Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 129
Filter
1.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 73(1)2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876428

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes cardiovascular damage in the acute period. Knowledge regarding cardiovascular damage after COVID-19 infection and during longer-term follow-up is currently limited. In our study, we aimed to compare cardiac and inflammatory markers and echocardiographic parameters between patients who had recovered from COVID-19 and control group. A total of 224 individuals were included, comprising 126 patients with a history of COVID-19 and 98 healthy controls. The demographic characteristics of the two groups were similar. Complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP), D-dimer, haemoglobin A1C, troponin T and creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) levels were compared between both groups. The mean follow-up period of the COVID-19 group was 58.39 ± 39.1 days (range:10 - 180 days post-COVID-19). Red cell distribution width (RDW), ESR, CRP, NT-ProBNP, D-dimer and troponin T values were significantly higher in the COVID-19 group compared to the control group. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly lower in the COVID-19 group. Left ventricular diastolic diameter (LVDD) and incidence of pericardial effusion were higher in the COVID-19 group. For multivariate analysis, possible factors identified by univariate analysis were subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent predictors of COVID-19. Among these factors, RDW, CRP and LVEF were independently higher in the COVID-19 group than in the control group. We conclude that although the clinical and prognostic significance of cardiac and other inflammatory markers in the acute phase of COVID-19 is known, we found that these biomarkers and echocardiography parameters can also be used in the follow-up of cardiac injury for a mid-term period post-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Echocardiography , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Stroke Volume , Troponin T , Ventricular Function, Left
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855596

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV2 infection, responsible for the COVID-19 disease, can determine cardiac as well as respiratory injury. In COVID patients, viral myocarditis can represent an important cause of myocardial damage. Clinical presentation of myocarditis is heterogeneous. Furthermore, the full diagnostic algorithm can be hindered by logistical difficulties related to the transportation of COVID-19 patients in a critical condition to the radiology department. Our aim was to study longitudinal systolic cardiac function in patients with COVID-19-related myocarditis with echocardiography and to compare these findings with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) results. Patients with confirmed acute myocarditis and age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Both patients with COVID-19-related myocarditis and healthy controls underwent standard transthoracic echocardiography and speckle-tracking analysis at the moment of admission and after 6 months of follow-up. The data of 55 patients with myocarditis (mean age 46.4 ± 15.3, 70% males) and 55 healthy subjects were analyzed. The myocarditis group showed a significantly reduced global longitudinal strain (GLS) and sub-epicardial strain, compared to the control (p < 0.001). We found a positive correlation (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) between total scar burden (TSB) on CMR and LV GLS. After 6 months of follow-up, GLS showed marked improvements in myocarditis patients on optimal medical therapy (p < 0.01). Furthermore, we showed a strong association between baseline GLS, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and TSB with LVEF at 6 months of follow-up. After a multivariable linear regression analysis, baseline GLS, LVEF and TSB were independent predictors of a functional outcome at follow-up (p < 0.0001). Cardiac function and myocardial longitudinal deformation, assessed by echocardiography, are associated with TSB at CMR and have a predictive value of functional recovery in the follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cicatrix/complications , Cicatrix/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
4.
Eur Heart J ; 43(11): 1124-1137, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853027

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Long-term sequelae may occur after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We comprehensively assessed organ-specific functions in individuals after mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with controls from the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four hundred and forty-three mainly non-hospitalized individuals were examined in median 9.6 months after the first positive SARS-CoV-2 test and matched for age, sex, and education with 1328 controls from a population-based German cohort. We assessed pulmonary, cardiac, vascular, renal, and neurological status, as well as patient-related outcomes. Bodyplethysmography documented mildly lower total lung volume (regression coefficient -3.24, adjusted P = 0.014) and higher specific airway resistance (regression coefficient 8.11, adjusted P = 0.001) after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cardiac assessment revealed slightly lower measures of left (regression coefficient for left ventricular ejection fraction on transthoracic echocardiography -0.93, adjusted P = 0.015) and right ventricular function and higher concentrations of cardiac biomarkers (factor 1.14 for high-sensitivity troponin, 1.41 for N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, adjusted P ≤ 0.01) in post-SARS-CoV-2 patients compared with matched controls, but no significant differences in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings. Sonographically non-compressible femoral veins, suggesting deep vein thrombosis, were substantially more frequent after SARS-CoV-2 infection (odds ratio 2.68, adjusted P < 0.001). Glomerular filtration rate (regression coefficient -2.35, adjusted P = 0.019) was lower in post-SARS-CoV-2 cases. Relative brain volume, prevalence of cerebral microbleeds, and infarct residuals were similar, while the mean cortical thickness was higher in post-SARS-CoV-2 cases. Cognitive function was not impaired. Similarly, patient-related outcomes did not differ. CONCLUSION: Subjects who apparently recovered from mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection show signs of subclinical multi-organ affection related to pulmonary, cardiac, thrombotic, and renal function without signs of structural brain damage, neurocognitive, or quality-of-life impairment. Respective screening may guide further patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
5.
Circulation ; 145(15): 1123-1139, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis (AM) is thought to be a rare cardiovascular complication of COVID-19, although minimal data are available beyond case reports. We aim to report the prevalence, baseline characteristics, in-hospital management, and outcomes for patients with COVID-19-associated AM on the basis of a retrospective cohort from 23 hospitals in the United States and Europe. METHODS: A total of 112 patients with suspected AM from 56 963 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were evaluated between February 1, 2020, and April 30, 2021. Inclusion criteria were hospitalization for COVID-19 and a diagnosis of AM on the basis of endomyocardial biopsy or increased troponin level plus typical signs of AM on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We identified 97 patients with possible AM, and among them, 54 patients with definite/probable AM supported by endomyocardial biopsy in 17 (31.5%) patients or magnetic resonance imaging in 50 (92.6%). We analyzed patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes among all COVID-19-associated AM. RESULTS: AM prevalence among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 2.4 per 1000 hospitalizations considering definite/probable and 4.1 per 1000 considering also possible AM. The median age of definite/probable cases was 38 years, and 38.9% were female. On admission, chest pain and dyspnea were the most frequent symptoms (55.5% and 53.7%, respectively). Thirty-one cases (57.4%) occurred in the absence of COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Twenty-one (38.9%) had a fulminant presentation requiring inotropic support or temporary mechanical circulatory support. The composite of in-hospital mortality or temporary mechanical circulatory support occurred in 20.4%. At 120 days, estimated mortality was 6.6%, 15.1% in patients with associated pneumonia versus 0% in patients without pneumonia (P=0.044). During hospitalization, left ventricular ejection fraction, assessed by echocardiography, improved from a median of 40% on admission to 55% at discharge (n=47; P<0.0001) similarly in patients with or without pneumonia. Corticosteroids were frequently administered (55.5%). CONCLUSIONS: AM occurrence is estimated between 2.4 and 4.1 out of 1000 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The majority of AM occurs in the absence of pneumonia and is often complicated by hemodynamic instability. AM is a rare complication in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, with an outcome that differs on the basis of the presence of concomitant pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
6.
Open Heart ; 9(1)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the most common transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) parameters in patients hospitalised with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19) and their association with myocardial injury and outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective, single-centre, observational, exploratory cohort study was performed at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. All SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive patients who underwent a TTE during their inpatient admission between 1 March 2020 and 31 October 2020 were analysed. The most frequent cardiovascular risk factor profile and echocardiographic features were investigated. RESULTS: A total of 87 patients met the eligibility criteria. A salient 41.4% (n=36) of our cohort succumbed to this devastating virus. More than half of our hospital population (58.6%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ITU) and this was significantly associated with inpatient mortality (OR: 7.14, CI 2.53 to 20.19, p<0.001). Hypertension was the most common cardiovascular risk factor (51.7%) with no additional prominence in non-survivors (OR: 2.33, CI 0.97 to 5.61, p=0.059). Remarkably, 90.8% of our cohort demonstrated a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, although 69.1% had elevated troponin levels. Only 1 patient (1.1%) was given a diagnostic label of myocarditis. A raised pulmonary artery systolic pressure (36.8%) andright ventricle (RV) dysfunction (26.4%) were the most common echocardiographic features. In particular, the presence of RV dysfunction was significantly related to adverse outcomes (OR: 2.97, CI 1.11 to 7.94, p<0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of extremely unwell patients hospitalised with COVID-19 pneumonitis, the presence of RV dysfunction or admission to ITU was significantly associated with inpatient case fatality ratio. Moreover, COVID-19-induced myocarditis remains extremely rare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Echocardiography , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
7.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 16: 17534666221096040, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822140

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to better understand the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in non-critically ill hospitalized patients secondarily presenting with clinical deterioration and increase in oxygen requirement without any identified worsening factors. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled patients without clinical or biological evidence for superinfection, without left ventricular dysfunction and for whom a pulmonary embolism was discarded by computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography. We investigated lung ventilation and perfusion (LVP) by LVP scintigraphy, and, 24 h later, left and right ventricular function by Tc-99m-labeled albumin-gated blood-pool scintigraphy with late (60 mn) tomographic albumin images on the lungs to evaluate lung albumin retention that could indicate microvascular injuries with secondary edema. RESULTS: We included 20 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. All had CT evidence of organizing pneumonia and normal left ventricular ejection fraction. No patient demonstrated preserved ventilation with perfusion defect (mismatch), which may discard a distal lung thrombosis. Patterns of ventilation and perfusion were heterogeneous in seven patients (35%) with healthy lung segments presenting a relative paradoxical hypoperfusion and hypoventilation compared with segments with organizing pneumonia presenting a relative enhancement in perfusion and preserved ventilation. Lung albumin retention in area of organizing pneumonia was observed in 12 patients (60%), indicating microvascular injuries, increase in vessel permeability, and secondary edema. CONCLUSION: In hospitalized non-critically ill patients without evidence of superinfection, pulmonary embolism, or cardiac dysfunction, various types of damage may contribute to clinical deterioration including microvascular injuries and secondary edema, inconsistencies in lung segments vascularization suggesting a dysregulation of the balance in perfusion between segments affected by COVID-19 and others. SUMMARY STATEMENT: Microvascular injuries and dysregulation of the balance in perfusion between segments affected by COVID-19 and others are present in non-critically ill patients without other known aggravating factors. KEY RESULTS: In non-critically ill patients without evidence of superinfection, pulmonary embolism, macroscopic distal thrombosis or cardiac dysfunction, various types of damage may contribute to clinical deterioration including 1/ microvascular injuries and secondary edema, 2/ inconsistencies in lung segments vascularization with hypervascularization of consolidated segments contrasting with hypoperfusion of not affected segments, suggesting a dysregulation of the balance in perfusion between segments affected by COVID-19 and others.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Heart Diseases , Pulmonary Embolism , Superinfection , Albumins , Edema/diagnostic imaging , Edema/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neovascularization, Pathologic , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(9): e024393, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816968

ABSTRACT

Background Although rare, classic viral myocarditis in the pediatric population is a disease that carries significant morbidity and mortality. Since 2020, myocarditis has been a common component of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) following SARS-CoV-2 infection. In 2021, myocarditis related to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines was recognized as a rare adverse event. This study aims to compare classic, MIS-C, and COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis with regard to clinical presentation, course, and outcomes. Methods and Results In this retrospective cohort study, we compared patients aged <21 years hospitalized at our institution with classic viral myocarditis from 2015 to 2019, MIS-C myocarditis from March 2020 to February 2021, and vaccine-related myocarditis from May 2021 to June 2021. Of 201 total participants, 43 patients had classic myocarditis, 149 had MIS-C myocarditis, and 9 had vaccine-related myocarditis. At presentation, ejection fraction was lowest for those with classic myocarditis, with ejection fraction <55% present in 58% of patients. Nearly all patients with MIS-C myocarditis (n=139, 93%) and all patients with vaccine-related myocarditis (n=9, 100%) had normal left ventricular ejection fraction at the time of discharge compared with 70% (n=30) of the classic myocarditis group (P<0.001). At 3 months after discharge, of the 21 children discharged with depressed ejection fraction, none of the 10 children with MIS-C myocarditis had residual dysfunction compared with 3 of the 11 (27%) patients in the classic myocarditis group. Conclusions Compared with classic myocarditis, those with MIS-C myocarditis had better clinical outcomes, including rapid recovery of cardiac function. Patients with vaccine-related myocarditis had prompt resolution of symptoms and improvement of cardiac function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Humans , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(7): 2879-2883, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813679

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis is a rare complication of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. We previously reported a case series of 15 adolescents with vaccine-associated myocarditis, 87% of whom had abnormalities on initial cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in 80%. We performed follow-up CMRs to determine the trajectory of myocardial recovery and better understand the natural history of vaccine-associated myocarditis. Case series of patients age < 19 years admitted to Boston Children's Hospital with acute vaccine-associated myocarditis following the BNT162b2 vaccine who had abnormal CMR at the time of initial presentation, and underwent follow-up testing. CMR assessment included left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, T2-weighted myocardial imaging, LV global native T1, LV global T2, extracellular volume (ECV), and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Ten patients (9 male, median age 15 years) with vaccine-associated myocarditis underwent follow-up CMR at a median of 92 days (range 76-119) after hospital discharge. LGE was persistent in 80% of patients, though improved from prior in all cases. Two patients (20%) had abnormal LV global T1 at presentation, which normalized on follow-up. ECV decreased between acute presentation and follow-up in 6/10 patients; it remained elevated at follow-up in 1 patient and borderline in 3 patients. CONCLUSION: CMR performed ~3 months after admission for COVID-19 vaccine-associated myocarditis showed improvement of LGE in all patients, but persistent in the majority. Follow-up CMR 6-12 months after acute episode should be considered to better understand the long-term cardiac risks. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Myocarditis is a rare side effect of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. •Late gadolinium enhancement is present on most cardiac magnetic resonance at the time of acute presentation. WHAT IS NEW: •Late gadolinium enhancement improved on all repeat cardiac magnetic resonance at 3-month follow-up. •Most patients still had a small amount of late gadolinium enhancement, the clinical significance of which is yet to be determined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Gadolinium/adverse effects , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocardium/pathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Vaccines, Synthetic , Ventricular Function, Left , Young Adult
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(7): e024363, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752956

ABSTRACT

Background The scope of pericardial involvement in COVID-19 infection is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, associates, and clinical impact of pericardial involvement in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods and Results Consecutive patients with COVID-19 underwent clinical and echocardiographic examination, irrespective of clinical indication, within 48 hours as part of a prospective predefined protocol. Protocol included clinical symptoms and signs suggestive of pericarditis, calculation of modified early warning score, ECG and echocardiographic assessment for pericardial effusion, left and right ventricular systolic and diastolic function, and hemodynamics. We identified predictors of mortality and assessed the adjunctive value of pericardial effusion on top of clinical and echocardiographic parameters. The study included 530 patients. Pericardial effusion was found in 75 (14%), but only 17 patients (3.2%) fulfilled the criteria for acute pericarditis. Pericardial effusion was independently associated with modified early warning score, brain natriuretic peptide, and right ventricular function. It was associated with excess mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.44; P=0.0005) in nonadjusted analysis. In multivariate analysis adjusted for modified early warning score and echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters, it was marginally associated with mortality (HR, 1.86; P=0.06) and improvement in the model fit (P=0.07). Combined assessment for pericardial effusion with modified early warning score, left ventricular ejection fraction, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was an independent predictor of outcome (HR, 1.86; P=0.02) and improved model fit (P=0.02). Conclusions In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, pericardial effusion is prevalent, but rarely attributable to acute pericarditis. It is associated with myocardial dysfunction and mortality. A limited echocardiographic examination, including left ventricular ejection fraction, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and assessment for pericardial effusion, can contribute to outcome prediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
13.
Echocardiography ; 39(4): 620-625, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term cardiovascular effects of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are not yet well known. Myocardial performance index (MPI) is a non-invasive, inexpensive and reproducible echocardiographic parameter that reflects systolic and diastolic cardiac functions. The aim of the study was to compare MPI with a healthy control group in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 infection who subsequently had unexplained cardiac symptoms. METHODS: The study included 200 patients aged 18-70 years who were diagnosed with COVID-19 infection at least 2 months ago and defined cardiac symptoms in their follow-up. Patients with mild or moderate symptoms, no history of hospitalization, and no other pathology that could explain cardiac symptoms were included in the study. As the control group, 182 healthy volunteers without COVID-19 were evaluated. Echocardiographic examination was performed on the entire study group. Isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT), isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT), and ejection time (ET) were measured by tissue Doppler imaging. MPI was calculated with the IVCT+IVRT/ET formula. RESULTS: The mean age of the study group was 44.24 ± 13.49 years. In the patient group the MPI was significantly higher (.50 ± .11 vs .46 ± .07, p < .001), IVRT was longer (69.67 ± 15.43 vs 65.94 ± 12.03 ms, p = . 008), and ET was shorter (271.09 ± 36.61 vs 271.09 ± 36.61 ms, p = .028). IVCT was similar between groups (63.87 ± 13.66 vs. 63.21 ± 10.77 ms, p = .66). Mitral E and mitral A wave, E', A', and E/A were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that conventional diastolic function parameters were not affected in patients who survived COVID-19 with mild symptoms but had symptoms in the long term. However, MPI measurements showed left ventricular dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first echocardiographic follow-up study to evaluate left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions with MPI in COVID-19 patients. We think that when cardiac involvement assessment is required in patients who have survived COVID-19, MPI should be measured alongside other echocardiographic measurements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Diastole , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Systole , Ventricular Function, Left
14.
Heart Lung ; 54: 7-18, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The exact prevalence of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults (MIS-A) is largely unknown. Vague and multiple definitions and treatment options often add to the confusion on how to label the diagnosis with certainty. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the demographic profile, clinical presentation, laboratory findings and outcomes of MIS-A in COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted after registering with PROSPERO. Multiple databases were systematically searched to encompass studies characterizing MIS-A from 1st January 2020 up to 31st August 2021. The inclusion criteria were- to incorporate all published or in press peer-reviewed articles reporting cases of MIS-A. We accepted the following types of studies: case reports, case-control, case series, cross-sectional studies and letters to the editors that incorporated clinical, laboratory, imaging, as well as the hospital course of MIS-A patients. The exclusion criteria for the review were- articles not in English, only abstracts published, no data on MIS-A and articles which have focus on COVID-19, and not MIS-A. Two independent authors screened the articles, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias. RESULTS: A total of 53 articles were included in this review with a sample size of 79 cases. Majority of the patients were males (73.4%) with mean age of 31.67±10.02 years. Fever (100%) and skin rash (57.8%) were the two most common presenting symptoms. Echocardiographic data was available for 73 patients of whom 41 (73.2%) had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Cardiovascular system was most frequently involved (81%) followed by gastrointestinal (73.4%) and mucocutaneous (51.9%) involvement. Anti-inflammatory therapies used in treatment included steroids (60.2%), intravenous immunoglobulin (37.2%) and biologics (10.2%). Mean duration of the hospital stay was 11.67±8.08 days. Data regarding the outcomes was available for all 79 subjects of whom 4 (5.1%) died during course of hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Emergence of MIS-A calls for further large-scale studies to establish standard case definitions and definite treatment guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left , Young Adult
15.
CMAJ Open ; 10(1): E173-E182, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surgical delay may result in unintended harm to patients needing cardiac surgery, who are at risk for death if their condition is left untreated. Our objective was to derive and internally validate a clinical risk score to predict death among patients awaiting major cardiac surgery. METHODS: We used the CorHealth Ontario Registry and linked ICES health administrative databases with information on all Ontario residents to identify patients aged 18 years or more who were referred for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valvular procedures, combined CABG-valvular procedures or thoracic aorta procedures between Oct. 1, 2008, and Sept. 30, 2019. We used a hybrid modelling approach with the random forest method for initial variable selection, followed by backward stepwise logistic regression modelling for clinical interpretability and parsimony. We internally validated the logistic regression model, termed the CardiOttawa Waitlist Mortality Score, using 200 bootstraps. RESULTS: Of the 112 266 patients referred for cardiac surgery, 269 (0.2%) died while awaiting surgery (118/72 366 [0.2%] isolated CABG, 81/24 461 [0.3%] valvular procedures, 63/12 046 [0.5%] combined CABG-valvular procedures and 7/3393 [0.2%] thoracic aorta procedures). Age, sex, surgery type, left main stenosis, Canadian Cardiovascular Society classification, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, dialysis, psychosis and operative priority were predictors of waitlist mortality. The model discriminated (C-statistic 0.76 [optimism-corrected 0.73]). It calibrated well in the overall cohort (Hosmer-Lemeshow p = 0.2) and across surgery types. INTERPRETATION: The CardiOttawa Waitlist Mortality Score is a simple clinical risk model that predicts the likelihood of death while awaiting cardiac surgery. It has the potential to provide data-driven decision support for managing access to cardiac care and preserve system capacity during the COVID-19 pandemic, the recovery period and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Adolescent , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
16.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(2): 321-334, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate both the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) admission, and demographic, angiographic, procedural characteristics, and in-hospital clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 positive STEMI in Turkey. METHODS: This was a multi-center and cross-sectional observational study. The study population included 1788 STEMI patients from 15 centers in Turkey. The patients were divided into two groups: COVID-19 era (March 11st-May 15st, 2020; n = 733) or pre- COVID-19 era group (March 11st-May 15st, 2019; n = 1055). Also, the patients in COVID-19 era were grouped as COVID-19 positive (n = 65) or negative (n = 668). RESULTS: There was a 30.5% drop in STEMI admission during COVID-19 era in comparison to pre-COVID-19 era. The patients admitted to the medical centers during COVID-19 era had a longer symptom-to-first medical contact time [120 (75-240) vs. 100 (60-180) minutes, p < 0.001]. COVID-19 positive STEMI patients had higher thrombus grade and lower left ventricular ejection fraction compared to COVID-19 negative patients. COVID-19 positive patients had higher mortality (28% vs. 6%, p < 0.001) and cardiogenic shock (20% vs. 7%, p < 0.001) rates compared with those without COVID-19. Matching based on propensity scores showed higher mortality and high thrombus grade in STEMI patients who were infected by SARS-COV-2 (each p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We detected significantly lower STEMI hospitalization rates and significant delay in duration of symptom onset to first medical contact in the context of Turkey during the COVID-19 outbreak. Moreover, high thrombus grade and mortality were more common in COVID-19 positive STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Stroke Volume , Time-to-Treatment , Turkey/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left
17.
J Pediatr ; 245: 95-101, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720473

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) findings of children recovered from multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) longer than 3 months after acute illness. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study of children hospitalized with MIS-C at a single institution receiving cardiac MR imaging between July 2020 and May 2021. Patient demographics, echocardiogram data from diagnosis through follow-up, and cardiac MR data obtained at approximately 3 months after hospitalization were recorded. RESULTS: In total, 51 children with a median age of 11.3 years were included; 80% of patients had left ventricular ejection fraction <55%, 65% of patients developed valvular regurgitation, and 20% of patients developed coronary artery dilation during acute illness. Cardiac MR was performed at a median time of 105 days after diagnosis; 8% of patients had left ventricular ejection fraction <55%; 1 patient had residual valvular regurgitation; and 2 patients had residual coronary artery dilation. Two of 51 patients were found to have late gadolinium enhancement, T1 mapping abnormalities, and abnormal or borderline extracellular volume calculations suggesting myocardial fibrosis. No patient had T2 mapping abnormalities corresponding with edema, and no patient met the modified Lake Louise criteria for acute myocarditis; 10 of 51 patients had isolated elevated T1 values. CONCLUSIONS: At 3-5 months following diagnosis, cardiac MR reveals no evidence of acute myocarditis as described by the modified Lake Louise criteria in patients with MIS-C. Two patients were observed to have myocardial fibrosis without regional wall motion abnormalities, and 10 had isolated imaging changes (elevated T1 values) in the absence of macroscopic fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Myocarditis , Acute Disease , COVID-19/complications , Child , Contrast Media , Fibrosis , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocardium/pathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
20.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 25, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a novel condition temporally associated with SARS-CoV2 infection. Cardiovascular involvement is mainly evident as acute myocardial dysfunction in MIS-C. The aim of this study was to describe the cardiac dysfunction in patients with MIS-C, defining the role of severity in the clinical presentations and outcomes in a single cohort of pediatric patients. METHODS: A single-center retrospective study on patients diagnosed with MIS-C, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition, and referred to Vittore Buzzi Children's Hospital in Milan from November 2020 to February 2021. Patients were managed according to a local approved protocol. According to the admission cardiac left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the patients were divided into group A (LVEF < 45%) and group B (LVEF ≥45%). Pre-existing, clinical, and laboratory factors were assessed for evaluating outcomes at discharge. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were considered. Cardiac manifestations of MIS-C were reported in 26 patients (81%). Group A included 10 patients (9 M/1F, aged 13 years [IQR 5-15]), and group B included 22 patients (15 M/7 M, aged 9 years [IQR 7-13]). Significant differences were noted among clinical presentations (shock, diarrhea, intensive care unit admission), laboratory markers (leucocytes, neutrophils, and protein C-reactive), and cardiac markers (troponin T and N-terminal pro B-type Natriuretic Peptide) between the groups, with higher compromission in Group A. We found electrocardiogram anomalies in 14 patients (44%) and rhythm alterations in 3 patients (9%), without differences between groups. Mitral regurgitation and coronary involvement were more prevalent in group A. Total length of hospital stay and cardiac recovery time were not statistically different between groups. A recovery of cardiac functioning was reached in all patients. CONCLUSION: Despite significant differences in clinical presentations and need for intensive care, all of the MIS-C patients with significant cardiac involvement in this study completely recovered. This suggests that the heart is an involved organ and did not influence prognosis if properly treated and supported in the acute phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL