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2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598775

ABSTRACT

An online cross-sectional survey using a "snowball" sampling method was carried out to assess the adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures among dental care workers (DCWs) during the pandemic. Six questions concerning the COVID-19 preventive guidelines issued by the Vietnam Ministry of Health were used to evaluate DCWs' adherence to preventive measures at dental care clinics. The quality of life of DCWs was assessed using the WHO-5 questionnaire and was defined as low if the total score was less than 13 points. Factors relating to adherence to COVID-19 prevention measures of DCWs were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. In total, 514 DCWs completed the questionnaire. A total of 37% DCWs rated their quality of life as low. Regression analysis suggested that older age, a better quality of life, living in an urban area, and training on COVID-19 prevention were associated with better adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures, while being a dentist and lack of personal protective equipment was associated with less adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures. The pandemic had a significant negative impact on the physical and mental health of DCWs. Therefore, specific national guidelines for the prevention and control of the spread of COVID-19 in dental facilities should be issued.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Care , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vietnam/epidemiology
3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3194-3199, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532923

ABSTRACT

African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious haemorrhagic disease in pigs and has become endemic in several Vietnam provinces since the first outbreak in 2019. The presence of carriers and the recurrence of disease in the surviving swine herd after an ASF outbreak has not previously been properly evaluated. In this study, pigs naturally infected with an acute form of ASF were allowed to recover from the disease. A serological follow-up was conducted for more than 14 months with 14 convalescent gilts and their offspring. All convalescent animals had long lasting high serum antibody levels without persistent viremia. They also did not excrete virus via nasal discharge post-recovery. These convalescent pigs could partially perform as replacement gilts despite the fact that ASF affected reproductive performance. Here, we confirmed that there were neither the carriers of nor recurrence of disease in the convalescent pigs and their offspring following the outbreak of acute ASF. These findings may facilitate efforts to design a new farming model in ASF endemic provinces in Vietnam where there is a lack of a repopulation strategy due to the limited funding received from the local regulatory authorities.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus , African Swine Fever , Swine Diseases , African Swine Fever/epidemiology , African Swine Fever Virus/genetics , Animals , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Sus scrofa , Swine , Vietnam/epidemiology
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Of the estimated 10 million people affected by (TB) each year, one-third are never diagnosed. Delayed case detection within the private healthcare sector has been identified as a particular problem in some settings, leading to considerable morbidity, mortality and community transmission. Using unannounced standardised patient (SP) visits to the pharmacies, we aimed to evaluate the performance of private pharmacies in the detection and treatment of TB. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken at randomly selected private pharmacies within 40 districts of Vietnam. Trained actors implemented two standardised clinical scenarios of presumptive TB and presumptive multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Outcomes were the proportion of SPs referred for medical assessment and the proportion inappropriately receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics. Logistic regression evaluated predictors of SPs' referral. RESULTS: In total, 638 SP encounters were conducted, of which only 155 (24.3%) were referred for medical assessment; 511 (80·1%) were inappropriately offered antibiotics. A higher proportion of SPs were referred without having been given antibiotics if they had presumptive MDR-TB (68/320, 21.3%) versus presumptive TB (17/318, 5.3%; adjusted OR=4.8, 95% CI 2.9 to 7.8). Pharmacies offered antibiotics without a prescription to 89.9% of SPs with presumptive TB and 70.3% with presumptive MDR-TB, with no clear follow-up plan. CONCLUSIONS: Few SPs with presumptive TB were appropriately referred for medical assessment by private pharmacies. Interventions to improve appropriate TB referral within the private pharmacy sector are urgently required to reduce the number of undiagnosed TB cases in Vietnam and similar high-prevalence settings.


Subject(s)
Pharmacies , Pharmacy , Tuberculosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Vietnam/epidemiology
5.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 12(3): 77-81, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497706

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7, first detected in September 2020 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, has spread quickly to many countries around the world. While some publications have described the clinical features of adult patients with the B.1.1.7 variant, little information is available on newborn patients. We report the clinical characteristics, treatment and care practices for a 21-day-old newborn patient who was confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 in Viet Nam during contact tracing after her father was confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2. The patient displayed no symptoms of COVID-19 on admission but 3 days later developed diarrhoea, vomiting, a runny nose and a productive cough. These symptoms lasted for 3 days before becoming milder for 1 day and then stopping until discharge. During treatment, the patient received Vietnamese traditional herbal peppermint extracts for cough and digestive probiotics for diarrhoeal symptoms. A saltwater solution (Sterimar 0.9%) was used to clean the patient's sinuses. The patient was cared for and fed breastmilk by her mother, who was provided with personal protective equipment, including sterilized infant equipment, medical masks and hand sanitizer, during hospitalization. The patient's mother tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 throughout hospitalization. In conclusion, we found no severely abnormal clinical symptoms in a newborn infected with SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 during treatment. Our case suggests that newborn patients with the B.1.1.7 variant can receive exclusive breastmilk feeding if sufficient preventive measures are provided for both mother and child.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Vietnam/epidemiology
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1124, 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the spatiotemporal distribution of emerging infectious diseases is crucial for implementation of control measures. In the first 7 months from the occurrence of COVID-19 pandemic, Vietnam has documented comparatively few cases of COVID-19. Understanding the spatiotemporal distribution of these cases may contribute to development of global countermeasures. METHODS: We assessed the spatiotemporal distribution of COVID-19 from 23 January to 31 July 2020 in Vietnam. Data were collected from reports of the World Health Organization, the Vietnam Ministry of Health, and related websites. Temporal distribution was assessed via the transmission classification (local or quarantined cases). Geographical distribution was assessed via the number of cases in each province along with their timelines. The most likely disease clusters with elevated incidence were assessed via calculation of the relative risk (RR). RESULTS: Among 544 observed cases of COVID-19, the median age was 35 years, 54.8% were men, and 50.9% were diagnosed during quarantine. During the observation period, there were four phases: Phase 1, COVID-19 cases occurred sporadically in January and February 2020; Phase 2, an epidemic wave occurred from the 1st week of March to the middle of April (Wave 1); Phase 3, only quarantining cases were involved; and Phase 4, a second epidemic wave began on July 25th, 2020 (Wave 2). A spatial cluster in Phase 1 was detected in Vinh Phuc Province (RR, 38.052). In Phase 2, primary spatial clusters were identified in the areas of Hanoi and Ha Nam Province (RR, 6.357). In Phase 4, a spatial cluster was detected in Da Nang, a popular coastal tourist destination (RR, 70.401). CONCLUSIONS: Spatial disease clustering of COVID-19 in Vietnam was associated with large cities, tourist destinations, people's mobility, and the occurrence of nosocomial infections. Past experiences with outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases led to quick implementation of governmental countermeasures against COVID-19 and a general acceptance of these measures by the population. The behaviors of the population and the government, as well as the country's age distribution, may have contributed to the low incidence and small number of severe COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , Male , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
7.
Waste Manag Res ; 39(11): 1356-1364, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463094

ABSTRACT

Despite its initial success in COVID-19 pandemic control, Vietnam faces a growing risk of outbreaks as new infection waves driven by the highly contagious Delta variant surge in the region. In the context of preparedness through waste management, this study estimated the rate and quantity of generation and the composition of COVID-19 waste in Vietnam from the supply of resources and equipment. Over a year under COVID, 1486 t of COVID-19 waste was produced from the treatment of isolated COVID-19 patients (4.64 kg bed-1 day-1), quarantine in medical facilities (3.86 kg bed-1 day-1), centralised quarantine (46.43 g bed-1 day-1), testing (50 g test-1) and vaccination (10.46 g shot-1). Plastic dominated the waste at 76.7%, followed by paper. The additional management of waste from households with persons under quarantine is likely to reduce infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - contaminated waste. Thorough assessment is recommended for the establishment of regional collaboration to secure COVID-19 waste treatment capacity. These findings will support COVID-19 waste planning in Vietnam in association with pandemic scenarios and could be used as a reference by other developing countries for pandemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medical Waste , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
8.
J Behav Addict ; 10(3): 722-730, 2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438374

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Vietnam implemented numerous measures to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 among school students, including study-at-home/self-quarantine. During the study-at-home period, adolescents may engage in more video gaming than usual, potentially contributing to gaming disorder. However, the regionally-representative prevalence of gaming disorder and its association with parenting practice and discipline practice have not been described. We assessed the prevalence of gaming disorder among Vietnamese adolescents during the initial 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic and the associations between gaming disorder and parenting practice and discipline practice. Methods: We conducted a school-based, self-administered cross-sectional survey of 2,084 students in Hanoi, Vietnam (response rate = 97.1%). The survey included standardized instruments translated from English to Vietnamese. We performed multilevel logistic regressions to assess the associations between parenting practice, discipline practice, and gaming disorder. Results: The prevalence of gaming disorder among the respondents was 11.6%. Healthy parent-child relationship was protective against gaming disorder (Adj OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.21, 0.62). Non-supervision, non-discipline, violent discipline were positively associated with gaming disorder. Discussion and Conclusions: We found associations between gaming disorder and parent-child relationship, parental supervision, and parental discipline. Future interventional studies should consider assessing the effect of fostering healthy parent-child relationships and appropriate discipline on the occurrence or prognosis of gaming disorders.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vietnam/epidemiology
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 672732, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430743

ABSTRACT

Emerging from early of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has become one of the most serious health crisis globally. In response to such threat, a wide range of digital health applications has been deployed in Vietnam to strengthen surveillance, risk communication, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19. Digital health has brought enormous benefits to the fight against COVID-19, however, numerous constrains in digital health application remain. Lack of strong governance of digital health development and deployment; insufficient infrastructure and staff capacity for digital health application are among the main drawbacks. Despite several outstanding problems, digital health is expected to contribute to reducing the spread, improving the effectiveness of pandemic control, and adding to the dramatic transformation of the health system the post-COVID era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367825

ABSTRACT

This study explored the impact of COVID-19 on migrant workers in Vietnam, using a cumulative risk assessment (CRA) framework which comprises four domains (workplace, environment, individual and community). A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were collected in 2020 through a self-administered questionnaire with 445 domestic migrant workers in two industrial zones in two northern provinces (Bac Ninh and Ninh Binh) in Vietnam. The majority of migrant workers were female (65.2%), aged between 18 and 29 years old (66.8%), and had high school or higher education level qualifications. Most migrant workers had good knowledge about preventive measures (>90%) and correct practices on COVID-19 prevention (81.1%). Three health risk behaviors were reported: 10% of participants smoked, 25% consumed alcohol and 23.1% were engaged in online gaming. In terms of workplace, occupational working conditions were good. Noise was the most commonly reported hazard (29%). Regarding environment, about two-thirds of migrant workers lived in a small house (<36 m2). Most participants (80.4%) lived with their families. About community domain, many reported low salary or losing their job during January-July, 2020. Most migrants received information about COVID-19. The migrant workers suffered from poor health and low occupational safety, fear of job loss and income cut, poor housing and living conditions and limited access to public services. The holistic approach to address stressors is recommended to improve health and safety of migrant workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 110, 2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk factors for scrub typhus in Vietnam remain unknown. Scrub typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi often presents as an undifferentiated febrile illness and remains under appreciated due to the limited availability of diagnostic tests. This tropical rickettsial illness is increasingly recognized as an important cause of non-malaria acute undifferentiated fever in Asia. This study aimed to investigate behavioural and ecological related risk factors of scrub typhus to prevent this potentially life-threatening disease in Vietnam. METHODS: We conducted a clinical hospital-based active surveillance study, and a retrospective residence-enrolment date-age-matched case-control study in Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam, from August 2018 to March 2020. Clinical examinations, polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay IgM tests were applied to define cases and controls. All enrolled participants filled out a questionnaire including demographic socio-economic status, personal behaviors/protective equipment, habitat connections, land use, and possible exposure to the vector. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to define the scrub typhus associated risk factors. RESULTS: We identified 44 confirmed cases and matched them with 152 controls. Among cases and controls, the largest age group was the 41-50 years old and males accounted for 61.4% and 42.8%, respectively. There were similarities in demographic characteristics between the two groups, with the exception of occupation. Several factors were significantly associated with acquisition of scrub typhus, including sitting/laying directly on household floor [adjusted OR (aOR) = 4.9, 95% CI: 1.6-15.1, P = 0.006], household with poor sanitation/conditions (aOR = 7.9, 95% CI: 1.9-32.9, P = 0.005), workplace environment with risk (aOR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.2-7.6, P = 0.020), always observing mice around home (aOR = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.4-9.9, P = 0.008), and use of personal protective equipment in the field (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.1-1.1, P = 0.076). CONCLUSIONS: Ecological and household hygiene-related factors were more associated with scrub typhus infection, than individual-level exposure activities in the hyper-endemic area. These findings support local education and allow people to protect themselves from scrub typhus, especially in areas with limitations in diagnostic capacity.


Subject(s)
Orientia tsutsugamushi , Scrub Typhus , Animals , Case-Control Studies , Male , Mice , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Scrub Typhus/epidemiology , Vietnam/epidemiology
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5660-5665, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363702

ABSTRACT

Genome-wide analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strains is essential to better understand infectivity and virulence and to track coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and outbreaks. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 27 SARS-CoV-2 strains isolated between January 2020 and April 2020. A total of 54 mutations in different genomic regions was found. The D614G mutation, first detected in March 2020, was identified in 18 strains and was more likely associated with a lower cycle threshold (<25) in real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction diagnostic tests than the original D614 (prevalence ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-6.38). The integration of sequencing and epidemiological data suggests that SARS-CoV-2 transmission in both quarantine areas and in the community in Vietnam occur at the beginning of the epidemic although the country implemented strict quarantine quite early, with strict contact tracing, and testing. These findings provide insights into the nature of the epidemic, as well as shape strategies for COVID-19 prevention and control in Vietnam.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genetic Variation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , Quarantine , Regression Analysis , Vietnam/epidemiology , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
16.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 12(3): 47-55, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355144

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine whether environmental surface contamination with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred at a provincial hospital in Viet Nam that admitted patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and at the regional reference laboratory responsible for confirmatory testing for SARS-CoV-2 in 2020. Methods: Environmental samples were collected from patient and staff areas at the hospital and various operational and staff areas at the laboratory. Specimens from frequently touched surfaces in all rooms were collected using a moistened swab rubbed over a 25 cm2 area for each surface. The swabs were immediately transported to the laboratory for testing by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Throat specimens were collected from staff at both locations and were also tested for SARS-CoV-2 using real-time RT-PCR. Results: During the sampling period, the laboratory tested 6607 respiratory specimens for SARS-CoV-2 from patients within the region, and the hospital admitted 9 COVID-19 cases. Regular cleaning was conducted at both sites in accordance with infection prevention and control (IPC) practices. All 750 environmental samples (300 laboratory and 450 hospital) and 30 staff specimens were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Discussion: IPC measures at the facilities may have contributed to the negative results from the environmental samples. Other possible explanations include sampling late in a patient's hospital stay when virus load was lower, having insufficient contact time with a surface or using insufficiently moist collection swabs. Further environmental sampling studies of SARS-CoV-2 should consider including testing for the environmental presence of viruses within laboratory settings, targeting the collection of samples to early in the course of a patient's illness and including sampling of confirmed positive control surfaces, while maintaining appropriate biosafety measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals , Humans , Laboratories , Vietnam/epidemiology
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 583655, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348567

ABSTRACT

Vietnam has faced a high risk of transmission of COVID-19 during the pandemic. Despite the specific challenges that come with a low-resource country, the Vietnamese government has provided a sustainable response, demonstrating both great capacity and rapid decision-making to manage the entirety of the COVID-19 outbreak with lessons learned from the SARS and H1N1 epidemics in 2003 and 2009, respectively. A rapid response, specific epidemiological F0-F5 tracing system, and public education are some of the key measures that have helped Vietnam to control the outbreak. As of July 15, 2020, Vietnam has reported 373 accumulated confirmed cases and no deaths within the last 90 consecutive days of no new infections in the community. Vietnam can now consider declaring an end to the COVID-19 crisis on their part.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 2039-2050, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331773

ABSTRACT

African swine fever (ASF) is emerging in Vietnam and poses a continuing severe threat to the swine industry. A histopathological study of clinical samples collected during the May to July 2019 outbreak of ASF was performed to determine the characteristic lesions. We analysed samples from eight ASFV-infected farms. Histopathological results revealed the characteristic lesions of the acute to the subacute clinical form of ASF. Immunohistochemical results showed ASFV viral antigen distribution in mononuclear cells/macrophage in various organs, hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelium. Molecular analysis of partial capsid protein 72 gene revealed that ASFV strain from the eight separate outbreaks belonged to genotype II.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus , African Swine Fever , Swine Diseases , African Swine Fever/epidemiology , African Swine Fever Virus/genetics , Animals , Antigens, Viral , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Female , Genotype , Swine , Vietnam/epidemiology
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 127-129, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330880

ABSTRACT

We tested pre-pandemic (2015--2019) plasma samples from 148 Vietnamese children and 100 Vietnamese adults at high risk of zoonotic infections for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and spike proteins. None was positive. The data thus demonstrated no evidence of prior serological cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2 that might explain the low numbers of COVID-19 in Vietnam. No pre-existing cross-reactivity might explain Vietnam success of COVID-19 control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Vietnam/epidemiology
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110 Suppl 1: S28-S43, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vietnam implemented various public health interventions such as contact tracing and testing, mandatory quarantine, and lockdowns in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the effects of these measures on the epidemic remain unclear. METHODS: This article describes the public health interventions in relation to COVID-19 incidence. Maximum likelihood estimations were used to assess containment delays (time between symptom onset and start of isolation) and multivariable regression was employed to identify associated factors between interventions and COVID-19 incidence. The effective reproductive numbers (Rt) were calculated based on transmission pairs. RESULTS: Interventions were introduced periodically in response to the epidemic. Overall, 817 (55.4%) among 1474 COVID-19 cases were imported. Based on a serial interval of 8.72 ± 5.65 days, it was estimated that Rt decreased to below 1 (lowest at 0.02, 95% CI 0-0.12) during periods of strict border control and contact tracing, and increased ahead of new clusters. The main method to detect cases shifted over time from passive notification to active case-finding at immigration or in lockdown areas, with containment delays showing significant differences between modes of case detection. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of early, strict, and consistently implemented interventions is crucial to control COVID-19. Low-middle income countries with limited capacity can contain COVID-19 successfully using non-pharmaceutical interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Communicable Disease Control , Contact Tracing , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
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