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1.
Compr Psychiatry ; 115: 152312, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788039

ABSTRACT

Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has become a significant issue in mental healthcare over the past decades as the number of people engaging in excessive and unhealthy gaming increases with each year. Despite its inclusion in the 5th Edition of Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the development of a number of treatment methods that have been designed and tested for IGD, treatment remains a challenge. This review attempts to give an overview of the current state of IGD and its treatment with a specific focus on the potential of technology-based solutions, such as web-based programs, mobile applications, and virtual reality. The review also highlights the need for additional work in the area of treatment development for IGD and the preliminary evidence for the usefulness and importance of technology-based treatment methods which offer unique advantages, such as accessibility, scalability, and cost-effectiveness, over other existing treatment options.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Video Games , Behavior, Addictive/diagnosis , Behavior, Addictive/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Technology
2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(4): 1359-1364, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760977

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the causes of acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) in young adults and children in the setting of COVID-19-induced home confinement. Methods: A retrospective, clinical study of all patients, who presented to the Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus services of a tertiary eye care center in South India from August 2020 to January 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic, with acute-onset, comitant esotropia. Results: 11 (73.3%) of the total 15 patients were students, above 10 years and with a mean age of 16.8 years. 12 patients (80%) had more than 8 hours of near activity a day with a mean duration of 8.6 hours per day. The most common near activity was online classes, followed by job-related work and mobile games, and 86.7% used smartphones for near work. The average esotropia was 22.73 prism diopter (PD) for distance and 18.73 PD for near. Majority (66.6%) had hyperopia with basic or divergence insufficiency esotropia, and the remaining 33.3% had myopia and fitted in to the Bielschowsky type AACE. There was no precipitating event other than sustained near work in all, except in one patient who also had fever prior to the onset of esotropia. Conclusion: The habit of long-time and sustained near work, especially on smartphones, may increase the risk of inducement of AACE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Esotropia , Mobile Applications , Video Games , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Esotropia/diagnosis , Esotropia/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 645837, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760278

ABSTRACT

In Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), one of the causes of maternal and child mortality is a lack of medical knowledge and consequently the inability to seek timely healthcare. Mobile health (mHealth) technology is gradually becoming a universal intervention platform across the globe due to ubiquity of mobile phones and network coverage. MANTRA is a novel mHealth intervention developed to tackle maternal and child health issues through a serious mobile game app in rural Nepal, which demonstrated a statistically significant knowledge improvement in rural women. This paper explores the perceptions and usability of the MANTRA app amongst rural women and Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) in Nepal. Despite the challenges of a target user group with limited educational levels and low smartphone experience, all participants viewed the MANTRA app with approval and enthusiasm. They were willing to engage further with the mHealth intervention and to share their experience and knowledge with fellow community members. Participants also showed an increase in awareness of danger signs enabling them to make better informed health decisions in the future. FCHVs viewed the app as a validation tool providing and support for greater impact of their efforts in rural Nepal. Growing mobile ownership, network coverage and availability of smartphones along with acceptance of the prototype MANTRA app in rural communities suggest encouraging prospects for mHealth interventions to be incorporated in the national health infrastructure in Nepal and other LMICs.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Video Games , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Nepal , Rural Population
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736898

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Childhood obesity is an important public health problem. Children with overweight or obesity often tend to show the pediatric inactivity triad components; these involve exercise deficit disorder, pediatric dynapenia, and physical illiteracy. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of an active video games (AVG) intervention combined with multicomponent exercise on muscular fitness, physical activity (PA), and motor skills in children with overweight or obesity. (2) Methods: A total of 29 (13 girls) children (10.07 ± 0.84 years) with overweight or obesity were randomly allocated in the intervention group (AVG group; n = 21) or in the control group (CG; n = 8). The intervention group performed a 5-month AVG training using the Xbox 360® with the Kinect, the Nintendo Wii®, dance mats, and the BKOOL® interactive cycling simulator, combined with multicomponent exercise, performing three sessions per week. The control group continued their daily activities without modification. Weight, PA using accelerometers, and motor competence using the Test of Gross Motor Development 3rd edition were measured. Muscular fitness was evaluated through the Counter Movement Jump height, maximal isometric strength of knee extension and handgrip strength, and lean mass using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed. The biserial correlation coefficients (r) were calculated. Spearman's correlation coefficients among PA, muscular fitness, and motor competence variables were also calculated. (3) Results: The AVG group significantly increased their knee extension maximal isometric strength (4.22 kg; p < 0.01), handgrip strength (1.93 kg; p < 0.01), and jump height (1.60 cm; p < 0.01), while the control group only increased the knee extension maximal isometric strength (3.15 kg; p < 0.01). The AVG group improved motor competence and light physical activity (p < 0.05) and decreased sedentary time (p < 0.05). Lean mass improved in both AVG group and CG (p < 0.05). Lastly, the percentage of improvement of motor skills positively correlated with the percentage of improvement in vigorous PA (r = 0.673; p = 0.003) and the percentage of improvement in CMJ (r = 0.466; p = 0.039). (4) Conclusions: A 5-month intervention combining AVG with multicomponent training seems to have positive effects on muscle fitness, motor competence, and PA in children with overweight or obesity.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Motor Skills/physiology , Pediatric Obesity , Physical Fitness , Video Games , Body Mass Index , Child , Female , Hand Strength/physiology , Humans , Isometric Contraction/physiology , Knee/physiology , Male , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Physical Fitness/physiology , Video Games/classification
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736894

ABSTRACT

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a formal mental disorder leading to bad outcomes for children and adolescents. This study comprehensively compared the estimated effect of various pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions for IGD from randomized controlled trials (RCT) through updated meta-analysis, using meta-regression. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Airiti Library between 2000 and 2017 was conducted for various IA/IGD intervention modalities. A total of 124 studies from 29 selected papers involving 5601 children and young adults with IA/IGD were found. Meta-analyzing the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) revealed a preliminary random effect of 1.399 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.272-1.527, suggesting highly effective treatment of IA/IGD. After adjusting for the confounding risks of age, publication year, type of subjects, and type of study, this study revealed that combining pharmacotherapy with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or multi-level counseling (MLC) was the most effective treatment option. Using a scale of time spent online or a severity of IA symptoms scale was a more effective measurement, with p-values = 0.006 and 0.002, respectively. IA/IGD patients with comorbid depression showed worse outcomes than youth with another comorbidity. The corresponding model goodness-of-fit indices were τ2 = 1.188; I2-Residual = 89.74%; and Adjusted-R2 = 16.10%. This systematic review indicates that pharmacotherapy combined with CBT or MLC might be an effective therapeutic strategy for youth with gaming disorder.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Video Games , Adolescent , Behavior, Addictive/therapy , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Video Games/psychology , Young Adult
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 812932, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725460

ABSTRACT

Background: A concern for the COVID-19 measures and the potential long-term consequences the measures may have on physical inactivity and gaming among youth. Objectives: Examine the stability and change in internet and offline gaming and the association with physical inactivity among adolescents in Norway during the pandemic. Methods: A total of 2940 youth (58% girls) aged 12-19 years participated in an online longitudinal two-wave survey during the first Norwegian national lockdown in April 2020 (t1) and in December 2020 (t2). Gaming behavior and physical activity status were assessed at both time points. Age, gender, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates. Results: Among boys, 41% reported gaming a lot more and 35% a little more at t1 compared to before the national lockdown. The corresponding numbers for girls were 14 and 23%, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, a pattern of increased gaming at t1 followed by an additional increase in gaming reported at t2 was associated with physical inactivity at t1 (OR = 2.10, p < 0.01) and t2 (OR = 2.45, p < 0.001). Participants gaming more at t1 followed by a reduction at t2 had higher odds of inactivity at t1 (OR = 1.88, p < 0.01). Youth reporting no gaming at t1 had lower odds for inactivity at this time point (OR = 0.67, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Increased gaming among many youths and a relationship with physical inactivity was observed during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. To counteract the negative long-term impacts of COVID-19 restrictions, public health initiatives should emphasize the facilitation of physical activity in youth and develop effective strategies to prevent problematic gaming.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Video Games , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Young Adult
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 808264, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699555

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of positive youth development, developmental assets and self-control play critical roles in promoting adolescent development. However, their effects have not been evaluated in the current issue, internet gaming disorder (IGD). IGD is gradually becoming an important social problem among worldwide youth and has been included in the eleventh International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Therefore, the present study was determined to investigate the relationship between developmental assets, self-control, and IGD. A two-wave longitudinal study, with each wave spanning half a year apart, was conducted in a sample of 1023 adolescents (aging from 11 to 15, 49.36% boys) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results of the moderated mediation model revealed that T1 developmental assets could predict less IGD at T2 directly or through T1 self-control indirectly. Furthermore, the moderating effect of gender was not significant in the mediation model. Overall, adolescents who experience more developmental assets are less likely to suffer IGD. Moreover, developmental assets are conducive to developing a higher level of self-control, which in turn contributes to preventing or intervening in IGD as well. Therefore, measures should be taken to construct developmental assets to prevent or reduce IGD during adolescence.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Self-Control , Video Games , Adolescent , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 13): 420-423, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1678918

ABSTRACT

There is a gap in existing literature regarding Over the Top (OTT) platform use contributing to the excessive and problematic screen time. We aimed to assess OTT platform use among college students and its associations with increased screen time, mental well-being, COVID-19 related anxiety and personality traits. A total of 1039 students from a college in India were invited to participate in this web-based survey. A majority of participants used OTT platforms regularly. Subscription to paid OTT platforms, poor mental well-being were associated with problematic OTT use; whereas personality trait of conscientiousness seemed to offer protection against problematic OTT use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Video Games , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Students
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667143

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic and its related containment measures have been associated with increased levels of stress, anxiety and depression in the general population. While the use of digital media has been greatly promoted by national governments and international authorities to maintain social contacts and healthy lifestyle behaviors, its increased access may also bear the risk of inappropriate or excessive use of internet-related resources. The present study, part of the COVID Mental hEalth Trial (COMET) study, aims at investigating the possible relationship between social isolation, the use of digital resources and the development of their problematic use. A cross sectional survey was carried out to explore the prevalence of internet addiction, excessive use of social media, problematic video gaming and binge watching, during Italian phase II (May-June 2020) and III (June-September 2020) of the pandemic in 1385 individuals (62.5% female, mean age 32.5 ± 12.9) mainly living in Central Italy (52.4%). Data were stratified according to phase II/III and three groups of Italian regions (northern, central and southern). Compared to the larger COMET study, most participants exhibited significant higher levels of severe-to-extremely-severe depressive symptoms (46.3% vs. 12.4%; p < 0.01) and extremely severe anxiety symptoms (77.8% vs. 7.5%; p < 0.01). We also observed a rise in problematic internet use and excessive gaming over time. Mediation analyses revealed that COVID-19-related general psychopathology, stress, anxiety, depression and social isolation play a significant role in the emergence of problematic internet use, social media addiction and problematic video gaming. Professional gamers and younger subjects emerged as sub-populations particularly at risk of developing digital addictions. If confirmed in larger and more homogenous samples, our findings may help in shedding light on possible preventive and treatment strategies for digital addictions.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Video Games , Adult , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Young Adult
10.
Work ; 71(1): 13-17, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased sedentary behaviour and poorer health among office workers. Exergaming is a technology-driven mode of exercise that can improve health while physically distancing. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this commentary was to explain the benefits of exergaming on physical function, psychological health, and cognition among office workers. RESULTS: Exergaming improves these health outcomes, reduces pain, and decreases the risk for chronic disease. It is easily accessible on smart devices and can be performed both indoors and outdoors. CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-one minutes of exergaming per day can improve health outcomes and reduce the risk of pain and disease. Employers and policy-makers should consider promoting exergaming among office workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Video Games , Cognition , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261328, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581752

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major source of stress for a majority of people that might have negative long-term effects on mental health and well-being. In recent years, video games and their potential positive effects on stress relief have been researched and "relaxation" has been an important keyword in marketing a certain kind of video game. In a quasi-experimental design, this study investigated the increase of average daily player peak (ADPPs) for the COVID period compared to the pre-COVID period and if this increase was significantly larger for relaxing games in contrast to non-relaxing games. Results showed a medium-sized increase of ADPPs over all types of games but no difference between relaxing games and non-relaxing games. These results are discussed in regards to their potential of presenting gaps between the current theoretical models of the influence of video games on mental health and actual observed player behaviour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Video Games/psychology , Video Games/statistics & numerical data , Case-Control Studies , Databases, Factual , Humans , Relaxation , Stress, Psychological
12.
Games Health J ; 10(6): 408-419, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550518

ABSTRACT

Objectives: An empirical study is carried out based on Plague, Inc. to explore whether the game has raised awareness of public health and urged players to make a better choice about health. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six college students from 24 cities in 11 provinces of China were investigated for a week-long survey. According to grounded theory principles, we coded original records from 69 diary reports using qualitative analysis tools. Results: We constructed nine core categories from participants' journals and drew the mechanism chart of the game as a means of health communication. The results showed that participants had experienced (1) an iterative learning process based on the authenticity and multiperspective features of the game and obtained specific learning outcomes; (2) deep thinking through the association between the game and the real world. And we extracted variables that are highly predictive of behavior change, including cognition of seriousness, cognition of susceptibility, action clue, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, noncore categories (including emotions and gameplay) directly and indirectly impacted players' learning and behavior change. Conclusion: The study shows Plague, Inc. has played a positive role in health communication (mainly reflected in the improvement of players' cognitive level, the establishment of health belief, and behavior changes). Moreover, it is concluded that reflection plays an important role in health communication interventions. However, careful consideration should be given to the use of this game as a means of health intervention due to its limitations and certain deficiencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication , Plague , Video Games , Grounded Theory , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542563

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused disruptions in the daily lives of individuals in Canada. Purpose: Examine how total and specific (i.e., watching television, using social media, going on the Internet, playing video games, and engaging in virtual social connection) recreational screen time behaviours changed throughout the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic, in comparison to pre-pandemic levels; (2) Methods: Sixty four Canadians (mostly Caucasian, female, age range = 21-77 years) completed monthly surveys from April to September of 2020; (3) Results: A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) and subsequent post hoc analysis revealed that total recreational screen time was statistically higher in late March/April (292.5 min/day ± 143.0) and into May, compared to pre-COVID-19 (187.8 min/day ± 118.3), before declining in subsequent months; (4) Conclusions: Generally, specific recreational screen time behaviours, such as time spent watching television, followed the same trend. Future studies with larger sample sizes and from other countries examining recreational screen time behaviours longitudinally over the pandemic are still needed to allow for greater generalizability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Video Games , Adult , Aged , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Television , Young Adult
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512350

ABSTRACT

The internet has become an important medium for learning and communication during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly for university students. Nevertheless, an increase in internet usage could predispose people to internet addiction (IA) and internet gaming (IG). Equally, there is concern that anxiety levels have increased during the pandemic. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of IA and IG, and their associations with anxiety among medical students during the pandemic. Data were collected during the second wave of the "Conditional Movement Control Order" (CMCO) in Malaysia between 12 November and 10 December 2020. A total of 237 students participated through proportionate stratified random sampling in this cross-sectional study. They completed a set of online questionnaires which consisted of a sociodemographic profile, the Malay version of the internet addiction test (MVIAT), the Malay version of the internet gaming disorder-short form (IGDS9-SF) and the Malay version of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21). The prevalence of IA and internet gaming disorder (IGD) were 83.5% and 2.5%, respectively. A multiple logistic regression showed that those in pre-clinical years had a greater risk of anxiety than those in clinical years [(AOR) = 2.49, p-value 0.01, 95% CI = 1.22-5.07]. In contrast, those who scored high on IA were protected against anxiety [AOR = 0.100, p-value 0.03, 95% CI = 0.01-0.76)]. In conclusion, IA was highly prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic and its high usage might serve as a protective factor against anxiety among the medical students in this study sample.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Video Games , Anxiety/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities
15.
Br J Gen Pract ; 71(712): 507, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497378
16.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(1): 1-12, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare and evaluate the prevalence of food and beverage marketing on the livestreaming platforms Twitch, Facebook Gaming and YouTube Gaming, as well as examine growth of food and beverage marketing on these platforms over a 17-month period of data collection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were analysed across three livestreaming platforms and six food and beverage categories: alcohol, candy, energy drinks, snacks, sodas and restaurants. SETTING: Stream titles of livestreamed events as well as corresponding hours watched on Twitch, Facebook Gaming and YouTube Gaming. PARTICIPANTS: None. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the use of food and beverage brand mentions in stream titles across all three studied platforms (P < 0·05), as well as hours watched across platforms (P < 0·05). Energy drinks dominated food and beverage brand mentions across platforms, followed by restaurants, soda and snacks. All platforms demonstrated growth over the 17-month data collection period. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the COVID-19 pandemic impacted both immediate and sustained growth across all platforms, with the greatest impact observed on the Twitch platform. CONCLUSIONS: Food and beverage marketing as measured through stream titles is widely prevalent across the three most popular livestreaming platforms, particularly for energy drinks. Food marketing on these platforms experienced growth over the past 17 months which was accelerated substantially by the COVID-19 pandemic. Future work should assess the sustained impact this growth may have on marketing practices and eating behaviour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Energy Drinks , Social Media , Video Games , Beverages , Candy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Marketing , Pandemics , Prevalence , Restaurants , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks
17.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(5): 530-534, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377997

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The appropriate amount and type of screen time for children remains a persistent topic of discussion between parents and pediatricians. During the COVID-19 pandemic, screen time has considerably increased. The need to quarantine and utilize remote learning prompted our review of the basis for current screen time recommendations and more recent research. RECENT FINDINGS: The broad stroke of recent research points to an association of increased video game screen time with sedentary lifestyle and its related harms. However, there also are specific instances where video games have been found to be therapeutically useful for certain populations. SUMMARY: In light of these findings, it is prudent for the pediatrician to explore more of the 'why' of video game use as opposed to purely the 'how much'. Given the future beneficial therapeutic uses of some video games, clinicians should keep their eyes on this space for its continued development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Video Games , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 218-225, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340739

ABSTRACT

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and problematic internet use (PIU) are becoming increasingly detrimental to modern society, with serious consequences for daily functioning. IGD and PIU may be exacerbated by lifestyle changes imposed by the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study investigated changes in IGD and PIU during the pandemic and risk factors for them. This study is a part of a larger online study of problematic smartphone use in Japan, originally planned in 2019, and expanded in August 2020 to include the impact of COVID-19. 51,246 adults completed an online survey during the pandemic (August 2020), in Japan. Of these, 3,938 had also completed the survey before the onset of the pandemic (December 2019) and were used as the study population to determine how the pandemic has influenced IGD and PIU. IGD was assessed using the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS). PIU was measured using the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS). The prevalence of probable IGD during COVID-19 was 4.1% overall [95%CI, 3.9%-4.2%] (N = 51,246), and 8.6% among younger people (age < 30), 1-2.5% higher than reported before the pandemic. Probable PIU was 7.8% overall [95%CI, 7.6%-8.1%], and 17.0% [95%CI, 15.9%-18.2%] among younger people, 3.2-3.7% higher than reported before the pandemic. Comparisons before and during the pandemic, revealed that probable IGD prevalence has increased 1.6 times, and probable PIU prevalence by 1.5 times (IGD: χ2= 619.9, p < .001, PIU: χ2= 594.2, p < .001). Youth (age < 30) and COVID-19 infection were strongly associated with IGD exacerbation (odds ratio, 2.10 [95%CI, 1.18 to 3.75] and 5.67 [95%CI, 1.33 to 24.16]). Internet gaming disorder and problematic internet use appear to be aggravated by the pandemic. In particular, younger persons and people infected with COVID-19 are at higher risk for Internet Gaming Disorder. Prevention and treatment of these problems are needed.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Video Games , Adolescent , Adult , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Internet Use , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107044, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has required drastic safety precautions to contain virus spread, involving a protracted self-isolation period. Those with greater perceived or actual life stress are vulnerable to develop problematic internet behaviors. Thus, we assessed how COVID-19 social isolation affected online gaming (OG) and pornography viewing (PV) in the general population. METHODS: We developed an online cross-sectional survey, Habit Tracker (HabiT), completed by 1,344 adults (≥18 years). HabiT was released internationally with individuals from 80 countries participating; a majority residing in the United States and United Kingdom. We measured changes in OG (IGDS9-SF) and PV (CYPAT) behaviors before and during the COVID-19 quarantine period. We also assessed psychiatric factors such as anxiety, depression (HADS), and impulsivity (SUPPS-P). The primary outcome measures were change in amount of, and current OG and PV severity during quarantine. These measures were related to ten COVID-19-related stress factors. RESULTS: Overall, we observed a large increase in OG and a minor increase in PV. Those who increased OG (63%) and PV (43%) during quarantine were younger individuals, males, those who left the quarantine household infrequently, those who reported low frequency or poor quality social interactions, and those with higher depression, anxiety, and urgency impulsivity. DISCUSSION: Our findings highlight similarities between forms of problematic internet behaviors driven by stress, depression, anxiety; while highlighting distinct avenues which these behaviors can manifest. CONCLUSION: We emphasize the relevance of identifying those in need of emotional regulation interventions, to mitigate problematic internet behaviors in the context of COVID-19 isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Video Games , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Erotica , Humans , Internet , Male , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105991, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Computer game assisted task specific exercises (CGATSE) are rehabilitation gaming systems (RGS) used in stroke rehabilitation to facilitate patient performance of high intensity, task based, repetitive exercises aiming to enhance neuroplasticity. CGATSE maybe an appealing option in home based rehabilitation of stroke patients, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to determine the effects of CGATSE on hemiplegic arm-hand function, cognitive function and quality of life in stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty stroke patients were randomized into two groups. All participants received twenty sessions of physical therapy. In addition, the therapy group undertook thirty minutes of CGATSE using the Rejoyce gaming system; while the control group undertook thirty minutes of occupational therapy (OT). Motor function was evaluated before and after treatment using the Fugl Meyer upper extremity (FMUE), Brunnstrom stages of stroke recovery (BSSR) arm and hand. The CGATSE group also completed the Rejoyce arm hand function test (RAHFT). Cognitive function was evaluated using the mini mental state examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SS-QOL) scale. RESULTS: The FMUE, BSSR arm and SSQOL improved in both groups (p < 0.05). BSSR of the hand improved only in the CGATSE group (p = 0.024). RAHFT scores improved in the CGATSE group (p = 0.008). MoCA scores significantly improved in the control group (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: CGATSE may be beneficial in providing continuation of care after stroke, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic when home based rehabilitation options are becoming increasingly important. Benefits of CGATSE in improving cognitive function is less clear. RGS aimed at improving motor function may be compared to gaming systems designed to target cognitive development and more detailed higher cortical function deficit tests can be used as outcome measures.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Exercise Therapy , Motor Activity , Quality of Life , Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke/therapy , Telerehabilitation , Upper Extremity/innervation , Video Games , Aged , Disability Evaluation , Female , Functional Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/psychology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Turkey
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