Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.204
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232730

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are important disease-causing agents worldwide. Currently, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines approved to treat these viruses. However, peptides have shown great potential for new drug development. A recent study described (p-BthTX-I)2K [(KKYRYHLKPF)2K], a peptide derived from the Bothropstoxin-I toxin in the venom of the Bothrops jararacussu snake, showed antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we assessed the activity of this peptide against CHIKV and ZIKV and its antiviral action in the different stages of the viral replication cycle in vitro. We observed that (p-BthTX-I)2K impaired CHIKV infection by interfering with the early steps of the viral replication cycle, reducing CHIKV entry into BHK-21 cells specifically by reducing both the attachment and internalization steps. (p-BthTX-I)2K also inhibited the ZIKV replicative cycle in Vero cells. The peptide protected the cells against ZIKV infection and decreased the levels of the viral RNA and the NS3 protein of this virus at viral post-entry steps. In conclusion, this study highlights the potential of the (p-BthTX-I)2K peptide to be a novel broad-spectrum antiviral candidate that targets different steps of the replication cycle of both CHIKV and ZIKV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chikungunya Fever , Chikungunya virus , Viruses , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Zika Virus Infection/drug therapy , Zika Virus/genetics , Vero Cells , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Virus Replication , SARS-CoV-2 , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use
2.
J Virol Methods ; 318: 114755, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240515

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious intestinal virus. However, the current PEDV vaccine, which is produced from classical strain G1, offers low protection against recently emerged strain G2. This study aims to develop a better vaccine strain by propagating the PS6 strain, a G2b subgroup originating from Vietnam, on Vero cells until the 100th passage. As the virus was propagated, its titer increased, and its harvest time decreased. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid variation of the PS6 strain showed that the P100PS6 had 11, 4, and 2 amino acid variations in the 0 domain, B domain, and ORF3 protein, respectively, compared to the P7PS6 strain. Notably, the ORF3 gene was truncated due to a 16-nucleotide deletion mutation, resulting in a stop codon. The PS6 strain's virulence was evaluated in 5-day-old piglets, with P7PS6 and P100PS6 chosen for comparison. The results showed that P100PS6-inoculated piglets exhibited mild clinical symptoms and histopathological lesions, with a 100% survival rate. In contrast, P7PS6-inoculated piglets showed rapid and typical clinical symptoms of PEDV infection, and the survival rate was 0%. Additionally, the antibodies (IgG and IgA) produced from inoculated piglets with P100PS6 bound to both the P7PS6 and P100PS6 antigens. This finding suggested that the P100PS6 strain was attenuated and could be used to develop a live-attenuated vaccine against highly pathogenic and prevalent G2b-PEDV strains.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Swine , Animals , Vero Cells , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Virulence , Serial Passage , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary
3.
J Virol ; 97(6): e0054923, 2023 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245375

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused huge economic losses to the global pig industry. The swine enteric coronavirus spike (S) protein recognizes various cell surface molecules to regulate viral infection. In this study, we identified 211 host membrane proteins related to the S1 protein by pulldown combined with liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Among these, heat shock protein family A member 5 (HSPA5) was identified through screening as having a specific interaction with the PEDV S protein, and positive regulation of PEDV infection was validated by knockdown and overexpression tests. Further studies verified the role of HSPA5 in viral attachment and internalization. In addition, we found that HSPA5 interacts with S proteins through its nucleotide-binding structural domain (NBD) and that polyclonal antibodies can block viral infection. In detail, HSPA5 was found to be involved in viral trafficking via the endo-/lysosomal pathway. Inhibition of HSPA5 activity during internalization would reduce the subcellular colocalization of PEDV with lysosomes in the endo-/lysosomal pathway. Together, these findings show that HSPA5 is a novel PEDV potential target for the creation of therapeutic drugs. IMPORTANCE PEDV infection causes severe piglet mortality and threatens the global pig industry. However, the complex invasion mechanism of PEDV makes its prevention and control difficult. Here, we determined that HSPA5 is a novel target for PEDV which interacts with its S protein and is involved in viral attachment and internalization, influencing its transport via the endo-/lysosomal pathway. Our work extends knowledge about the relationship between the PEDV S and host proteins and provides a new therapeutic target against PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Chlorocebus aethiops , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization , Chromatography, Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Lysosomes/metabolism , Vero Cells
4.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244287

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has been spreading rapidly worldwide, creating a pandemic. This article describes the evaluation of the antiviral activity of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a molecule found in Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) leaves, against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. A 35 µM concentration of NDGA was not toxic to Vero cells and exhibited a remarkable inhibitory effect on the SARS-CoV-2 cytopathic effect, viral plaque formation, RNA replication, and expression of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. The 50% effective concentration for NDGA was as low as 16.97 µM. Our results show that NDGA could be a promising therapeutic candidate against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Masoprocol/pharmacology , Masoprocol/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Vero Cells
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(1): e1010171, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327858

ABSTRACT

The development of physiological models that reproduce SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary human cells will be instrumental to identify host-pathogen interactions and potential therapeutics. Here, using cell suspensions directly from primary human lung tissues (HLT), we have developed a rapid platform for the identification of viral targets and the expression of viral entry factors, as well as for the screening of viral entry inhibitors and anti-inflammatory compounds. The direct use of HLT cells, without long-term cell culture and in vitro differentiation approaches, preserves main immune and structural cell populations, including the most susceptible cell targets for SARS-CoV-2; alveolar type II (AT-II) cells, while maintaining the expression of proteins involved in viral infection, such as ACE2, TMPRSS2, CD147 and AXL. Further, antiviral testing of 39 drug candidates reveals a highly reproducible method, suitable for different SARS-CoV-2 variants, and provides the identification of new compounds missed by conventional systems, such as VeroE6. Using this method, we also show that interferons do not modulate ACE2 expression, and that stimulation of local inflammatory responses can be modulated by different compounds with antiviral activity. Overall, we present a relevant and rapid method for the study of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Adult , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Investigational/pharmacology , Drugs, Investigational/therapeutic use , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/therapy , Inflammation/virology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
6.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 10(1)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spread of SARS-CoV2 by aerosol is considered an important mode of transmission over distances >2 m, particularly indoors. OBJECTIVES: We determined whether SARS-CoV2 could be detected in the air of enclosed/semi-enclosed public spaces. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Between March 2021 and December 2021 during the easing of COVID-19 pandemic restrictions after a period of lockdown, we used total suspended and size-segregated particulate matter (PM) samplers for the detection of SARS-CoV2 in hospitals wards and waiting areas, on public transport, in a university campus and in a primary school in West London. RESULTS: We collected 207 samples, of which 20 (9.7%) were positive for SARS-CoV2 using quantitative PCR. Positive samples were collected from hospital patient waiting areas, from hospital wards treating patients with COVID-19 using stationary samplers and from train carriages in London underground using personal samplers. Mean virus concentrations varied between 429 500 copies/m3 in the hospital emergency waiting area and the more frequent 164 000 copies/m3 found in other areas. There were more frequent positive samples from PM samplers in the PM2.5 fractions compared with PM10 and PM1. Culture on Vero cells of all collected samples gave negative results. CONCLUSION: During a period of partial opening during the COVID-19 pandemic in London, we detected SARS-CoV2 RNA in the air of hospital waiting areas and wards and of London Underground train carriage. More research is needed to determine the transmission potential of SARS-CoV2 detected in the air.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , London/epidemiology , Pandemics , Vero Cells , Communicable Disease Control , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Particulate Matter/analysis
7.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 23(7): 397-400, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317952

ABSTRACT

Background: Serological evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been reported in white-tailed deer (WTD) in the United States and Canada. Even though WTD are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is no evidence of infection by this virus in other mammalian species that might interact with WTD in nature. Similar to WTD, feral swine are widely distributed and generally occupy the same range as WTD in Texas. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody in WTD during 2020 and 2021 and determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody in feral swine during 2018 (prepandemic period) and from March 2020 to February 2021 (pandemic period) in Travis County, Texas. Materials and Methods: Sera samples were collected from hunter-killed WTD and feral swine during the prepandemic and pandemic period and tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibody by a plaque reduction neutralization assay in Vero cells. Results: SARS-CoV-2 antibody was not detected in any of the 166 feral swine sera samples, including 24 samples collected during the prepandemic and 142 samples collected during the pandemic period. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 antibody was not detected in the 115 WTD samples collected during late 2020, but antibody was detected in WTD in early 2021. Conclusions: The results indicated that SARS-CoV-2 infection of WTD occurred during early 2021 in Travis County, Texas, but serological evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was not detected in the feral swine samples collected from the same locality and during the same time period of the collection of WTD samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deer , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Swine , Texas/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
8.
J Virol ; 97(5): e0029223, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315080

ABSTRACT

Chemokine production by epithelial cells is crucial for neutrophil recruitment to sites of inflammation during viral infection. However, the effect of chemokine on epithelia and how chemokine is involved in coronavirus infection remains to be fully understood. Here, we identified an inducible chemokine interleukin-8 (CXCL8/IL-8), which could promote coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection in African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero) and Lilly Laboratories cell-porcine kidney 1 epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). IL-8 deletion restrained cytosolic calcium (Ca2+), whereas IL-8 stimulation improved cytosolic Ca2+. The consumption of Ca2+ restricted PEDV infection. PEDV internalization and budding were obvious reductions when cytosolic Ca2+ was abolished in the presence of Ca2+ chelators. Further study revealed that the upregulated cytosolic Ca2+ redistributes intracellular Ca2+. Finally, we identified that G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-phospholipase C (PLC)-inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) signaling was crucial for enhancive cytosolic Ca2+ and PEDV infection. To our knowledge, this study is the first to uncover the function of chemokine IL-8 during coronavirus PEDV infection in epithelia. PEDV induces IL-8 expression to elevate cytosolic Ca2+, promoting its infection. Our findings reveal a novel role of IL-8 in PEDV infection and suggest that targeting IL-8 could be a new approach to controlling PEDV infection. IMPORTANCE Coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious enteric coronavirus that caused severe economic losses worldwide, and more effort is needed to develop economical and efficient vaccines to control or eliminate this disease. The chemokine interleukin-8 (CXCL8/IL-8) is indispensable for the activation and trafficking of inflammatory mediators and tumor progression and metastasis. This study evaluated the effect of IL-8 on PEDV infection in epithelia. We found that IL-8 expression improved cytosolic Ca2+ in epithelia, facilitating PEDV rapid internalization and egress. G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-phospholipase C (PLC)-inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-SOC signaling was activated by IL-8, releasing the intracellular Ca2+ stores from endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These findings provide a better understanding of the role of IL-8 in PEDV-induced immune responses, which will help develop small-molecule drugs for coronavirus cure.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Chemokines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Interleukin-8 , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312704

ABSTRACT

The binding properties of synthetic and recombinant peptides derived from N-terminal part of ACE2, the main receptor for SARS-CoV-2, were evaluated. Additionally, the ability of these peptides to prevent virus entry in vitro was addressed using both pseudovirus particles decorated with the S protein, as well as through infection of Vero cells with live SARS-CoV-2 virus. Surprisingly, in spite of effective binding to S protein, all linear peptides of various lengths failed to neutralize the viral infection in vitro. However, the P1st peptide that was chemically "stapled" in order to stabilize its alpha-helical structure was able to interfere with virus entry into ACE2-expressing cells. Interestingly, this peptide also neutralized pseudovirus particles decorated with S protein derived from the Omicron BA.1 virus, in spite of variations in key amino acid residues contacting ACE2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Protein Binding , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/metabolism
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2205690119, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311515

ABSTRACT

The furin cleavage site (FCS), an unusual feature in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, has been spotlighted as a factor key to facilitating infection and pathogenesis by increasing spike processing. Similarly, the QTQTN motif directly upstream of the FCS is also an unusual feature for group 2B coronaviruses (CoVs). The QTQTN deletion has consistently been observed in in vitro cultured virus stocks and some clinical isolates. To determine whether the QTQTN motif is critical to SARS-CoV-2 replication and pathogenesis, we generated a mutant deleting the QTQTN motif (ΔQTQTN). Here, we report that the QTQTN deletion attenuates viral replication in respiratory cells in vitro and attenuates disease in vivo. The deletion results in a shortened, more rigid peptide loop that contains the FCS and is less accessible to host proteases, such as TMPRSS2. Thus, the deletion reduced the efficiency of spike processing and attenuates SARS-CoV-2 infection. Importantly, the QTQTN motif also contains residues that are glycosylated, and disruption of its glycosylation also attenuates virus replication in a TMPRSS2-dependent manner. Together, our results reveal that three aspects of the S1/S2 cleavage site-the FCS, loop length, and glycosylation-are required for efficient SARS-CoV-2 replication and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Furin , Proteolysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Amino Acid Motifs/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Furin/chemistry , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Deletion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305518

ABSTRACT

PEDV represents an ancient Coronavirus still causing huge economic losses to the porcine breeding industry. Resveratrol has excellent antiviral effects. Triacetyl resveratrol (TCRV), a novel natural derivative of resveratrol, has been recently discovered, and its pharmacological effects need to be explored further. This paper aims to explore the relationship between PEDV and TCRV, which offers a novel strategy in the research of antivirals. In our study, Vero cells and IPEC-J2 cells were used as an in vitro model. First, we proved that TCRV had an obvious anti-PEDV effect and a strong inhibitory effect at different time points. Then, we explored the mechanism of inhibition of PEDV infection by TCRV. Our results showed that TCRV could induce the early apoptosis of PEDV-infected cells, in contrast to PEDV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we observed that TCRV could promote the expression and activation of apoptosis-related proteins and release mitochondrial cytochrome C into cytoplasm. Based on these results, we hypothesized that TCRV induced the early apoptosis of PEDV-infected cells and inhibited PEDV infection by activating the mitochondria-related caspase pathway. Furthermore, we used the inhibitors Z-DEVD-FMK and Pifithrin-α (PFT-α) to support our hypothesis. In conclusion, the TCRV-activated caspase pathway triggered early apoptosis of PEDV-infected cells, thereby inhibiting PEDV infections.


Subject(s)
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Swine , Animals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Vero Cells , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Caspases/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
12.
Virology ; 582: 114-127, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298993

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infection induces a variety of cellular antiviral responses either dependent on or independent of type I interferons (IFNs). Our previous studies using Affymetrix microarray and transcriptomic analysis revealed the differential induction of three IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), IRF1, ISG15 and ISG20, by gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection of IFN-deficient Vero cells and IFN-competent, p53-defcient H1299 cells, respectively. In this report, the induction kinetics and anti-IBV functions of these ISGs as well as mechanisms underlying their differential induction are characterized. The results confirmed that these three ISGs were indeed differentially induced in H1299 and Vero cells infected with IBV, significantly more upregulation of IRF1, ISG15 and ISG20 was elicited in IBV-infected Vero cells than that in H1299 cells. Induction of these ISGs was also detected in cells infected with human coronavirus-OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), respectively. Manipulation of their expression by overexpression, knockdown and/or knockout demonstrated that IRF1 played an active role in suppressing IBV replication, mainly through the activation of the IFN pathway. However, a minor, if any, role in inhibiting IBV replication was played by ISG15 and ISG20. Furthermore, p53, but not IRF1, was implicated in regulating the IBV infection-induced upregulation of ISG15 and ISG20. This study provides new information on the mechanisms underlying the induction of these ISGs and their contributions to the host cell antiviral response during IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Gammacoronavirus , Infectious bronchitis virus , Animals , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cytokines/genetics , Exoribonucleases , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Swine , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Ubiquitins , Vero Cells
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 253: 115320, 2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298762

ABSTRACT

Niclosamide, an oral anthelmintic drug, could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus replication through autophagy induction, but high cytotoxicity and poor oral bioavailability limited its application. Twenty-three niclosamide analogs were designed and synthesized, of which compound 21 was found to exhibit the best anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy (EC50 = 1.00 µM for 24 h), lower cytotoxicity (CC50 = 4.73 µM for 48 h), better pharmacokinetic, and it was also well tolerated in the sub-acute toxicity study in mice. To further improve the pharmacokinetics of 21, three prodrugs have been synthesized. The pharmacokinetics of 24 indicates its potential for further research (AUClast was 3-fold of compound 21). Western blot assay indicated that compound 21 could down-regulate SKP2 expression and increase BECN1 levels in Vero-E6 cells, indicating the antiviral mechanism of 21 was related to modulating the autophagy processes in host cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Mice , Niclosamide/pharmacology , Imidazoles , Vero Cells , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 280: 109709, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297201

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has restricted cell and tissue tropism. IBVs, except the Beaudette strain, can infect and replicate in chicken embryos, primary chicken embryo kidneys, and primary chicken kidney cells, only. The limited viral cell tropism of IBV substantially hinders in vitro cell-based research on pathogenic mechanisms and vaccine development. Herein, the parental H120 vaccine strain was serially passaged for five generations in chicken embryos, 20 passages in CK cells and 80 passages in Vero cells. This passaging yielded a Vero cell-adapted strain designated HV80. To further understand viral evolution, serial assessments of infection, replication, and transmission in Vero cells were performed for the viruses obtained every tenth passage. The ability to form syncytia and the replication efficiency significantly after the 50th passage (strain HV50). HV80 also displayed tropism extension to DF-1, BHK-21, HEK-293 T, and HeLa cells. Whole genome sequencing of viruses from every tenth generation revealed a total of 19 amino acid point mutations in the viral genome by passage 80, nine of which occurred in the S gene. The second furin cleavage site appeared in viral evolution and may be associated with cell tropism extension of HV80.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Viral Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chick Embryo , Animals , Humans , Vero Cells , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , HeLa Cells , HEK293 Cells , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary
15.
Vopr Virusol ; 68(1): 18-25, 2023 03 11.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295343

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Currently, low molecular-weight compounds are being developed as potential inhibitors of CoVs replication, targeting various stages of the replication cycle, such as major protease inhibitors and nucleoside analogs. Viroporins can be alternative protein targets. The aim of this study is to identify antiviral properties of histidine derivatives with cage substituents in relation to pandemic strain SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Combination of histidine with aminoadamantane and boron cluster anion [B10H10]2 (compounds IIV) was carried out by classical peptide synthesis. Compound were identified by modern physicochemical methods. Antiviral properties were studied in vitro on a monolayer of Vero E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 (alpha strain) with simultaneous administration of compounds and virus. RESULTS: Derivatives of amino acid histidine with carbocycles and boron cluster were synthesized and their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 was studied in vitro. Histidine derivatives with carbocycles and [B10H10]2 have the ability to suppress virus replication. The solubility of substances in aqueous media can be increased due to formation of hydrochloride or sodium salt. DISCUSSION: 2HCl*H-His-Rim (I) showed some effect of suppressing replication of SARS-CoV-2 at a viral load of 100 doses and concentration 31.2 g/ml. This is explained by the weakly basic properties of compound I. CONCLUSION: The presented synthetic compounds showed moderate antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. The obtained compounds can be used as model structures for creating new direct-acting drugs against modern strains of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Histidine/pharmacology , Boron/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 151: e76, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295187

ABSTRACT

This experimental study aimed to determine the activity of a near-UVA (405 nm) LED ceiling system against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The ceiling system comprised 17 near-UVA LED lights with a radiant power of 1.1 W/each centred at 405 nm wavelength. A 96-multiwell plate, fixed to a wooden base, was inoculated with suspensions of VERO E6 cell cultures infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus and irradiated at a distance of 40 cm with a dose of 20.2 J/cm2 for 120 min. The collected suspensions were transferred to VERO cell culture plates and incubated for 3 days. The maximum measurable log reduction obtained, starting from a concentration of 107.2 TCID50/mL, was 3.0 log10 and indicated inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication by the near-UVA LED ceiling system. Near-UVA light at a 405-nm wavelength is emerging as a potential alternative treatment for localised infections and environmental decontamination because it is far less harmful to living organisms' cells than UV-C irradiation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Suspensions , Vero Cells
17.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295003

ABSTRACT

The Bunyavirales order is a large group of RNA viruses that includes important pathogens for humans, animals and plants. With high-throughput screening of clinically tested compounds we have looked for potential inhibitors of the endonuclease domain of a bunyavirus RNA polymerase. From a list of fifteen top candidates, five compounds were selected and their antiviral properties studied with Bunyamwera virus (BUNV), a prototypic bunyavirus widely used for studies about the biology of this group of viruses and to test antivirals. Four compounds (silibinin A, myricetin, L-phenylalanine and p-aminohippuric acid) showed no antiviral activity in BUNV-infected Vero cells. On the contrary, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) efficiently inhibited BUNV infection with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.02 mM. In cell culture supernatants, ASA reduced viral titer up to three logarithmic units. A significant dose-dependent reduction of the expression levels of Gc and N viral proteins was also measured. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy showed that ASA protects the Golgi complex from the characteristic BUNV-induced fragmentation in Vero cells. Electron microscopy showed that ASA inhibits the assembly of Golgi-associated BUNV spherules that are the replication organelles of bunyaviruses. As a consequence, the assembly of new viral particles is also significantly reduced. Considering its availability and low cost, the potential usability of ASA to treat bunyavirus infections deserves further investigation.


Subject(s)
Bunyamwera virus , Orthobunyavirus , Humans , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Bunyamwera virus/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Aspirin/pharmacology , Cell Culture Techniques
19.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 37: 101873, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2247060

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China. African countries see slower dynamic of COVID-19 cases and deaths. One of the assumptions that may explain this later emergence in Africa, and more particularly in malaria endemic areas, would be the use of antimalarial drugs. We investigated the in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 of several antimalarial drugs. Chloroquine (EC50 = 2.1 µM and EC90 = 3.8 µM), hydroxychloroquine (EC50 = 1.5 µM and EC90 = 3.0 µM), ferroquine (EC50 = 1.5 µM and EC90 = 2.4 µM), desethylamodiaquine (EC50 = 0.52 µM and EC90 = 1.9 µM), mefloquine (EC50 = 1.8 µM and EC90 = 8.1 µM), pyronaridine (EC50 = 0.72 µM and EC90 = 0.75 µM) and quinine (EC50 = 10.7 µM and EC90 = 38.8 µM) showed in vitro antiviral effective activity with IC50 and IC90 compatible with drug oral uptake at doses commonly administered in malaria treatment. The ratio Clung/EC90 ranged from 5 to 59. Lumefantrine, piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin had IC50 and IC90 too high to be compatible with expected plasma concentrations (ratio Cmax/EC90 < 0.05). Based on our results, we would expect that countries which commonly use artesunate-amodiaquine or artesunate-mefloquine report fewer cases and deaths than those using artemether-lumefantrine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. It could be necessary now to compare the antimalarial use and the dynamics of COVID-19 country by country to confirm this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
20.
J Biophotonics ; 16(3): e202200203, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289240

ABSTRACT

Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) employing laser light has been emerging as a safe strategy to challenge viruses. In this study the effect of blue and near-infrared (NIR) laser light was assessed in an in vitro model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. PBMT at blue wavelength inhibited viral amplification when the virus was directly irradiated and then transferred to cell culture and when cells already infected were treated. The NIR wavelength resulted less efficacious showing a minor effect on the reduction of the viral load. The cells receiving the irradiated virus or directly irradiated rescued their viability to level comparable to not treated cells. Virion integrity and antigenicity were preserved after blue and NIR irradiation, suggesting that the PBMT antiviral effect was not correlated to viral lipidic envelope disruption. Our results suggested that PBMT can be considered a valid strategy to counteract SARS-CoV-2 infection, at least in vitro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Light , Lasers
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL