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2.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 61: 103335, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore and evaluate extant and potential methods used in risk assessment and aggression prevention training. This study was also designed to consider the most appropriate method for educating nurses in use of a novel risk assessment instrument linked to a structured nursing intervention protocol (the electronic application of the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression and Aggression Prevention Protocol). BACKGROUND: Organisational and personal concerns have led to the development of training programs designed to prevent and manage aggression in mental health units. DESIGN: This descriptive qualitative study explored experts' opinions about effective training approaches. METHODS: Data were collected via focus groups (a total of four discrete groups), with each of the four focus groups repeated after four weeks. A semi-structured guide was used to guide the focus group discussions. RESULTS: Seventeen experts with experience coordinating and facilitating training in prevention and management of aggression in mental health units in New Zealand and Australia participated in this study. Three themes emerged from the data 1) existing training can be "like pulling teeth without anaesthetic" 2) the need to "breathe life" into the training and 3) a vision of the "gold standard" for practice and training. CONCLUSIONS: Training is optimal when it is place-based, responsive to local needs and inclusive of relevant clinical, cultural, consumer/carer and contextual factors. Training may benefit from a focus on the application of the knowledge, skills and attitudes learnt and there is a need for ongoing reinforcement of training in the clinical setting, beyond initial introduction and provision of information and orientation to relevant skills.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Violence , Aggression/psychology , Humans , Qualitative Research , Risk Assessment , Violence/prevention & control , Violence/psychology
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 288, 2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, concerns have been raised that the priority implementation of public health measures in response to COVID-19 may have unintended negative impacts on a variety of other health and wellbeing factors, including violence. This study examined the impact of COVID-19 response measures on changes in violence against women and children (VAWC) service utilisation across European countries. METHODS: A rapid assessment design was used to compile data including a survey distributed across WHO Europe Healthy Cities Networks and Violence Injury Prevention Focal Points in WHO European Region member states, and a scoping review of media reports, journal articles, and reports. Searches were conducted in English and Russian and covered the period between 1 January 2020 and 17 September 2020. Data extracted included: country; violence type; service sector; and change in service utilisation during COVID-19. All data pertained to the period during which COVID-19 related public health measures were implemented compared to a period before restrictions were in place. RESULTS: Overall, findings suggested that there was a median reported increase in VAWC service utilisation of approximately 20% during the COVID-19 pandemic. Crucially, however, change in service utilisation differed across sectors. After categorising each estimate as reflecting an increase or decrease in VAWC service utilisation, there was a significant association between sector and change in service utilisation; the majority of NGO estimates (95.1%) showed an increase in utilisation, compared to 58.2% of law enforcement estimates and 42.9% of health and social care estimates. CONCLUSIONS: The variation across sectors in changes in VAWC service utilisation has important implications for policymakers in the event of ongoing and future restrictions related to COVID-19, and more generally during other times of prolonged presence in the home. The increased global attention on VAWC during the pandemic should be used to drive forward the agenda on prevention, increase access to services, and implement better data collection mechanisms to ensure the momentum and increased focus on VAWC during the pandemic is not wasted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Police , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence/prevention & control
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 15-16, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708724

ABSTRACT

A 3-year analysis released in August 2021 by the WHO indicated that more than 700 healthcare workers and patients have died (2,000 injured) as a result of attacks against health facilities since 2017. The COVID-19 pandemic has made the risks even worse for doctors, nurses, and support staff, unfortunately. According to the latest figures from the International Committee of the Red Cross, 848 COVID-19-related violent incidents were recorded in 2020, and this is likely an underrepresentation of a much more widespread phenomenon. In response to rises in COVID-19-related attacks against healthcare, some countries have taken action. In Algeria, for instance, the penal code was amended to increase protection for healthcare workers against attacks and to punish individuals who damage health facilities. In the United Kingdom, the police, crime, sentencing, and courts bill proposed increased the maximum penalty from 12 months to 2 years in prison for anyone who assaults an emergency worker. Measures taken by countries represent a good practical way to counteract this crisis within COVID-19. However, we stress the importance of primary prevention with the use of communication: social media and other communication channels are fundamentally important to combat violence against health professionals, both to inform the population with quality data and to disseminate campaigns to prevent these acts.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/trends , Violence , Health Personnel , Humans , Patients , Risk Factors , Violence/prevention & control , Violence/statistics & numerical data
7.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 34(1): 3-4, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631668

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Firearm injuries are considered among the five leading causes of death for people ages 1-64 years. The issue is of concern for nurse practitioners (NPs) and NP educators as the need for gun violence-related health care increases. This essay focuses on several local and national efforts to address the short- and long-term consequences of gun violence.


Subject(s)
Firearms , Gun Violence , Nurse Practitioners , Wounds, Gunshot , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Gun Violence/prevention & control , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Violence/prevention & control , Wounds, Gunshot/prevention & control , Young Adult
9.
J Safety Res ; 80: 457-462, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587139

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many federal and national partners have a renewed commitment to addressing health equity and racial equity as a public health issue of concern. These are especially important issues in addressing many injury and violence prevention (IVP) topic areas. In developing and updating approaches to address injury and violence-related health and racial equity challenges, CDC and Safe States Alliance wanted to better understand how partners in the field are already approaching these issues. An environmental scan was conducted to explore how IVP professionals advance health equity and racial equity in their programmatic work. METHODS: Data collection occurred from multiple sources including focus groups and surveys. Health equity and racial equity-related questions were added to the Safe States Member Survey: Evaluating the Impact of COVID-19 on the IVP Workforce and Assessing Equity Initiative (COVID Impact and Equity Survey). An analysis of secondary data sources was conducted through ongoing evaluation initiatives at Safe States Alliance (the COVID Impact Evaluation and Connections Lab Evaluation Focus Groups). CONCLUSIONS: Successes and challenges were identified through the environmental scan that primarily fell into three categories: (1) Injury and Violence Prevention Strategies and Programs, (2) Using IVP Data to Inform Equity Approaches, (3) Equity Approaches in IVP Infrastructure. Practical Applications: Practical applications were identified that can be supported at the local, state, and federal/national level and are specific to the areas of IVP strategies and programs, IVP data and surveillance, and IVP organizational infrastructure. A few examples include: (1) Ensuring decision-making power and ownership of programs is shared between community partners and funders; (2) Working with national/federal surveillance system partners to ensure demographic fields/variables are improved to identify disparities and inequities; (3) Development of an "Injury and Violence Prevention Equity Institute" to better prepare IVP professionals to address health and racial equity challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence/prevention & control
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 15-16, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528970

ABSTRACT

A 3-year analysis released in August 2021 by the WHO indicated that more than 700 healthcare workers and patients have died (2,000 injured) as a result of attacks against health facilities since 2017. The COVID-19 pandemic has made the risks even worse for doctors, nurses, and support staff, unfortunately. According to the latest figures from the International Committee of the Red Cross, 848 COVID-19-related violent incidents were recorded in 2020, and this is likely an underrepresentation of a much more widespread phenomenon. In response to rises in COVID-19-related attacks against healthcare, some countries have taken action. In Algeria, for instance, the penal code was amended to increase protection for healthcare workers against attacks and to punish individuals who damage health facilities. In the United Kingdom, the police, crime, sentencing, and courts bill proposed increased the maximum penalty from 12 months to 2 years in prison for anyone who assaults an emergency worker. Measures taken by countries represent a good practical way to counteract this crisis within COVID-19. However, we stress the importance of primary prevention with the use of communication: social media and other communication channels are fundamentally important to combat violence against health professionals, both to inform the population with quality data and to disseminate campaigns to prevent these acts.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/trends , Violence , Health Personnel , Humans , Patients , Risk Factors , Violence/prevention & control , Violence/statistics & numerical data
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467699

ABSTRACT

Although programmes and policies targeting violence against women and girls (VAWG) have increased in the past decade, there is a paucity of evidence on the effectiveness of these interventions. To expand this evidence base, researchers increasingly employ remote data collection (RDC)-including online surveys, mobile applications and telephone interviews-in their evaluations. Although RDC allows for evaluations without in-person interactions-which are restricted during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic- information about these methods is necessary to understand their potential usefulness and limitations. This scoping review examines remote evaluations of VAWG interventions to describe the landscape of RDC methods, reflect on safety and ethical considerations, and offer best practices for RDC in VAWG research. Fourteen studies met eligibility criteria, with seven, five, and two studies employing telephone interviews, online surveys, and mobile applications, respectively. Studies commonly stated that participants were asked to use a safe email or device, but the method for verifying such safety was rarely specified. Best practices around safety included creating a 'quick escape' button for online data collection to use when another individual was present, explaining to participants how to erase browsing history and application purchases, and asking participants to specify a safe time for researchers to call. Only eight studies established referral pathways for respondents as per best practice. None of the eligible studies took place in low/middle-income countries (LMICs) or humanitarian settings, likely reflecting the additional challenges to using RDC methods in lower resource settings. Findings were used to create a best practice checklist for programme evaluators and Institutional Review Boards using RDC for VAWG interventions. The authors found that opportunities exist for researchers to safely and effectively use RDC methodologies to gather VAWG data, but that further study is needed to gauge the feasibility of these methods in LMICs and humanitarian settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Humans , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence/prevention & control
13.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(10): 730-738, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463418

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected children's risk of violence in their homes, communities and online, and has compromised the ability of child protection systems to promptly detect and respond to cases of violence. However, the need to strengthen violence prevention and response services has received insufficient attention in national and global pandemic response and mitigation strategies. In this paper, we summarize the growing body of evidence on the links between the pandemic and violence against children. Drawing on the World Health Organization's INSPIRE framework to end violence against children, we illustrate how the pandemic is affecting prevention and response efforts. For each of the seven INSPIRE strategies we identify how responses to the pandemic have changed children's risk of violence. We offer ideas for how governments, policy-makers, and international and civil society organizations can address violence in the context of a protracted COVID-19 crisis. We conclude by highlighting how the current pandemic offers opportunities to improve existing child protection systems to address violence against children. We suggest enhanced multisectoral coordination across the health, education, law enforcement, housing, child and social protection sectors. Actions need to prioritize the primary prevention of violence and promote the central role of children and adolescents in decision-making and programme design processes. Finally, we stress the continued need for better data and evidence to inform violence prevention and response strategies that can be effective during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


La pandémie de maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) a eu un impact sur le risque de violence à l'égard des enfants à domicile, au sein de leur communauté et en ligne. Elle a également empêché les systèmes de protection de l'enfance d'identifier rapidement les situations de ce type et d'y réagir dès que possible. Pourtant, la nécessité de renforcer les services de prévention et d'action en la matière n'a pas été suffisamment prise en compte dans les stratégies nationales et internationales d'intervention et d'atténuation des effets de la pandémie. Le présent document reprend l'accumulation de preuves confirmant les liens entre pandémie et violence à l'égard des enfants. En nous inspirant du cadre INSPIRE de l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé visant à mettre fin à la violence à l'encontre des enfants, nous illustrons la façon dont la pandémie affecte les efforts de prévention et d'action. Pour chacune des sept stratégies INSPIRE, nous déterminons comment les mesures de lutte contre la pandémie ont influencé le risque de violence envers les enfants. Nous formulons des pistes pour que les gouvernements, les législateurs, les institutions internationales et les organisations de la société civile puissent remédier à cette violence dans un contexte de crise prolongée due à la COVID-19. En guise de conclusion, nous mettons en lumière les opportunités qu'offre la pandémie actuelle d'améliorer les systèmes existants de protection de l'enfance pour mieux combattre la violence envers les enfants. Nous suggérons d'accroître la collaboration entre les secteurs de la santé, de l'éducation, du maintien de l'ordre, du logement, des droits de l'enfant et de la protection sociale. Les actions entreprises doivent se focaliser sur la prévention primaire de la violence et promouvoir le rôle central des enfants et adolescents dans les processus de conception de programmes et de prise de décisions. Enfin, nous soulignons le besoin permanent de données et de preuves fiables pour orienter les stratégies de prévention et d'intervention face à la violence, afin de garantir leur efficacité pendant et après la pandémie de COVID-19.


La pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) ha afectado al riesgo de violencia infantil que sufren los niños en sus hogares, comunidades y en línea, y ha puesto en peligro la capacidad de los sistemas de protección infantil para detectar y responder rápidamente a los casos de violencia. Sin embargo, la necesidad de reforzar los servicios de prevención y respuesta a la violencia no ha recibido suficiente atención en las estrategias nacionales y mundiales de respuesta y mitigación de la pandemia. En este documento, resumimos el creciente conjunto de pruebas sobre los vínculos entre la pandemia y la violencia infantil. Basándonos en el marco INSPIRE de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para poner fin a la violencia infantil, ilustramos cómo la pandemia está afectando a los esfuerzos de prevención y respuesta. Para cada una de las siete estrategias de INSPIRE, identificamos cómo las respuestas a la pandemia han cambiado el riesgo de violencia infantil. Ofrecemos ideas sobre cómo los gobiernos, los responsables políticos y las organizaciones internacionales y de la sociedad civil pueden abordar la violencia en el contexto de una crisis prolongada de COVID-19. Concluimos destacando cómo la pandemia actual ofrece oportunidades para mejorar los sistemas de protección infantil existentes para abordar este tipo de violencia. Sugerimos una mayor coordinación multisectorial en los sectores de la salud, la educación, la aplicación de la ley, la vivienda y la protección social infantil. Las acciones deben priorizar la prevención primaria de la violencia y promover el papel central de los niños y adolescentes en los procesos de toma de decisiones y en el diseño de programas. Por último, subrayamos la necesidad permanente de contar con mejores datos y pruebas para fundamentar las estrategias de prevención y respuesta a la violencia que puedan ser eficaces durante la pandemia de COVID-19 y seguir vigentes cuando ésta pase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence/prevention & control
14.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257912, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463307

ABSTRACT

Dehumanization is a topic of significant interest for academia and society at large. Empirical studies often have people rate the evolved nature of outgroups and prior work suggests immigrants are common victims of less-than-human treatment. Despite existing work that suggests who dehumanizes particular outgroups and who is often dehumanized, the extant literature knows less about why people dehumanize outgroups such as immigrants. The current work takes up this opportunity by examining why people dehumanize immigrants said to be illegal and how measurement format affects dehumanization ratings. Participants (N = 672) dehumanized such immigrants more if their ratings were made on a slider versus clicking images of hominids, an effect most pronounced for Republicans. Dehumanization was negatively associated with warmth toward illegal immigrants and the perceived unhappiness felt by illegal immigrants from U.S. immigration policies. Finally, most dehumanization is not entirely blatant but instead, captured by virtuous violence and affect as well, suggesting the many ways that dehumanization can manifest as predicted by theory. This work offers a mechanistic account for why people dehumanize immigrants and addresses how survey measurement artifacts (e.g., clicking on images of hominids vs. using a slider) affect dehumanization rates. We discuss how these data extend dehumanization theory and inform empirical research.


Subject(s)
Dehumanization , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Emigration and Immigration/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Emigrants and Immigrants/legislation & jurisprudence , Female , Humans , Male , Undocumented Immigrants/psychology , Undocumented Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Violence/legislation & jurisprudence , Violence/prevention & control
16.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 104(6): 571-572, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288739
17.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(6): 414-421, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the reasons for the lack of priority given to addressing violence against children, and to identify the challenges that proponents must address to improve prioritization of this issue. METHODS: We reviewed relevant literature to identify experts to interview. We carried out a thematic analysis of the literature and interview transcripts. We iteratively developed data coding on the many characteristics of violence against children, on the framing of the issue by proponents, and on the problem of governance - that is, how proponents organize themselves for collective action. FINDINGS: The analysis of our data sources reveals many obstacles for global prioritization of addressing violence against children, including the forms of violence considered, inadequate data to describe prevalence and a lack of evidence of the effectiveness of proposed solutions. There exists fundamental disagreement among proponents on the recently introduced frame of violence against children, including differences in the types of violence that should be prioritized and in the proposed solutions (e.g. prevention or remediation). On governance, competition between networks focused on specific forms of violence is hampering efforts to create strong governing institutions. CONCLUSION: Despite the complex challenges identified, proponents have made some progress in global prioritization of addressing violence against children. To improve this prioritization further, proponents must resolve framing tensions and strengthen governance mechanisms to promote shared goals, while ensuring that networks focused on particular forms of violence are able to maintain their distinct identities.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse , Global Health , Health Policy , Health Priorities , Child , Child Abuse/prevention & control , Humans , Violence/prevention & control
18.
Glob Public Health ; 16(6): 815-819, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240857

ABSTRACT

Violence against children occurs in all countries, affecting children of all ages, genders, race and socio-economic strata. A multiplicity of factors contributes to children's experience of violence. Social and gender norms can act as risk and protective factors exposing children to violence or preventing them from having well-being and healthy development. This Special Symposium was conceived of during the first International Viable and Operable Ideas for Child Equality (VOICE) Conference in 2018 in Bali, Indonesia. The four manuscripts in this Special Symposium illustrate with evidence the importance of social norms to preventing violence against children and the importance of understanding norms in context. The authors find that understanding how geographic location, social cohesion, group roles and identities, age and gendered expectations inform whether, when and which children experience violence, who perpetrates it, and how individuals and communities respond to it. The global COVID-19 pandemic has illustrated how rapidly behaviours can shift towards caregiving and health, as well as against it. If we are to prevent violence against children, and ensure the safety, well-being, and opportunity to thrive for all children, advancing our understanding of norms in relation to violence against children is critical to effective programming and learning.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse/prevention & control , Congresses as Topic , Social Norms , Violence/prevention & control , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(2): 657-668, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1119498

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se averiguar a relação da COVID-19 com variáveis de vulnerabilidade social em Fortaleza e verificar a influência da violência no trabalho do ACS e suas implicações no enfrentamento da COVID-19. Dados quantitativos primários (e.g., questionários com ACS) e secundários (e.g., IDH, homicídio, analfabetismo, cobertura do Programa Bolsa Família [PBF] e da Estratégia Saúde da Família [ESF]) foram utilizados. Observou-se relação da COVID-19 com indicadores de vulnerabilidade social, onde os casos têm relação negativa com IDH e analfabetismo; e os óbitos relação positiva com taxa de homicídios e cobertura do PBF. Regiões com altas taxas de óbito por COVID-19 e vulnerabilidade social possuem maior cobertura da ESF e menor realização de visita domiciliar pelo ACS. A atuação deste, no enfrentamento da pandemia, é limitada pela violência do território. A plena atuação do ACS, no enfrentamento da COVID-19, é dependente de políticas intersetoriais. Assim, a construção de uma política de enfrentamento da COVID-19, com participação do ACS, precisa levar em consideração, além de seu adequado treinamento na prevenção e detecção de COVID-19, ações intersetoriais para o enfrentamento e prevenção da violência no território.


Abstract The scope of the study was to investigate the relationship between COVID-19 and social vulnerability variables in Fortaleza, as well as to verify the influence of violence on the work of the Community Health Worker (ACS) and the implications for tackling COVID-19. Primary quantitative data (e.g., questionnaires with the ACS) and secondary data (e.g., HDI, homicide, illiteracy, Bolsa Família [PBF] coverage and Family Health Strategy [ESF] coverage) were used. There was a relationship between COVID-19 and indicators of social vulnerability, where cases had a negative relationship with HDI and illiteracy; and deaths had a positive relationship with the homicide rate and PBF coverage. Regions with high death rates due to COVID-19 and social vulnerability have greater FHS coverage and less home visits by the CHA. The latter's role in tackling COVID-19 is limited by the violence in the territory. The thorough performance of the ACS in confronting this pandemic is dependent on intersectoral policies. Thus, the creation of a policy to tackle COVID-19 with the participation of the ACS needs to consider intersectoral actions for curtailing and preventing violence in the territory, in addition to adequate training in the prevention and detection of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Violence/prevention & control , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Community Health Workers , Brazil/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations
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