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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 558, 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A global pandemic has been declared for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has serious impacts on human health and healthcare systems in the affected areas, including Vietnam. None of the previous studies have a framework to provide summary statistics of the virus variants and assess the severity associated with virus proteins and host cells in COVID-19 patients in Vietnam. METHOD: In this paper, we comprehensively investigated SARS-CoV-2 variants and immune responses in COVID-19 patients. We provided summary statistics of target sequences of SARS-CoV-2 in Vietnam and other countries for data scientists to use in downstream analysis for therapeutic targets. For host cells, we proposed a predictive model of the severity of COVID-19 based on public datasets of hospitalization status in Vietnam, incorporating a polygenic risk score. This score uses immunogenic SNP biomarkers as indicators of COVID-19 severity. RESULT: We identified that the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 is most prevalent in southern areas of Vietnam and it is different from other areas in the world using various data sources. Our predictive models of COVID-19 severity had high accuracy (Random Forest AUC = 0.81, Elastic Net AUC = 0.7, and SVM AUC = 0.69) and showed that the use of polygenic risk scores increased the models' predictive capabilities. CONCLUSION: We provided a comprehensive analysis for COVID-19 severity in Vietnam. This investigation is not only helpful for COVID-19 treatment in therapeutic target studies, but also could influence further research on the disease progression and personalized clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vietnam/epidemiology
3.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270345, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The situation of the COVID-19 outbreak in the border areas of China and Vietnam is complex, and its progress may affect the willingness of urban and rural residents to receive the vaccine. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to understand the influence of the COVID-19 epidemic situation on the willingness of urban and rural residents in China-Vietnam border areas to get vaccinated and the factors that affect the vaccinations. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hani-Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Honghe, a border area between China and Vietnam, using online and paper questionnaires from April 1 to June 4, 2021. A total of 8849 valid questionnaires were surveyed to compare the differences in the willingness of urban and rural residents to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to explore the influence of the epidemic situation on the willingness to be vaccinated. RESULTS: In the border areas between China and Vietnam in Yunnan Province, both urban and rural residents had a high willingness (> 90%) to receive the COVID-19 vaccination, with a higher level of willingness in urban than in rural areas and a higher willingness among residents aged ≥ 56 years. Rural residents mainly concerned about the vaccination were different from urban residents (p< 0.05). About 54.8% of urban respondents and 59.2% of rural respondents indicated that their willingness to get COVID-19 vaccine would be affected by new COVID-19 cases. Respondents who were divorced, had an occupation other than farming, had contraindications to vaccination, were concerned about the safety of vaccines and worried about virus mutation, thought that the epidemic situation would not affect their willingness to get vaccinated (p< 0.05). CONCLUSION: The prevention and control of epidemics in border areas is of considerable importance. It is necessary to conduct targeted health education and vaccine knowledge popularization among urban and rural residents to increase the vaccination rate and consolidate the epidemic prevention and control at the border.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Vaccination , Vietnam/epidemiology
4.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(1): E166-E173, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955099

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The situation of COVID-19 pandemic is becoming more complex. The research institutes should focus on the most important challenge related to this outbreak at the national level. We aim to realize this scoping review to map publications on COVID-19 in Vietnam in order to guide research priorities and policies in the country. Methods: This study was conducted at the Thai Binh University of Medicine and Pharmacy, from May to August 2020, according to the guidance for conducting systematic scoping review. Results: A total of 72 studies met the inclusion criteria. The most frequent publications were original articles (27.8%), followed by letter to editor/correspondence (26.4%). According to the research priorities for COVID-19 set by the WHO, 41.7% studies focused on control and prevention of COVID-19, but none of studies on personal protective equipment or protocol for healthcare workers' safety were conducted. 12.5% studies carried out a thorough investigation into epidemiology of the COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam. Virology and genomics, natural history of the virus and its transmission in Vietnam were described by 18.1% papers. Only one study was conducted in terms of development for candidate therapeutics. Conclusion: We call for national investigation on treatment against SARS-CoV-2 and protocol for medical staff protection. The government and academic institutions should work in collaboration with international stakeholders, including the WHO, to combat together the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903374

ABSTRACT

Taiwan is expected to reach super-aged status by 2026, leading to an increased demand for elderly caregiving services. Low local unemployment and a dwindling working-age population mean the island's care system relies heavily on female foreign domestic workers (FDWs) from Southeast Asian neighbors such as Vietnam to satisfy labor shortages. Although suggested by anecdotal evidence, limited research has been conducted on the link between the shortfall in FDW qualifications, training, preparedness, and expertise and their employment stressors. Therefore, this study aims to assist FDWs by evaluating their stressors and helping them better understand health care delivery by (1) administering the Modified Caregiver Strain Index (MCSI) revised 2003 questionnaire, (2) performing semi-structured in-depth one-on-one interviews, (3) classifying interview results according to thematic analysis, and (4) using these themes to devise and deliver a 12-week multilingual health education teach-back program. Our results indicate that Vietnamese FDWs face specific challenges, including language barriers, homesickness, intensive physical and psychological work demands, stress adaptation, and occupational exposures. Despite yielding no significant improvements in caregiving strain, our intervention, conducted at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, pinpoints and classifies areas of grave concern and proposes recommendations that can assist long-term care (LTC) stakeholders in understanding and overcoming their respective challenges, thereby improving the quality of elderly care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Aged , Asians , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Quality Improvement , Taiwan , Vietnam
6.
PLoS Med ; 19(5): e1004016, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infants are at highest risk of pneumococcal disease. Their added protection through herd effects is a key part in the considerations on optimal pneumococcal vaccination strategies. Yet, little is currently known about the main transmission pathways to this vulnerable age group. Hence, this study investigates pneumococcal transmission routes to infants in the coastal city of Nha Trang, Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In October 2018, we conducted a nested cross-sectional contact and pneumococcal carriage survey in randomly selected 4- to 11-month-old infants across all 27 communes of Nha Trang. Bayesian logistic regression models were used to estimate age specific carriage prevalence in the population, a proxy for the probability that a contact of a given age could lead to pneumococcal exposure for the infant. We used another Bayesian logistic regression model to estimate the correlation between infant carriage and the probability that at least one of their reported contacts carried pneumococci, controlling for age and locality. In total, 1,583 infants between 4 and 13 months old participated, with 7,428 contacts reported. Few infants (5%, or 86 infants) attended day care, and carriage prevalence was 22% (353 infants). Most infants (61%, or 966 infants) had less than a 25% probability to have had close contact with a pneumococcal carrier on the surveyed day. Pneumococcal infection risk and contact behaviour were highly correlated: If adjusted for age and locality, the odds of an infant's carriage increased by 22% (95% confidence interval (CI): 15 to 29) per 10 percentage points increase in the probability to have had close contact with at least 1 pneumococcal carrier. Moreover, 2- to 6-year-old children contributed 51% (95% CI: 39 to 63) to the total direct pneumococcal exposure risks to infants in this setting. The main limitation of this study is that exposure risk was assessed indirectly by the age-dependent propensity for carriage of a contact and not by assessing carriage of such contacts directly. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that cross-sectional contact and infection studies could help identify pneumococcal transmission routes and that preschool-age children may be the largest reservoir for pneumococcal transmission to infants in Nha Trang, Vietnam.


Subject(s)
Carrier State , Pneumococcal Infections , Bayes Theorem , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Nasopharynx , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vietnam/epidemiology
7.
Toxicol Pathol ; 50(5): 560-573, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902220

ABSTRACT

Cynomolgus macaques, the most commonly utilized nonhuman primate in nonclinical toxicology studies, are acquired from purpose-bred colonies across various geographic locations, including China, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Importation challenges and limited availability have restricted animals suitable for inclusion in nonclinical studies. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak further stressed supply chains, reducing the ability to source animals from a singular location to complete a drug development program. These challenges raised concerns of increased variability in study endpoints due to heterogeneity of animals and that this could subsequently impact historical control data and toxicology study interpretation. To investigate the impact of Chinese, Vietnamese, or Cambodian geographic origin on standard nonclinical toxicology study endpoints, historical control data from studies conducted at a single facility from 2005 to 2020 were compiled and evaluated for the following: clinical observations, body weight, ophthalmoscopic examinations, and clinical and anatomic pathology data. Study populations consisted of 2- to 5-year-old cynomolgus macaques sourced from China (n = 750 males/741 females), Cambodia (n = 282 males/271 females), and Vietnam (n = 122 males/120 females). Interpretation of the various data demonstrated no notable differences in standard toxicology study endpoints or background findings among cynomolgus macaques originating from China, Cambodia, or Vietnam.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Asians , China , Female , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Vietnam
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(10): 1380-1386, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895202

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To find out risk factors for disease severity and mortality of pediatric COVID-19 in the fourth wave of COVID-19 in Vietnam. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was performed at Children's Hospital 1 from July to December 2021. All children with COVID-19 confirmed by a positive Realtime RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 result and treated at COVID-19 department for at least 72 h were included. RESULTS: Of the 850 cases admitting to COVID-19 department, 555 children with COVID-19 confirmed by positive RT-PCR and treated at our center for more than 72 h. Median age of confirmed cases was 22.3 (IQR: 3.2-88.6) months, 55.1% were male, and 84.5% had a history of close contact with confirmed COVID-19 patients. The rate of mild, moderate and severe/critical cases was 73,7%, 9.0% and 17.3%, respectively. One hundred ninety-two children (34.6%) had underlying diseases, in which, neurologic disease was the most common underlying disease (7.9%). Underlying disease, dyspnea, elevated CRP >20 mg/L and elevated ferritin were independent factors related to severe illness. Twenty-point two percent of patients in our study needed respiratory support, including 22 invasive mechanical ventilation cases. Eighteen cases (3.2%) died because of severe comorbidities, poor response to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the severe/critical and mortality rates in pediatric COVID-19 cases were relatively high. All fatal cases had severe comorbidities. Underlying disease, dyspnea, and elevated inflammatory markers were independent factors related to severity in pediatric COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asians , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Dyspnea , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vietnam/epidemiology
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(28): 41875-41885, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872653

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 lockdowns have improved the ambient air quality across the world via reduced air pollutant levels. This article aims to investigate the effect of the partial lockdown on the main ambient air pollutants and their elemental concentrations bound to PM2.5 in Hanoi. In addition to the PM2.5 samples collected at three urban sites in Hanoi, the daily PM2.5, NO2, O3, and SO2 levels were collected from the automatic ambient air quality monitoring station at Nguyen Van Cu street to analyze the pollution level before (March 10th-March 31st) and during the partial lockdown (April 1st-April 22nd) with "current" data obtained in 2020 and "historical" data obtained in 2014, 2016, and 2017. The results showed that NO2, PM2.5, O3, and SO2 concentrations obtained from the automatic ambient air quality monitoring station were reduced by 75.8, 55.9, 21.4, and 60.7%, respectively, compared with historical data. Besides, the concentration of PM2.5 at sampling sites declined by 41.8% during the partial lockdown. Furthermore, there was a drastic negative relationship between the boundary layer height (BLH) and the daily mean PM2.5 in Hanoi. The concentrations of Cd, Se, As, Sr, Ba, Cu, Mn, Pb, K, Zn, Ca, Al, and Mg during the partial lockdown were lower than those before the partial lockdown. The results of enrichment factor (EF) values and principal component analysis (PCA) concluded that trace elements in PM2.5 before the partial lockdown were more affected by industrial activities than those during the partial lockdown.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Trace Elements , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/analysis , Vietnam
14.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262096, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dengue usually progress abnormally, especially in the critical phase. The main causes of death were shock, severe bleeding and organ failure. The aim of our study was to evaluate prognostic indicators of severe dengue according to the phases of the disease progression. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to December 2017 at the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases and the Hospital for Tropical Diseases of Ho Chi Minh City. 326 patients, aged 6 years and over, including 99/326 patients with severe dengue and 227/326 patients with non-severe dengue, hospitalized in the first 3 days of illness, confirmed Dengue virus by the RT-PCR assay have been registered for the study. Clinical manifestations were monitored daily. The hematocrit, white blood cells, platelet, serum albumin, ALT, AST, bilirubin, prothrombin time (PT%, PTs), fibrinogen, aPTT, INR and creatinine were evaluated at two times: febrile phase and critical phase. RESULTS: Independent factors associated with severe dengue were identified on multivariate logistic regression models. During the first 3 days of the disease, the prognostic indicators were platelet count ≤ 100 G/L (OR = 2.2; 95%CI: 1.2-3.9), or serum albumin < 35 g/L (OR = 3.3; 95%CI: 1.8-6.1). From day 4-6, the indicator were AST > 400 U/L (OR = 3.0; 95%CI: 1.1-7.9), ALT > 400 U/L (OR = 6.6; 95%CI: 1.7-24.6), albumin < 35 g/L (OR = 3.0; 95%CI: 1.5-5.9), and bilirubin total >17 µmol/L (OR = 4.6; 95%CI: 2.0-10.4). CONCLUSION: To predict the risk of patients with severe dengue, prognostic laboratory indicators should be indicated consistent with the progression of the disease. During the first 3 days of illness, prognostic indicators should be platelet count, or serum albumin. From the 4th - 6th day of illness, prognostic indicators should be AST, ALT, albumin, or bilirubin total.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Serum Albumin/analysis , Severe Dengue/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Prognosis , Severe Dengue/blood , Severe Dengue/mortality , Thrombin Time , Vietnam , Young Adult
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 854, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy or refusal has actually been a threat to global health. In the current situation, health professions students are at risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection during their internship at healthcare facilities. Furthermore, those future healthcare workers will advise people to accept the COVID-19 vaccination. Therefore, the attitude of students towards vaccine acceptance and the predicting factors needs to be elucidated. This study applied the Health Belief Model to determine predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among health professions students. METHODS: Nine hundred eleven students participated in a cross-sectional online survey in Vietnam. Data were collected from 1st April to 30th June 2021. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 20.0 with Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests before executing multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of the COVID-19 vaccine acceptability RESULTS: The overall vaccine acceptance, hesitancy, and refusal rates were 58% (95% CI: 54.7% - 61.3%), 40.4% (95% CI: 37.2% - 43.7%) and 1.5% (95% CI: 0.8% - 2.6%), respectively. Regarding vaccination hesitancy, a predictor such as "Receiving recent flu shots" had a negative correlation, whereas "Vaccines have little efficacy & serious adverse effects" (Perceived barriers), nationality, and majors were positive correlates. For refusal, "Unvaccinated students feasibly infected COVID-19 during hospital internship" (Perceived susceptibility) was a negative correlate. For predicting both hesitancy and refusal, "Mass media appreciating effectiveness and safety of vaccines" (Cues to action), and " Health professions students get serious complications of COVID-19 if not vaccinated" (Perceived severity) were negative predictors. In contrast, "Manufacturers do not disclose adverse effects of vaccines" (Cues to action), and "Adverse effect causes death" (Perceived barrier) were recognized as positive predictors. Strong Health Belief Model predictors of vaccine refusal were "Manufacturers do not disclose adverse effects of vaccines" (Cues to action) with OR= 5.299(95% CI: 1.687-16.641, p= 0.004), and "Adverse effect causes death" (Perceived barrier) with OR= 10.255 (95% CI = 3.528-29.814, p= 0.0005). CONCLUSION: Health professions students' acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination might be based on the perceived susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19, concerns about vaccine efficacy and safety, and the influence levels of information from various sources. Health education and measures to prevent the harmful effects of COVID-19 vaccine misinformation could potentially improve the acceptance rate of the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Students, Health Occupations , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Occupations , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam
16.
17.
Toxicol Pathol ; 50(5): 591-606, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807928

ABSTRACT

Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are commonly used in safety assessment and as translational models for drug development. Recent supply chain pressures, exportation bans, and increased demand for drug safety assessment studies exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic have prompted the investigation of utilizing macaques of different geographic origin in preclinical toxicity studies. This study compares routine hematology, coagulation, and clinical chemistry endpoints of 3 distinct subpopulations of mainland Asia origin (Cambodia, China, and Vietnam) with Mauritius origin macaques compiling results of 3,225 animals from 123 regulatory toxicology studies conducted at North American and European Union contract research organization facilities between 2016 and 2019. Results were generally similar amongst the subpopulations compared in this study. Few notable differences in hematology test results and several minor differences in serum biochemistry and coagulation test results were identified when 3 distinct subpopulations of mainland Asia origin macaques were compared with Mauritius origin macaques. Our findings support the use of different origin macaques in drug development programs; however, emphasizes the importance of maintaining consistency in geographic origin of animals within a study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , Animals , Blood Coagulation Tests , Cambodia , Chemistry, Clinical , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Mauritius , Pandemics , Vietnam
19.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(2): 182-187, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783063

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on the total number of consultations for respiratory and gastrointestinal infections among children under 16 years in Thai Binh Pediatric Hospital, Vietnam during the year 2020. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out to review consecutive consultations occurring in children admitted from January 01, 2016 to December 31, 2020. All medical records were collected from the central numeric database of the hospital. Diagnoses were documented according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 criteria. RESULTS: 436,276 children consulted at the outpatient department during the period of study. A gradual increase in the total number of outpatients was observed from 2016 to 2019, including those consulting for respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. However, the total number of outpatients and the numbers of those consulting for respiratory and gastrointestinal infections dramatically decreased in 2020. A significant decrease of respiratory infections relative proportion was observed in 2020 when compared to 2016-2019 (p < 0.0001). By contrast, the relative proportion of gastrointestinal infections did not significantly vary (p = 0.91). The proportion of outpatients aged under 5 years was significantly lower in 2020 compared to previous years (p < 0.0001). The proportion of male patients was significantly higher in 2020 than from 2016 to 2019 (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Public health measures against the COVID-19 pandemic likely decreased the prevalence of other respiratory tract infections. Further studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of each type of measure. Microbiological studies are also recommended, to better understand the effect of preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand/epidemiology , Vietnam/epidemiology
20.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266299, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trends in the public perception and awareness of COVID-19 over time are poorly understood. We conducted a longitudinal study to analyze characteristics and trends of online information during a major COVID-19 outbreak in Da Nang province, Vietnam in July-August 2020 to understand public awareness and perceptions during an epidemic. METHODS: We collected online information on COVID-19 incidence and mortality from online platforms in Vietnam between 1 July and 15 September, 2020, and assessed their trends over time against the epidemic curve. We explored the associations between engagement, sentiment polarity, and other characteristics of online information with different outbreak phases using Poisson regression and multinomial logistic regression analysis. We assessed the frequency of keywords over time, and conducted a semantic analysis of keywords using word segmentation. RESULTS: We found a close association between collected online information and the evolution of the COVID-19 situation in Vietnam. Online information generated higher engagements during compared to before the outbreak. There was a close relationship between sentiment polarity and posts' topics: the emotional tendencies about COVID-19 mortality were significantly more negative, and more neutral or positive about COVID-19 incidence. Online newspaper reported significantly more information in negative or positive sentiment than online forums or social media. Most topics of public concern followed closely the progression of the COVID-19 situation during the outbreak: development of the global pandemic and vaccination; the unfolding outbreak in Vietnam; and the subsiding of the outbreak after two months. CONCLUSION: This study shows how online information can reflect a public health threat in real time, and provides important insights about public awareness and perception during different outbreak phases. Our findings can help public health decision makers in Vietnam and other low and middle income countries with high internet penetration rates to design more effective communication strategies during critical phases of an epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
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