p = 0.005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should pay close attention to the serum ferritin and LDH levels in discharged patients for predicting the severity of COVID-19 disease and early identification of subclinical left ventricular myocardial dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Adult , Echocardiography , Female , Ferritins/blood , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(7): 2227-2233, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135168

ABSTRACT

Highly sensitive troponin (hs-TnI) levels are frequently elevated in COVID-19 patients and are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality during hospitalization. However, no data exists on cardiac involvement in patients recovered from COVID-19 infection. We aimed to evaluate by global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) whether there is subclinical myocardial deformation after COVID-19 infection. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) was performed within 29.5 ± 4.5 days after COVID-19 treatment. The standard GLS limit was identified at < -18%. The patients were divided into two groups according to their hs-TnI levels during hospitalization as with (> 11.6 ng/dl) and without (< 11.6 ng/dl) myocardial injury. Patients' (n = 74) mean age was 59.9 years, and women were in the majority (60.8%). Of the patients, 43.2% of them were hypertensive, and 10.9% were diabetic. Abnormal LV-GLS values (> -18) were measured in 28 patients (37.8%). While 16 (57.1%) of these patients were in the group with myocardial injury, 12 (26.1%) of them were in the group without myocardial injury (p = 0.014). D-dimer, C reactive protein, white blood cell levels were higher in the group with myocardial injury (All p values < 0.05). Electrocardiographically, 9 (12.2%) patients had T wave inversion, while two patients had a bundle branch block. Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction was observed in approximately one-third of the patients at the one-month follow-up after COVID-19 infection. This rate was higher in those who develop myocardial injury during hospitalization. This result suggests that patients recovered from COVID-19 infection should be evaluated and followed in terms of cardiac involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Electrocardiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
9.
Cardiol Young ; 31(3): 485-487, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131993

ABSTRACT

A four- and a half-month-old girl with severe dilated cardiomyopathy due to neonatal enterovirus myocarditis, treated with diuretics and milrinone for the past 4 months, was infected with SARS-CoV-2. The disease course was characterised by high fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Cardiac function, as measured by echocardiography, remained stable. The treatment focused on maintaining a normal heart rate and a stable fluid balance. In children with severe underlying cardiac disease, even a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection can require close monitoring and compound treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Tachycardia/physiopathology , Tachypnea/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Vomiting/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/drug therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/etiology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/metabolism , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Enterovirus Infections/complications , Female , Heart Rate , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Infant , Milrinone/therapeutic use , Myocarditis/complications , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Troponin T/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Waiting Lists , Water-Electrolyte Balance
10.
Pediatrics ; 147(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083679

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a serious postinfectious immune dysregulation associated with coronavirus disease 2019 that may present with severe and life-threatening cardiovascular dysfunction, hemodynamic instability, shock, and multisystem organ failure. Optimal treatment is unknown. Current standard of care consists of nonspecific anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic therapies. Interventions that target MIS-C's distinctive clinical features and immunophenotype are indicated. Remestemcel-L, an investigational mesenchymal stromal cell therapy, is a promising candidate for treatment of MIS-C because of its beneficial anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, endothelial function and vascular stabilizing effects, which align well with the pathophysiology of MIS-C. Here, we present the first two patients with life-threatening MIS-C ever treated with remestemcel-L under an expanded access program. Both were previously healthy children without any indication of previous coronavirus disease 2019 infection or exposure. They presented with severe clinical illness including myocardial dysfunction, hemodynamic instability, hypotension, acute kidney injury, and shock. At the time of hospital admission, both had negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results and positive serology results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Both children received standard of care MIS-C treatment. Although the patients showed some clinical improvement, left ventricular ejection fraction remained reduced and inflammatory biomarkers remained significantly elevated. When treated with two intravenous doses of remestemcel-L separated by 48 hours, rapid normalization of left ventricular ejection fraction, notable reductions in biomarkers of systemic and cardiac inflammation, and improved clinical status occurred. Neither child experienced adverse effects associated with remestemcel-L administration. This treatment appears promising as a novel immunomodulatory cellular therapy for children with clinically significant cardiovascular manifestations of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
11.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246732, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A high proportion of COVID-19 patients were reported to have cardiac involvements. Data pertaining to cardiac sequalae is of urgent importance to define subsequent cardiac surveillance. METHODS: We performed a systematic cardiac screening for 97 consecutive COVID-19 survivors including electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, serum troponin and NT-proBNP assay 1-4 weeks after hospital discharge. Treadmill exercise test and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) were performed according to initial screening results. RESULTS: The mean age was 46.5 ± 18.6 years; 53.6% were men. All were classified with non-severe disease without overt cardiac manifestations and did not require intensive care. Median hospitalization stay was 17 days and median duration from discharge to screening was 11 days. Cardiac abnormalities were detected in 42.3% including sinus bradycardia (29.9%), newly detected T-wave abnormality (8.2%), elevated troponin level (6.2%), newly detected atrial fibrillation (1.0%), and newly detected left ventricular systolic dysfunction with elevated NT-proBNP level (1.0%). Significant sinus bradycardia with heart rate below 50 bpm was detected in 7.2% COVID-19 survivors, which appeared to be self-limiting and recovered over time. For COVID-19 survivors with persistent elevation of troponin level after discharge or newly detected T wave abnormality, echocardiography and CMR did not reveal any evidence of infarct, myocarditis, or left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Cardiac abnormality is common amongst COVID-survivors with mild disease, which is mostly self-limiting. Nonetheless, cardiac surveillance in form of ECG and/or serum biomarkers may be advisable to detect more severe cardiac involvement including atrial fibrillation and left ventricular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/blood , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , Survivors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
12.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(5): 1629-1636, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060600

ABSTRACT

To assess imaging data in COVID-19 patients and its association with clinical course and survival and 86 consecutive patients (52 males, 34 females, mean age = 58.8 year) with documented COVID-19 infection were included. Seventy-eight patients (91%) were in severe stage of the disease. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography. Mean LVEF was 48.1% and mean estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) was 27.9 mmHg. LV diastolic dysfunction was mildly abnormal in 49 patients (57.6%) and moderately abnormal in 7 cases (8.2%). Pericardial effusion was present in 5/86 (minimal in size in 3 cases and mild- moderate in 2). In 32/86 cases (37.2%), the severity of infection progressed from "severe" to "critical". Eleven patients (12.8%) died. sPAP and computed tomography score were associated with disease progression (P value = 0.002, 0.002 respectively). Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) was significantly higher in patients with no disease progression compared with those who deteriorated (P value = 0.005). Pericardial effusion (minimal, mild or moderate) was detected more often in progressive disease (P = 0.03). sPAP was significantly lower among survivors (P value = 0.007). Echocardiographic findings (including systolic PAP, TAPSE and pericardial effusion), total CT score may have prognostic and therapeutic implication in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Pericardial Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pericardial Effusion/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
13.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 42(10): 1567-1574, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054010

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a multiorgan systemic inflammatory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus. Patients with COVID-19 often exhibit cardiac dysfunction and myocardial injury, but imaging evidence is lacking. In the study we detected and evaluated the severity of myocardial dysfunction in COVID-19 patient population using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2-D STE). A total of 218 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 who had no underlying cardiovascular diseases were enrolled and underwent transthoracic echocardiography. This study cohort included 52 (23.8%) critically ill and 166 noncritically ill patients. Global longitudinal strains (GLSs) and layer-specific longitudinal strains (LSLSs) were obtained using 2-D STE. Changes in GLS were correlated with the clinical parameters. We showed that GLS was reduced (<-21.0%) in about 83% of the patients. GLS reduction was more common in critically sick patients (98% vs. 78.3%, P < 0.001), and the mean GLS was significantly lower in the critically sick patients than those noncritical (-13.7% ± 3.4% vs. -17.4% ± 3.2%, P < 0.001). The alteration of GLS was more prominent in the subepicardium than in the subendocardium (P < 0.001). GLS was correlated to mean serum pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2, RR = 0.42, P < 0.0001), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, R = -0.20, P = 0.006) and inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-6 (R = -0.21, P = 0.003). In conclusions, our results demonstrate that myocardial dysfunction is common in COVID-19 patients, particularly those who are critically sick. Changes in indices of myocardial strain were associated with indices of inflammatory markers and hypoxia, suggesting partly secondary nature of myocardial dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Left , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
14.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052327

ABSTRACT

AIMS: It was predicted internationally that transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) would be vital during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. We therefore, designed a study to report the demand for TTE in two large District General Hospitals during the rise in the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the UK. A primary clinical outcome of 30-day mortality was also assessed. METHODS: The TTE service across two hospitals was reconfigured to maximise access to inpatient scanning. All TTEs of suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients over a 3-week period were included in the study. All patients were followed up until at least day 30 after their scan at which point the primary clinical outcome of mortality was recorded. Comparative analysis based on mortality was conducted for all TTE results, biochemical markers and demographics. RESULTS: 27 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 had a TTE within the inclusion window. Mortality comparative analysis showed the deceased group were significantly older (mean 68.4, SD 11.9 vs 60.5, SD 13.0, p=0.03) and more commonly reported fatigue in their presenting symptoms (29.6% vs 71.4%, p=0.01). No other differences were identified in the demographic or biochemical data. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was noted in 7.4% of patients and right ventricular impairment or dilation was seen in 18.5% patients. TTE results were not significantly different in mortality comparative analysis. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an achievable approach to TTE services when under increased pressure. Data analysis supports the limited available data suggesting right ventricular abnormalities are the most commonly identified echocardiographic change in SARS-CoV-2 patients. No association can be demonstrated between mortality and TTE results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Echocardiography/methods , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
15.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(10): 4530-4537, 2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To better define the clinical distinctions between the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) and Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS: We compared three groups of patients: group 1, cases from our national historic KD database (KD-HIS), before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; group 2, patients with KD admitted to an intensive care unit (KD-ICU) from both our original cohort and the literature, before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; and group 3, patients with PIMS from the literature. RESULTS: KD-HIS included 425 patients [male:female ratio 1.3, mean age 2.8 years (s.d. 2.4)], KD-ICU 176 patients [male:female ratio 1.3, mean age 3.5 years (s.d. 3.1)] and PIMS 404 patients [male:female ratio 1.4, mean age 8.8 years (s.d. 3.7)]. As compared with KD-HIS patients, KD-ICU and PIMS patients had a higher proportion of cardiac failure, digestive and neurological signs. KD-ICU and PIMS patients also had a lower frequency of typical KD-mucocutaneous signs, lower platelet count, higher CRP and lower sodium level. As compared with KD-HIS and KD-ICU patients, PIMS patients were older and more frequently had myocarditis; they also had fewer coronary abnormalities and lower sodium levels. Unresponsiveness to IVIG was more frequent in KD-ICU than KD-HIS and PIMS patients. CONCLUSION: On clinical grounds, KD-HIS, KD-ICU and PIMS might belong to a common spectrum of non-specific pathogen-triggered hyperinflammatory states. The causes of increasing inflammation severity within the three entities and the different effects on the heart remain to be determined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Pericardial Effusion/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Adolescent , Aspirin/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Digestive System Diseases/physiopathology , Female , France , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Myocarditis/blood , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Phenotype , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Count , Sodium/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
16.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963649

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection continues to be a public health emergency and a pandemic of international concern. As of April 31st,  the reported cases of COVID-19 are three million in 186 countries. Reported case fatality has crossed 200 thousand among which more than fifty thousand has been in the USA. Most patients present with symptoms of fever, cough, and shortness of breath following exposure to other COVID-19 patients. Respiratory manifestations predominate in patients with mild, moderate, severe illness. Imaging of patients with COVID-19 consistently reports various pulmonary parenchymal involvement. In this article we wanted to reinforce and review the various reported imaging patterns of cardiac and mediastinal involvement in COVID-19 patients. Among patients with COVID 19 who underwent various imaging of chest various cardiac findings including pericardial effusion, myocarditis, cardiomegaly has been reported. Most of these findings have been consistently reported in patients with significant acute myocardial injury, and fulminant myocarditis. Acute biventricular dysfunction has also been reported with subsequent improvement of the same following clinical improvement. Details of cardiac MRI is rather limited. In a patient with clinical presentation of acute myocarditis, biventricular myocardial interstitial edema, diffuse biventricular hypokinesia, increased ventricular wall thickness, and severe LV dysfunction has been reported. Among patients with significant clinical improvement in LV structure and function has also been documented. With increasing number of clinical cases, future imaging studies will be instrumental in identifying the various cardiac manifestations, and their relation to clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Cardiomegaly/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Pericardial Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiomegaly/physiopathology , Coronary Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Edema/diagnostic imaging , Edema/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pericardial Effusion/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Radiography, Thoracic , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ventricular Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
17.
Chest ; 159(5): 1974-1985, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury has been reported in up to 30% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, cardiac injury is defined mainly by troponin elevation without description of associated structural abnormalities and its time course has not been studied. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities as well as their time course in critically ill COVID-19 patients? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The cardiac function of 43 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to two ICUs was assessed prospectively and repeatedly, combining ECG, cardiac biomarker, and transthoracic echocardiographic analyses from ICU admission to ICU discharge or death or to a maximum follow-up of 14 days. Cardiac injury was defined by troponin elevation and newly diagnosed ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities, or both. RESULTS: At baseline, 49% of patients demonstrated a cardiac injury, and 70% of patients experienced cardiac injury within the first 14 days of ICU stay, with a median time of occurrence of 3 days (range, 0-7 days). The most frequent abnormalities were ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of left ventricular (LV) abnormalities (87% of patients with cardiac injury), right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction (47%), pericardial effusion (43%), new-onset atrial arrhythmias (33%), LV relaxation impairment (33%), and LV systolic dysfunction (13%). Between baseline and day 14, the incidence of pericardial effusion and of new-onset atrial arrhythmias increased and the incidence of ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of LV abnormalities as well as the incidence of LV relaxation impairment remained stable, whereas the incidence of RV and LV systolic dysfunction decreased. INTERPRETATION: Cardiac injury is common and early in critically ill COVID-19 patients. ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of LV abnormalities were the most frequent abnormalities, and patients with cardiac injury experienced more RV than LV systolic dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Echocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases , Troponin/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , France/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
18.
Chest ; 159(2): 657-662, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-928873
20.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(3): 825-834, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841197

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients with cardiac involvement have a high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic features in COVID-19 patients between severe and non-severe groups. For this single-center study, data from patients who were treated for COVID-19 between March 25, 2020 and April 15, 2020 were collected. Two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) images were obtained for all patients. Patients were divided into two groups based on the severity of their COVID-19 infections. 2DE parameters indicating right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) functions were compared between the two groups. A total of 90 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were included in this study. The mean age of the severe group (n = 44) was 63.3 ± 15.7 years, and 54% were male. The mean age of non-severe group (n = 46) was 49.7 ± 21.4 years, and 47% were male. In the severe group, RV and LV diameters were larger (RV, 36.6 ± 5.9 mm vs. 33.1 ± 4.8 mm, p = 0.003; LV 47.3 ± 5.8 mm vs. 44.9 ± 3.8 mm, p = 0.023), the LE ejection fraction (LVEF) and the RV fractional area change (RV-FAC) were lower (LVEF, 54.0 ± 9.8% vs. 61.9 ± 4.8%, p < 0.001; RV-FAC, 41.4 ± 4.1% vs. 45.5 ± 4.5%, p < 0.001), and pericardial effusions were more frequent (23% vs. 0%) compared to patients in the non-severe group. A multiple linear regression analysis determined that LVEF, right atrial diameter, high-sensitivity troponin I, d-dimer, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure, were independent predictors of RV dilatation. The results demonstrate that both right and left ventricular functions decreased due to COVID-19 infection in the severe group. 2DE is a valuable bedside tool and may yield valuable information about the clinical status of patients and their prognoses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
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