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2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(4): e023220, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685779

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19-related pulmonary effects may negatively impact pulmonary hemodynamics and right ventricular function. We examined the prognostic relevance of right ventricular function and right ventricular-to-pulmonary circulation coupling assessed by bedside echocardiography in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia and a large spectrum of disease independently of indices of pneumonia severity and left ventricular function. Methods and Results Consecutive COVID-19 subjects who underwent full cardiac echocardiographic evaluation along with gas analyses and computed tomography scans were included in the study. Measurements were performed offline, and quantitative analyses were obtained by an operator blinded to the clinical data. We analyzed 133 patients (mean age 69±12 years, 57% men). During a mean hospital stay of 26±16 days, 35 patients (26%) died. The mean tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion/pulmonary artery systolic pressure (TAPSE/PASP) ratio was 0.48±0.18 mm/Hg in nonsurvivors and 0.72±0.32 mm/Hg in survivors (P=0.002). For each 0.1 mm/mm Hg increase in TAPSE/PASP, there was a 27% lower risk of in-hospital death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.73 [95% CI, 0.59-0.89]; P=0.003). At multivariable analysis, TAPSE/PASP ratio remained a predictor of in-hospital death after adjustments for age, oxygen partial pressure at arterial gas analysis/fraction of inspired oxygen, left ventricular ejection fraction, and computed tomography lung score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to identify the cutoff value of the TAPSE/PASP ratio, which best specified high-risk from lower-risk patients. The best cutoff for predicting in-hospital mortality was TAPSE/PASP <0.57 mm/mm Hg (75% sensitivity and 70% specificity) and was associated with a >4-fold increased risk of in-hospital death (HR, 4.8 [95% CI, 1.7-13.1]; P=0.007). Conclusions In patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, the assessment of right ventricular to pulmonary circulation coupling appears central to disease evolution and prediction of events. TAPSE/PASP ratio plays a mainstay role as prognostic determinant beyond markers of lung injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Circulation , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Echocardiography, Doppler , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Pulmonary Circulation/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
3.
Heart ; 108(1): 46-53, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455729

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the contribution of comorbidities on the reported widespread myocardial abnormalities in patients with recent COVID-19. METHODS: In a prospective two-centre observational study, patients hospitalised with confirmed COVID-19 underwent gadolinium and manganese-enhanced MRI and CT coronary angiography (CTCA). They were compared with healthy and comorbidity-matched volunteers after blinded analysis. RESULTS: In 52 patients (median age: 54 (IQR 51-57) years, 39 males) who recovered from COVID-19, one-third (n=15, 29%) were admitted to intensive care and a fifth (n=11, 21%) were ventilated. Twenty-three patients underwent CTCA, with one-third having underlying coronary artery disease (n=8, 35%). Compared with younger healthy volunteers (n=10), patients demonstrated reduced left (ejection fraction (EF): 57.4±11.1 (95% CI 54.0 to 60.1) versus 66.3±5 (95 CI 62.4 to 69.8)%; p=0.02) and right (EF: 51.7±9.1 (95% CI 53.9 to 60.1) vs 60.5±4.9 (95% CI 57.1 to 63.2)%; p≤0.0001) ventricular systolic function with elevated native T1 values (1225±46 (95% CI 1205 to 1240) vs 1197±30 (95% CI 1178 to 1216) ms;p=0.04) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) (31±4 (95% CI 29.6 to 32.1) vs 24±3 (95% CI 22.4 to 26.4)%; p<0.0003) but reduced myocardial manganese uptake (6.9±0.9 (95% CI 6.5 to 7.3) vs 7.9±1.2 (95% CI 7.4 to 8.5) mL/100 g/min; p=0.01). Compared with comorbidity-matched volunteers (n=26), patients had preserved left ventricular function but reduced right ventricular systolic function (EF: 51.7±9.1 (95% CI 53.9 to 60.1) vs 59.3±4.9 (95% CI 51.0 to 66.5)%; p=0.0005) with comparable native T1 values (1225±46 (95% CI 1205 to 1240) vs 1227±51 (95% CI 1208 to 1246) ms; p=0.99), ECV (31±4 (95% CI 29.6 to 32.1) vs 29±5 (95% CI 27.0 to 31.2)%; p=0.35), presence of late gadolinium enhancement and manganese uptake. These findings remained irrespective of COVID-19 disease severity, presence of myocardial injury or ongoing symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Patients demonstrate right but not left ventricular dysfunction. Previous reports of left ventricular myocardial abnormalities following COVID-19 may reflect pre-existing comorbidities. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04625075.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Computed Tomography Angiography , Contrast Media , Coronary Angiography , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Male , Manganese/metabolism , Matched-Pair Analysis , Middle Aged , Myocardium/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Survivors , Systole/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
4.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 1-5, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 spread worldwide, causing severe morbidity and mortality and this process still continues. The aim of this study to investigate the prognostic value of right ventricular (RV) strain in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients admitted to the emergency room for COVID-19 between 1 and 30 April were included in this study. ECG was performed on hospital admission and was evaluated as blind. RV strain was defined as in the presence of one or more of the following ECG findings: complete or incomplete right ventricular branch block (RBBB), negative T wave in V1-V4 and presence of S1Q3T3. The main outcome measure was death during hospitalization. The relationship of variables to the main outcome was evaluated by multivariable Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 324 patients with COVID-19 were included in the study; majority of patients were male (187, 58%) and mean age was 64.2 ± 14.1. Ninety-five patients (29%) had right ventricular strain according to ECG and 66 patients (20%) had died. After a multivariable survival analysis, presence of RV strain on ECG (OR: 4.385, 95%CI: 2.226-8.638, p < 0.001), high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI), d-dimer and age were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: Presence of right ventricular strain pattern on ECG is associated with in hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electrocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Troponin I/analysis , Turkey/epidemiology
5.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(8): 2387-2397, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173934

ABSTRACT

Myocardial injury caused by COVID-19 was reported in hospitalized patients previously. But the information about cardiac consequences of COVID-19 after recovery is limited. The aim of the study was comprehensive echocardiography assessment of right ventricular (RV) in patients recovered from COVID-19. This is a prospective, single-center study. After recovery from COVID-19, echocardiography was performed in consecutive 79 patients that attended follow-up visits from July 15 to November 30, 2020. According to the recovery at home vs hospital, patients were divided into two groups: home recovery (n = 43) and hospital recovery (n = 36). Comparisons were made with age, sex and risk factor-matched control group (n = 41). In addition to conventional echocardiography parameters, RV global longitudinal strain (RV-GLS) and RV free wall strain (RV-FWS) were determined using 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D STE). Of the 79 patients recovered from COVID-19, 43 (55%) recovered at home, while 36 (45%) required hospitalization. The median follow-up duration was 133  ±  35 (87-184) days. In patients recovered from hospital, RV-GLS and RV-FWS were impaired compared to control group (RV-GLS: -17.3  ±  6.8 vs. -20.4  ±  4.9, respectively [p = 0.042]; RV-FWS: -19.0  ±  8.2 vs. -23.4  ±  6.2, respectively [p = 0.022]). In subgroup analysis, RV-FWS was impaired in patients severe pneumonia (n = 11) compared to mild-moderate pneumonia (n = 28), without pneumonia (n = 40) and control groups (-15.8  ±  7.6 vs. -21.6  ±  7.6 vs. -20.8  ±  7.7 vs. -23.4  ±  6.2, respectively, [p = 0.001 for each]) and RV-GLS was impaired compared to control group (-15.2  ±  6.9 vs. -20.4  ±  4; respectively, [p = 0.013]). A significant correlation was detected between serum CRP level at hospital admission and both RV-GLS and RV-FWS (r = 0.285, p = 0.006; r = 0.294, p = 0.004, respectively). Age (OR 0.948, p = 0.010), male gender (OR 0.289, p = 0.009), pneumonia on CT (OR 0.019, p = 0.004), and need of steroid in treatment (OR 17.424, p = 0.038) were identifed as independent predictors of impaired RV-FWS (> -18) via multivariate analysis. We demonstrated subclinic dysfunction of RV by 2D-STE in hospitalized patients in relation to the severity of pneumonia after recovery from COVID-19. 2D-STE supplies additional information above standard measures of RV in this cohort and can be used in the follow-up of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Age Factors , Case-Control Studies , Echocardiography , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Sex Factors
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 351-356, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the association between tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) measured by echocardiography and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search using PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases with the keywords "COVID-19" OR "SARS-CoV-2" OR "2019-nCoV" AND "Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion" OR "TAPSE" until January 20, 2021. The main outcome was mortality. The effect estimate was reported as the hazard ratio (HR), which was pooled from the unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates retrieved from the studies included. Mean differences in TAPSE (in mm) between non-survivors and survivors were pooled. RESULTS: In total, 641 patients from seven studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. TAPSE was lower in non-survivors compared with survivors (mean difference = -3.74 [-5.22, -2.26], p < 0.001; I2: 85.5%, p < 0.001). Each 1 mm decrease in TAPSE was associated with increased mortality (HR = 1.24 [1.18, 1.31], p < 0.001; I2: 0.0%, p = 0.491). In the pooled adjusted model, each 1 mm decrease in TAPSE was associated with increased mortality (HR = 1.21 [1.11, 1.33], p < 0.001; I2: 45.1%, p = 0.156). Meta-regression indicated that the difference in TAPSE between non-survivors and survivors was affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (-0.183, p < 0.001) and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (-0.344, p = 0.039), but not by age (p = 0.668), male gender (p = 0.821), hypertension (p = 0.101), diabetes (p = 0.603), coronary artery disease (p = 0.564), smoking (p = 0.140), and left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.452). CONCLUSION: Every 1 mm decrease in TAPSE was associated with an increase in mortality of approximately 20%. PROSPERO ID: CRD42021232194.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Echocardiography/methods , Tricuspid Valve/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Blood Pressure , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Tricuspid Valve/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Right
7.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(6): 1883-1890, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068755

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that myocardial damage and heart failure are more common in COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms. The aim of our study was to measure the right ventricular functions of COVID-19 patients 30 days after their discharge, and compare them to the right ventricular functions of healthy volunteers. Fifty one patients with COVID-19 and 32 healthy volunteers who underwent echocardiographic examinations were enrolled in our study. 29 patients were treated for severe and 22 patients were treated for moderate COVID-19 pneumonia. The study was conducted prospectively, in a single center, between 15 May 2020 and 15 July 2020. We analyzed the right ventricular functions of the patients using conventional techniques and two-dimensional speckle-tracking. Right ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic area were statistically higher than control group. The right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC) was significantly lesser in the patient group compared to the control group. Tricuspid annular plane systolic motion (TAPSE) was within normal limits in both groups, it was lower in the patient group compared to the control group. Pulmonary artery pressure was found to be significantly higher in the patient group. Right ventricular global longitudinal strain (RV-GLS) was lesser than the control group (- 15.7 [(- 12.6)-(- 18.7)] vs. - 18.1 [(- 14.8)-(- 21)]; p 0.011). Right ventricular free wall strain (RV-FWS) was lesser in the patient group compared to the control group (- 16 [(- 12.7)-(- 19)] vs - 21.6 [(- 17)-(- 25.3)]; p < 0.001). We found subclinical right ventricular dysfunction in the echocardiographies of COVID-19 patients although there were no risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Turkey/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/epidemiology
8.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052327

ABSTRACT

AIMS: It was predicted internationally that transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) would be vital during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. We therefore, designed a study to report the demand for TTE in two large District General Hospitals during the rise in the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the UK. A primary clinical outcome of 30-day mortality was also assessed. METHODS: The TTE service across two hospitals was reconfigured to maximise access to inpatient scanning. All TTEs of suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients over a 3-week period were included in the study. All patients were followed up until at least day 30 after their scan at which point the primary clinical outcome of mortality was recorded. Comparative analysis based on mortality was conducted for all TTE results, biochemical markers and demographics. RESULTS: 27 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 had a TTE within the inclusion window. Mortality comparative analysis showed the deceased group were significantly older (mean 68.4, SD 11.9 vs 60.5, SD 13.0, p=0.03) and more commonly reported fatigue in their presenting symptoms (29.6% vs 71.4%, p=0.01). No other differences were identified in the demographic or biochemical data. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was noted in 7.4% of patients and right ventricular impairment or dilation was seen in 18.5% patients. TTE results were not significantly different in mortality comparative analysis. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an achievable approach to TTE services when under increased pressure. Data analysis supports the limited available data suggesting right ventricular abnormalities are the most commonly identified echocardiographic change in SARS-CoV-2 patients. No association can be demonstrated between mortality and TTE results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Echocardiography/methods , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
9.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(10): 4530-4537, 2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To better define the clinical distinctions between the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) and Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS: We compared three groups of patients: group 1, cases from our national historic KD database (KD-HIS), before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; group 2, patients with KD admitted to an intensive care unit (KD-ICU) from both our original cohort and the literature, before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; and group 3, patients with PIMS from the literature. RESULTS: KD-HIS included 425 patients [male:female ratio 1.3, mean age 2.8 years (s.d. 2.4)], KD-ICU 176 patients [male:female ratio 1.3, mean age 3.5 years (s.d. 3.1)] and PIMS 404 patients [male:female ratio 1.4, mean age 8.8 years (s.d. 3.7)]. As compared with KD-HIS patients, KD-ICU and PIMS patients had a higher proportion of cardiac failure, digestive and neurological signs. KD-ICU and PIMS patients also had a lower frequency of typical KD-mucocutaneous signs, lower platelet count, higher CRP and lower sodium level. As compared with KD-HIS and KD-ICU patients, PIMS patients were older and more frequently had myocarditis; they also had fewer coronary abnormalities and lower sodium levels. Unresponsiveness to IVIG was more frequent in KD-ICU than KD-HIS and PIMS patients. CONCLUSION: On clinical grounds, KD-HIS, KD-ICU and PIMS might belong to a common spectrum of non-specific pathogen-triggered hyperinflammatory states. The causes of increasing inflammation severity within the three entities and the different effects on the heart remain to be determined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Pericardial Effusion/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Adolescent , Aspirin/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Digestive System Diseases/physiopathology , Female , France , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Myocarditis/blood , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Phenotype , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Count , Sodium/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
10.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(4): 978-984, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002140

ABSTRACT

Disordered coagulation, endothelial dysfunction, dehydration and immobility contribute to a substantially elevated risk of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism (PE) and systemic thrombosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We evaluated the prevalence of pulmonary thrombosis and reported RV (right ventricular) dilatation/dysfunction associated with Covid-19 in a tertiary referral Covid-19 centre. Of 370 patients, positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), 39 patients (mean age 62.3 ± 15 years, 56% male) underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), due to increasing oxygen requirements or refractory hypoxia, not improving on oxygen, very elevated D-dimer or tachycardia disproportionate to clinical condition. Thrombosis in the pulmonary vasculature was found in 18 (46.2%) patients. However, pulmonary thrombosis did not predict survival (46.2% survivors vs 41.7% non-survivors, p = 0.796), but RV dilatation was less frequent among survivors (11.5% survivors vs 58.3% non-survivors, p = 0.002). Over the following month, we observed four Covid-19 patients, who were admitted with high and intermediate-high risk PE, and we treated them with UACTD (ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis), and four further patients, who were admitted with PE up to 4 weeks after recovery from Covid-19. Finally, we observed a case of RV dysfunction and pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension, associated with Covid-19 extensive lung disease. We demonstrated that pulmonary thrombosis is common in association with Covid-19. Also, the thrombotic risk in the pulmonary vasculature is present before and during hospital admission, and continues at least up to four weeks after discharge, and we present UACTD for high and intermediate-high risk PE management in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Ventricles , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , United Kingdom , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
11.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(4): 635-641, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005370

ABSTRACT

To investigate the right heart function in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a retrospective analysis of 49 COVID-19 patients with ARDS was performed. Patients were divided into severe group and critically-severe group according to the severity of illness. Age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited as a control group. The cardiac cavity diameters, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid valve regurgitation pressure gradient biggest (TRPG), pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP), maximum inferior vena cava diameter (IVCmax) and minimum diameter (IVCmin), and inferior vena cava collapse index (ICV-CI) were measured using echocardiography. We found that the TAPSE was significantly decreased in pneumonia patients compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.0001), and it was significantly lower in critically-severe patients (P = 0.0068). The TAPSE was less than 17 mm in three (8.6%) severe and five (35.7%) critically-severe patients. In addition, the TAPSE was significantly decreased in severe ARDS patients than in mild ARDS patients. The IVCmax and IVCmin were significantly increased in critically-severe patients compared to healthy subjects and severe patients (P < 0.01), whereas the ICV-CI was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). COVID-19 patients had significantly larger right atrium and ventricle than healthy controls (P < 0.01). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in critically-severe patients was significantly lower than that in severe patients and healthy controls (P < 0.05). Right ventricular function was impaired in critically-severe COVID-19 patients. The assessment and protection of the right heart function in COVID-19 patients should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Pandemics , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Echocardiography, Doppler , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
12.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 670, 2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949110

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the prevalence and prognostic impact of right heart failure and right ventricular-arterial uncoupling in Corona Virus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19) complicated by an Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Ninety-four consecutive patients (mean age 64 years) admitted for acute respiratory failure on COVID-19 were enrolled. Coupling of right ventricular function to the pulmonary circulation was evaluated by a comprehensive trans-thoracic echocardiography with focus on the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) to systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PASP) ratio RESULTS: The majority of patients needed ventilatory support, which was noninvasive in 22 and invasive in 37. There were 25 deaths, all in the invasively ventilated patients. Survivors were younger (62 ± 13 vs. 68 ± 12 years, p = 0.033), less often overweight or usual smokers, had lower NT-proBNP and interleukin-6, and higher arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired O2 (FIO2) ratio (270 ± 104 vs. 117 ± 57 mmHg, p < 0.001). In the non-survivors, PASP was increased (42 ± 12 vs. 30 ± 7 mmHg, p < 0.001), while TAPSE was decreased (19 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 mm, p < 0.001). Accordingly, the TAPSE/PASP ratio was lower than in the survivors (0.51 ± 0.22 vs. 0.89 ± 0.29 mm/mmHg, p < 0.001). At univariate/multivariable analysis, the TAPSE/PASP (HR: 0.026; 95%CI 0.01-0.579; p: 0.019) and PaO2/FIO2 (HR: 0.988; 95%CI 0.988-0.998; p: 0.018) ratios were the only independent predictors of mortality, with ROC-determined cutoff values of 159 mmHg and 0.635 mm/mmHg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 ARDS is associated with clinically relevant uncoupling of right ventricular function from the pulmonary circulation; bedside echocardiography of TAPSE/PASP adds to the prognostic relevance of PaO2/FIO2 in ARDS on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Echocardiography , Female , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
13.
Int J Cardiol ; 327: 251-258, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938965

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Comprehensive echocardiography assessment of right ventricular (RV) impairment has not been reported in critically ill patients with COVID-19. We detail the specific phenotype and clinical associations of RV impairment in COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) measures of RV function were collected in critically unwell patients for associations with clinical, ventilatory and laboratory data. RESULTS: Ninety patients (25.6% female), mean age 52.0 ± 10.8 years, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VVECMO) (42.2%) were studied. A significantly higher proportion of patients were identified as having RV dysfunction by RV fractional area change (FAC) (72.0%,95% confidence interval (CI) 61.0-81.0) and RV velocity time integral (VTI) (86.4%, 95 CI 77.3-93.2) than by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) (23.8%, 95 CI 16.0-33.9), RVS' (11.9%, 95% CI 6.6-20.5) or RV free wall strain (FWS) (35.3%, 95% CI 23.6-49.0). RV VTI correlated strongly with RV FAC (p ≤ 0.01). Multivariate regression demonstrated independent associations of RV FAC with NTpro-BNP and PVR. RV-PA coupling correlated with PVR (univariate p < 0.01), as well as RVEDAi (p < 0.01), and RVESAi (p < 0.01), and was associated with P/F ratio (p 0.026), PEEP (p 0.025), and ALT (p 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 ARDS is associated with a specific phenotype of RV radial impairment with sparing of longitudinal function. Clinicians should avoid interpretation of RV health purely on long-axis parameters in these patients. RV-PA coupling potentially provides important additional information above standard measures of RV performance in this cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cohort Studies , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging
14.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(3): 825-834, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841197

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients with cardiac involvement have a high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic features in COVID-19 patients between severe and non-severe groups. For this single-center study, data from patients who were treated for COVID-19 between March 25, 2020 and April 15, 2020 were collected. Two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) images were obtained for all patients. Patients were divided into two groups based on the severity of their COVID-19 infections. 2DE parameters indicating right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) functions were compared between the two groups. A total of 90 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were included in this study. The mean age of the severe group (n = 44) was 63.3 ± 15.7 years, and 54% were male. The mean age of non-severe group (n = 46) was 49.7 ± 21.4 years, and 47% were male. In the severe group, RV and LV diameters were larger (RV, 36.6 ± 5.9 mm vs. 33.1 ± 4.8 mm, p = 0.003; LV 47.3 ± 5.8 mm vs. 44.9 ± 3.8 mm, p = 0.023), the LE ejection fraction (LVEF) and the RV fractional area change (RV-FAC) were lower (LVEF, 54.0 ± 9.8% vs. 61.9 ± 4.8%, p < 0.001; RV-FAC, 41.4 ± 4.1% vs. 45.5 ± 4.5%, p < 0.001), and pericardial effusions were more frequent (23% vs. 0%) compared to patients in the non-severe group. A multiple linear regression analysis determined that LVEF, right atrial diameter, high-sensitivity troponin I, d-dimer, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure, were independent predictors of RV dilatation. The results demonstrate that both right and left ventricular functions decreased due to COVID-19 infection in the severe group. 2DE is a valuable bedside tool and may yield valuable information about the clinical status of patients and their prognoses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
15.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(4): 485-493, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779083

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the association of new right heart strain patterns on presenting 12-lead electrocardiogram (RHS-ECG) with outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular comorbidities and complications, including right ventricular dysfunction, are common and are associated with worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. The data on the clinical usefulness of the 12-lead ECG to aid with prognosis are limited. METHODS: This study retrospectively evaluated records from 480 patients who were consecutively admitted with COVID-19. ECGs obtained at presentation in the emergency department (ED) were considered index ECGs. RHS-ECG was defined by any new right-axis deviation, S1Q3T3 pattern, or ST depressions with T-wave inversions in leads V1 to V3 or leads II, III, and aVF. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess whether RHS-ECGs were independently associated with primary outcomes. RESULTS: ECGs from the ED were available for 314 patients who were included in the analysis. Most patients were in sinus rhythm, with sinus tachycardia being the most frequent dysrhythmia. RHS-ECG findings were present in 40 (11%) patients. RHS-ECGs were significantly associated with the incidence of adverse outcomes and an independent predictor of mortality (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR]: 15.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1 to 45.2; p < 0.001), the need for mechanical ventilation (adjOR: 8.8; 95% CI: 3.4 to 23.2; p < 0.001), and their composite (adjOR: 12.1; 95% CI: 4.3 to 33.9]; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: RHS-ECG was associated with mechanical ventilation and mortality in patients admitted with COVID-19. Special attention should be taken in patients admitted with new signs of RHS on presenting ECG.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Electrocardiography , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology
16.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(11): 2330-2339, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-701945

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study evaluated cardiac involvement in patients recovered from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Background: Myocardial injury caused by COVID-19 was previously reported in hospitalized patients. It is unknown if there is sustained cardiac involvement after patients' recovery from COVID-19. Methods: Twenty-six patients recovered from COVID-19 who reported cardiac symptoms and underwent CMR examinations were retrospectively included. CMR protocols consisted of conventional sequences (cine, T2-weighted imaging, and late gadolinium enhancement [LGE]) and quantitative mapping sequences (T1, T2, and extracellular volume [ECV] mapping). Edema ratio and LGE were assessed in post-COVID-19 patients. Cardiac function, native T1/T2, and ECV were quantitatively evaluated and compared with controls. Results: Fifteen patients (58%) had abnormal CMR findings on conventional CMR sequences: myocardial edema was found in 14 (54%) patients and LGE was found in 8 (31%) patients. Decreased right ventricle functional parameters including ejection fraction, cardiac index, and stroke volume/body surface area were found in patients with positive conventional CMR findings. Using quantitative mapping, global native T1, T2, and ECV were all found to be significantly elevated in patients with positive conventional CMR findings, compared with patients without positive findings and controls (median [interquartile range]: native T1 1,271 ms [1,243 to 1,298 ms] vs. 1,237 ms [1,216 to 1,262 ms] vs. 1,224 ms [1,217 to 1,245 ms]; mean ± SD: T2 42.7 ± 3.1 ms vs. 38.1 ms ± 2.4 vs. 39.1 ms ± 3.1; median [interquartile range]: 28.2% [24.8% to 36.2%] vs. 24.8% [23.1% to 25.4%] vs. 23.7% [22.2% to 25.2%]; p = 0.002; p < 0.001, and p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: Cardiac involvement was found in a proportion of patients recovered from COVID-19. CMR manifestation included myocardial edema, fibrosis, and impaired right ventricle function. Attention should be paid to the possible myocardial involvement in patients recovered from COVID-19 with cardiac symptoms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Edema, Cardiac/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Edema, Cardiac/etiology , Edema, Cardiac/pathology , Female , Fibrosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Right
18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(12): 1491-1499, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection may cause severe respiratory distress and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Impaired cardiac function and/or pre-existing cardiovascular disease may be associated with poor prognosis. In the present study, we report a comprehensive cardiovascular characterization in the first consecutive collective of patients that was admitted and treated at the University Hospital of Tübingen, Germany. METHODS: 123 consecutive patients with COVID-19 were included. Routine blood sampling, transthoracic echocardiography and electrocardiography were performed at hospital admission. RESULTS: We found that impaired left-ventricular and right-ventricular function as well as tricuspid regurgitation > grade 1 were significantly associated with higher mortality. Furthermore, elevated levels of myocardial distress markers (troponin-I and NT pro-BNP) were associated with poor prognosis in this patient collective. CONCLUSION: Impaired cardiac function is associated with poor prognosis in COVID-19 positive patients. Consequently, treatment of these patients should include careful guideline-conform cardiovascular evaluation and treatment. Thus, formation of a competent Cardio-COVID-19 team may represent a major clinical measure to optimize therapy of cardiovascular patients during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Right , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Germany , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/physiopathology , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/therapy
20.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(11): 2287-2299, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133405

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether right ventricular longitudinal strain (RVLS) was independently predictive of higher mortality in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Background: RVLS obtained from 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography has been recently demonstrated to be a more accurate and sensitive tool to estimate right ventricular (RV) function. The prognostic value of RVLS in patients with COVID-19 remains unknown. Methods: One hundred twenty consecutive patients with COVID-19 who underwent echocardiographic examinations were enrolled in our study. Conventional RV functional parameters, including RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and tricuspid tissue Doppler annular velocity, were obtained. RVLS was determined using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. RV function was categorized in tertiles of RVLS. Results: Compared with patients in the highest RVLS tertile, those in the lowest tertile were more likely to have higher heart rate; elevated levels of D-dimer and C-reactive protein; more high-flow oxygen and invasive mechanical ventilation therapy; higher incidence of acute heart injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and deep vein thrombosis; and higher mortality. After a median follow-up period of 51 days, 18 patients died. Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors displayed enlarged right heart chambers, diminished RV function, and elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Male sex, acute respiratory distress syndrome, RVLS, RV fractional area change, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion were significant univariate predictors of higher risk for mortality (p < 0.05 for all). A Cox model using RVLS (hazard ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15 to 1.53; p < 0.001; Akaike information criterion = 129; C-index = 0.89) was found to predict higher mortality more accurately than a model with RV fractional area change (Akaike information criterion = 142, C-index = 0.84) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (Akaike information criterion = 144, C-index = 0.83). The best cutoff value of RVLS for prediction of outcome was -23% (AUC: 0.87; p < 0.001; sensitivity, 94.4%; specificity, 64.7%). Conclusions: RVLS is a powerful predictor of higher mortality in patients with COVID-19. These results support the application of RVLS to identify higher risk patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Echocardiography, Doppler , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Right , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
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