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Neurology ; 96(11): e1527-e1538, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028513


OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is protean in its manifestations, affecting nearly every organ system. However, nervous system involvement and its effect on disease outcome are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to determine whether neurologic syndromes are associated with increased risk of inpatient mortality. METHODS: A total of 581 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, neurologic involvement, and brain imaging were compared to hospitalized non-neurologic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Four patterns of neurologic manifestations were identified: acute stroke, new or recrudescent seizures, altered mentation with normal imaging, and neuro-COVID-19 complex. Factors present on admission were analyzed as potential predictors of in-hospital mortality, including sociodemographic variables, preexisting comorbidities, vital signs, laboratory values, and pattern of neurologic manifestations. Significant predictors were incorporated into a disease severity score. Patients with neurologic manifestations were matched with patients of the same age and disease severity to assess the risk of death. RESULTS: A total of 4,711 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to one medical system in New York City during a 6-week period. Of these, 581 (12%) had neurologic issues of sufficient concern to warrant neuroimaging. These patients were compared to 1,743 non-neurologic patients with COVID-19 matched for age and disease severity admitted during the same period. Patients with altered mentation (n = 258, p = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] 1.39, confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.86) or radiologically confirmed stroke (n = 55, p = 0.001, OR 3.1, CI 1.65-5.92) had a higher risk of mortality than age- and severity-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of altered mentation or stroke on admission predicts a modest but significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality independent of disease severity. While other biomarker factors also predict mortality, measures to identify and treat such patients may be important in reducing overall mortality of COVID-19.

COVID-19/mortality , Confusion/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Ataxia/epidemiology , Ataxia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Confusion/epidemiology , Consciousness Disorders/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/physiopathology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Primary Dysautonomias/epidemiology , Primary Dysautonomias/physiopathology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/epidemiology , Vertigo/epidemiology , Vertigo/physiopathology
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020901


A 19-year-old man was admitted with a 2-week history of continuous cough along with a day history of acute onset unsteadiness and hiccups. Given the current pandemic, he was initially suspected to have COVID-19, however he tested negative on two occasions. Subsequent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)confirmed a small left acute and subacute lateral medullary infarction with chest X-ray suggesting aspiration pneumonia with right lower lobe collapse. This is a distinctive case of posterior circulation stroke presenting with a new continuous cough in this era of COVID-19 pandemic. We anticipate based on MRI findings that his persistent cough was likely due to silent aspiration from dysphagia because of the subacute medullary infarction. It is therefore imperative that healthcare workers evaluate people who present with new continuous cough thoroughly to exclude any other sinister pathology. We should also be familiar with the possible presentations of posterior circulation stroke in this pandemic era.

COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/physiopathology , Hiccup/physiopathology , Lateral Medullary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Aspiration/diagnostic imaging , Sensation Disorders/physiopathology , Vertigo/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Hiccup/etiology , Humans , Lateral Medullary Syndrome/complications , Lateral Medullary Syndrome/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pneumonia, Aspiration/etiology , Postural Balance , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensation Disorders/etiology , Vertigo/etiology , Young Adult
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(2_suppl): 163S-168S, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969751


OBJECTIVES: In the present report, we aimed to investigate the impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on vertigo/dizziness outpatient cancellations in Japan. METHODS: We examined 265 vertigo/dizziness outpatients at the ear, nose, and throat department of the Nara Medical University between March 01, 2020, and May 31, 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. We also focused on 478 vertigo/dizziness outpatients between March 01, 2019, and May 31, 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic, to compare the number of cancellations between these 2 periods. The reasons for cancellation and noncancellation were investigated using telephone multiple-choice questionnaires (telMCQs), particularly for patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and Meniere's disease (MD). RESULTS: There were many cancellations for medical examinations during the 2020 study period. The total number of vertigo/dizziness outpatients decreased by 44.6% in the 2020 period compared to the same period in 2019. The percent reduction in clinic attendance from 2019 to 2020 (ie, [2019-2020]/2019) for patients with BPPV was higher than that for patients with MD. Compared to the other vertigo-associated conditions, patients with MD exhibited a lower percent reduction in clinic attendance. According to the results of the telMCQs, 75.0% of BPPV cases and 88.2% of MD cases cancelled their appointment and gave up visiting hospitals due to fear of COVID-19 infection, even if they had moderate to severe symptoms. On the contrary, 25.0% and 80.0% patients with BPPV and MD, respectively, did not cancel their appointment; they should not have visited the hospital but stayed at home because they had slight symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that advanced forms should be prepared for medical care, such as remote medicine. These forms should not only be for the disease itself but also for the mental distress caused by persistent symptoms.

Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Appointments and Schedules , Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo/physiopathology , Meniere Disease/physiopathology , Aftercare , Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo/therapy , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Management , Dizziness/physiopathology , Dizziness/therapy , Fear , Humans , Japan , Meniere Disease/therapy , Otolaryngology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , Vertigo/physiopathology , Vertigo/therapy , Vestibular Neuronitis/physiopathology , Vestibular Neuronitis/therapy