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1.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 528, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The value of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in cardiogenic shock, especially the combination of the ECMELLA approach (Impella combined with ECMO), remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 33-year-old female patient was submitted to a local emergency department with a flu-like infection and febrile temperatures up to 39 °C. The patient was tested positive for type-A influenza, however negative for SARS-CoV-2. Despite escalated invasive ventilation, refractory hypercapnia (paCO2: 22 kPa) with severe respiratory acidosis (pH: 6.9) and a rising norepinephrine rate occurred within a few hours. Due to a Horovitz-Index < 100, out-of-centre veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO)-implantation was performed. A CT-scan done because of anisocoria revealed an extended dissection of the right vertebral artery. While the initial left ventricular function was normal, echocardiography revealed severe global hypokinesia. After angiographic exclusion of coronary artery stenoses, we geared up LV unloading by additional implantation of an Impella CP and expanded the vv-ECMO to a veno-venous-arterial ECMO (vva-ECMO). Clinically relevant bleeding from the punctured femoral arteries resulted in massive transfusion and was treated by vascular surgery later on. Under continued MCS, LVEF increased to approximately 40% 2 days after the initiation of ECMELLA. After weaning, the Impella CP was explanted at day 5 and the vva-ECMO was removed on day 9, respectively. The patient was discharged in an unaffected neurological condition to rehabilitation 25 days after the initial admission. CONCLUSIONS: This exceptional case exemplifies the importance of aggressive MCS in severe cardiogenic shock, which may be especially promising in younger patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and potentially reversible causes of cardiogenic shock. This case impressively demonstrates that especially young patients may achieve complete neurological restoration, even though the initial prognosis may appear unfavourable.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart-Assist Devices , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Deterioration , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 162-166, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938417

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging the care for cardiovascular patients, resulting in serious consequences with increasing mortality in pre-diseased heart failure patients. In the current state of the pandemic, the physiopathology of COVID-19 affecting pre-diseased hearts and the management of terminal heart failure in COVID-19 patients remain unclear. We outline the findings of a young COVID-19 patient suffering from idiopathic cardiomyopathy who was treated for acute multi-organ failure and required cardiac surgery with implantation of a temporary right ventricular and durable left ventricular assist device (LVAD). For deeper translational insights, we used in-depth tissue analysis by electron and light sheet fluorescence microscopy revealing evidence for spatial distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the heart. This indicates that in-depth analysis may represent a valuable tool in understanding indistinct clinical cases. We conclude that COVID-19 directly affects pre-diseased hearts, but the consequences can be treated successfully with LVAD implantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/etiology , Heart-Assist Devices , Adult , Biopsy , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/pathology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/therapy , Humans , Male , Prosthesis Implantation , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
3.
Chest ; 159(2): 657-662, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-928873
4.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(12): 1491-1499, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection may cause severe respiratory distress and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Impaired cardiac function and/or pre-existing cardiovascular disease may be associated with poor prognosis. In the present study, we report a comprehensive cardiovascular characterization in the first consecutive collective of patients that was admitted and treated at the University Hospital of Tübingen, Germany. METHODS: 123 consecutive patients with COVID-19 were included. Routine blood sampling, transthoracic echocardiography and electrocardiography were performed at hospital admission. RESULTS: We found that impaired left-ventricular and right-ventricular function as well as tricuspid regurgitation > grade 1 were significantly associated with higher mortality. Furthermore, elevated levels of myocardial distress markers (troponin-I and NT pro-BNP) were associated with poor prognosis in this patient collective. CONCLUSION: Impaired cardiac function is associated with poor prognosis in COVID-19 positive patients. Consequently, treatment of these patients should include careful guideline-conform cardiovascular evaluation and treatment. Thus, formation of a competent Cardio-COVID-19 team may represent a major clinical measure to optimize therapy of cardiovascular patients during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Right , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Germany , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/physiopathology , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/therapy
5.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(7): 819-824, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17622

ABSTRACT

Importance: Virus infection has been widely described as one of the most common causes of myocarditis. However, less is known about the cardiac involvement as a complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Objective: To describe the presentation of acute myocardial inflammation in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who recovered from the influenzalike syndrome and developed fatigue and signs and symptoms of heart failure a week after upper respiratory tract symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participant: This case report describes an otherwise healthy 53-year-old woman who tested positive for COVID-19 and was admitted to the cardiac care unit in March 2020 for acute myopericarditis with systolic dysfunction, confirmed on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, the week after onset of fever and dry cough due to COVID-19. The patient did not show any respiratory involvement during the clinical course. Exposure: Cardiac involvement with COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Detection of cardiac involvement with an increase in levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin T, echocardiography changes, and diffuse biventricular myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results: An otherwise healthy 53-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with severe fatigue. She described fever and dry cough the week before. She was afebrile but hypotensive; electrocardiography showed diffuse ST elevation, and elevated high-sensitivity troponin T and NT-proBNP levels were detected. Findings on chest radiography were normal. There was no evidence of obstructive coronary disease on coronary angiography. Based on the COVID-19 outbreak, a nasopharyngeal swab was performed, with a positive result for SARS-CoV-2 on real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed increased wall thickness with diffuse biventricular hypokinesis, especially in the apical segments, and severe left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction of 35%). Short tau inversion recovery and T2-mapping sequences showed marked biventricular myocardial interstitial edema, and there was also diffuse late gadolinium enhancement involving the entire biventricular wall. There was a circumferential pericardial effusion that was most notable around the right cardiac chambers. These findings were all consistent with acute myopericarditis. She was treated with dobutamine, antiviral drugs (lopinavir/ritonavir), steroids, chloroquine, and medical treatment for heart failure, with progressive clinical and instrumental stabilization. Conclusions and Relevance: This case highlights cardiac involvement as a complication associated with COVID-19, even without symptoms and signs of interstitial pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Myocarditis/virology , Pericarditis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/therapy , Pandemics , Pericarditis/diagnostic imaging , Pericarditis/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
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