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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(6): 1643-1653, 2023 Jun.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242967

ABSTRACT

This article is an integral part of the research "Violence in the context of COVID-19: global challenges and vulnerabilities", which proposes a critical reflection on situations of gender-based violence increased by social distancing protocols, required by the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on a 2020 literature survey, we have analyzed recommendations made by researchers and institutions from different countries around the world, with the aim of systematizing and disseminating strategies to deal with this scenario. The material is organized into two thematic areas, namely: gender policies and intersectoral actions; and strategies to face violence against women and children in the health and social work field. The recommendations are focused on the development of actions by States/governments, service networks and society in general. Part of the recommendations suggest increasing or adapting existing surveillance actions and part of them contribute with creative proposals, guiding promotional and preventive actions at an individual and collective level. The adoption of teleassistance, media campaigns raising awareness that violence is unjustifiable and the development of reporting strategies through signs and codes have been reiterated in the literature.


Este artigo é parte da pesquisa "As violências no contexto da COVID-19: desafios e vulnerabilidades globais", que propõe uma reflexão crítica acerca das situações de violências de gênero potencializadas pelos protocolos de distanciamento social requeridos pela pandemia de COVID-19. A partir de levantamento bibliográfico do ano de 2020, analisamos recomendações de pesquisadores e instituições de diferentes partes do mundo, com o objetivo de sistematizar e disseminar estratégias para lidar com este cenário. O material está organizado em dois eixos temáticos: políticas de gênero e ações intersetoriais; e estratégias de enfrentamento às violências contra mulheres e crianças no campo da saúde e da assistência social. As recomendações estão centradas no desenvolvimento de ações por Estados/governos, redes de atendimento e sociedade em geral. Parte das recomendações sugere aumentar ou adequar as ações de vigilância já existentes, e parte contribui com propostas criativas, norteando ações promotoras e preventivas em nível individual e coletivo. A adoção de teleatendimento, campanhas midiáticas de conscientização de que a violência é injustificável e desenvolvimento de estratégias de denúncia por meio de sinais e códigos foram reiteradas pela literatura.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Violence/prevention & control
2.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e069255, 2023 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242945

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Managing violence or aggression is an ongoing challenge in emergency psychiatry. Many patients identified as being at risk do not go on to become violent or aggressive. Efforts to automate the assessment of risk involve training machine learning (ML) models on data from electronic health records (EHRs) to predict these behaviours. However, no studies to date have examined which patient groups may be over-represented in false positive predictions, despite evidence of social and clinical biases that may lead to higher perceptions of risk in patients defined by intersecting features (eg, race, gender). Because risk assessment can impact psychiatric care (eg, via coercive measures, such as restraints), it is unclear which patients might be underserved or harmed by the application of ML. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We pilot a computational ethnography to study how the integration of ML into risk assessment might impact acute psychiatric care, with a focus on how EHR data is compiled and used to predict a risk of violence or aggression. Our objectives include: (1) evaluating an ML model trained on psychiatric EHRs to predict violent or aggressive incidents for intersectional bias; and (2) completing participant observation and qualitative interviews in an emergency psychiatric setting to explore how social, clinical and structural biases are encoded in the training data. Our overall aim is to study the impact of ML applications in acute psychiatry on marginalised and underserved patient groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project was approved by the research ethics board at The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (053/2021). Study findings will be presented in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and shared with service users and providers.


Subject(s)
Inpatients , Psychiatry , Humans , Inpatients/psychology , Violence/prevention & control , Violence/psychology , Aggression/psychology , Anthropology, Cultural
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(5)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241254

ABSTRACT

Changes in research practice during the COVID-19 pandemic necessitates renewed attention to ethical protocols and reporting for data collection on sensitive topics. This review summarises the state of ethical reporting among studies collecting violence data during early stages of the pandemic. We systematically searched for journal publications from the start of the pandemic to November 2021, identifying 75 studies that collected primary data on violence against women and/or violence against children. We developed and applied a 14-item checklist of best practices to assess the transparency of ethics reporting and adherence to relevant global guidelines on violence research. Studies reported adhering to best practices on 31% of scored items. Reporting was highest for ethical clearance (87%) and informed consent/assent (84/83%) and lowest for whether measures to promote interviewer safety and support (3%), for facilitating referrals for minors and soliciting participant feedback were in place (both 0%). Violence studies employing primary data collection during COVID-19 reported on few ethical standards, obscuring stakeholder ability to enforce a 'do no harm' approach and to assess the reliability of findings. We offer recommendations and guidelines to improve future reporting and implementation of ethics within violence studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Female , Humans , Checklist , Reproducibility of Results , Violence/prevention & control
4.
BMJ ; 381: 995, 2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315435
5.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20220322, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302511

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the potentialities and limits in confronting situations of violence against children and adolescents seen from the perspective of Guardianship Counselors. METHOD: Qualitative research, developed with 18 Guardianship Counselors from two municipalities in the central region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were generated between June and July 2021, using the focus group technique, and were subjected to thematic content analysis. RESULTS: The following were identified as potentialities for combating violence against children and adolescents: denunciations; networking; and media coverage. As limits, we have: naturalization of violence; pandemic of the Covid-19; de-structuring of the intersectoral network; lack of training; and difficulty in developing preventive actions. CONCLUSION: The Guardianship Councilors require training to act in cases of violence against children and adolescents, as well as support from other sectors, such as health, education, public safety, and social assistance, in order to fully attend to these cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Counselors , Child , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Violence/prevention & control , Educational Status , Pandemics
7.
JAMA ; 329(6): 513, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273784
9.
Inj Prev ; 29(3): 259-261, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260672

ABSTRACT

Using a shared risk and protective factor (SRPF) approach to prevention acknowledges a shift in the ways we work. The fundamental question at the root of our efforts should no longer be how we address a single, specific public health issue. Instead, we should be asking how we can develop a system that supports well-being holistically. We should be striving to increase the resources to which people have access in a way that proactively prevents multiple public health issues, improves the context in which people live out their lives, and develops a broad spectrum of resilience.The fields of injury and violence prevention (IVP) and public health are at a critical juncture to address the true causes of injuries and violence. It is imminently vital for all stakeholders across IVP to work upstream and align funding, interventions, and evaluations in ways that embrace SRPF approaches. The value of this approach is multifold: it tackles multiple population health outcomes through multisector interventions, it positively impacts social determinants of health; it is sustainable and it maximises financial resources. While theoretical buy-in for the SRPF approach is high, there remain challenges in the field to operationalise such an approach. The time is now for the field to collectively embrace an SRPF approach and rally together to strengthen the evidence base. Researchers, practitioners, funders and national organisations must align their goals in prioritising upstream, primary prevention through addressing SRPF to enhance public health infrastructure and reduce societal inequities.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Violence , Humans , Protective Factors , Violence/prevention & control , Risk Factors
10.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e065759, 2023 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258637

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of the Safe at Home programme which was developed to improve family well-being and prevent multiple forms of violence in the home. DESIGN: Waitlisted pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo. PARTICIPANTS: 202 heterosexual couples. INTERVENTION: The Safe at Home programme. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was family functioning, with secondary outcomes of past-3 month co-occurring violence, intimate partner violence (IPV) and harsh discipline. Pathway mechanisms assessed included attitudes related to acceptance of harsh discipline, gender equitable attitudes, positive parenting skills and power sharing within the couple. RESULTS: No significant improvements in family functioning were documented for women (ß=1.49; 95% CI: -2.75 to 5.74; p=0.49) and men (ß=1.09; 95% CI: -3.13 to 4.74; p=0.69). However, women in Safe at Home reported a OR=0.15 (p=0.000), OR=0.23 (p=0.001) and OR=0.29 (p=0.013) change in co-occurring IPV and harsh discipline; physical/sexual/emotional IPV by their partner and use of physical and/or emotional harsh discipline against their child, respectively, as compared with women in the waitlisted group. Men participating in Safe at Home reported a OR=0.23 (p=0.005) change in perpetration of co-occurring violence, OR=0.26 (p=0.003) change in any form of IPV perpetration and OR=0.56 (p=0.19) change in use of harsh discipline against their child as compared with the waitlist arm. Positive changes were also noted in pathway variables around attitudes, skills and behaviours within couples. CONCLUSION: This pilot trial demonstrated the Safe at Home programme to be highly effective in preventing multiple forms of violence in the home and improving equitable attitudes and skills in couples. Future research should assess longitudinal impact and implementation at scale. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04163549.


Subject(s)
Intimate Partner Violence , Violence , Child , Male , Female , Humans , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Violence/prevention & control , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Emotions , Gender Equity
11.
Acad Med ; 98(6S): S69-S72, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255672

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: Violence in Chicago has been persistently high in low-income communities of color. Recent attention has focused on how structural inequities weaken protective factors that help keep communities healthy and safe. Spikes in community violence seen in Chicago since the COVID-19 pandemic further expose the lack of social service, health care, economic, and political safety nets in low-income communities and the apparent dearth of faith in those systems. APPROACH: The authors contend that a comprehensive, collaborative approach to violence prevention that prioritizes treatment and community partnerships is needed to address social determinants of health and structural characteristics that often provide the context for interpersonal violence. One strategy to address decreasing faith in systems like hospitals is foregrounding frontline paraprofessional prevention workers who possess cultural capital based on their experiences navigating interpersonal and structural violence. Hospital-based violence intervention programs help professionalize these prevention workers by providing a framework for patient-centered crisis intervention and assertive case management. The authors describe how the Violence Recovery Program (VRP), a multidisciplinary hospital-based violence intervention model, leverages the cultural capital of credible messengers to use teachable moments to promote trauma-informed care to violently injured patients, assess their immediate risk for reinjury and retaliation, and connect them to wrap-around services to help aid comprehensive recovery. OUTCOMES: Violence recovery specialists have engaged over 6,000 victims of violence since the program's launch in 2018. Three-quarters of patients expressed social determinants of health needs. Over the past year, specialists have connected over one-third of engaged patients to mental health referrals and community-based social services. NEXT STEPS: High violence rates in Chicago limited case management opportunities in the emergency room. In fall 2022, the VRP began to establish collaborative agreements with community-based street outreach programs and medical-legal partnerships to address structural determinants of health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Physician-Patient Relations , Violence/prevention & control , Hospitals
12.
Nat Hum Behav ; 7(3): 306-307, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238924
13.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 126: 107090, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Link for Equity is a multi-tiered, school-based program of trauma-informed care and cultural humility designed to reduce the impact of Adverse Child Experiences among Black Indigenous and other children of color (BIPOC). This report describes the program, its trial design, and the study participants' baseline characteristics. METHODS: We designed a nested waitlist-controlled trial to evaluate Link for Equity's effectiveness in reducing school violence among BIPOC students. Three pairs of school districts, matched on suspension rates and enrollment of Black/African American, Hispanic/Latinx, and American Indian/Alaska Native children, were randomized into either an intervention or delayed intervention (waitlist control) group. A community-engaged approach guided the development of protocols. Within intervention sites, BIPOC students who screened positive for ACEs or posttraumatic stress were also randomized into an immediate and waitlist control group to receive additional one-on-one support from trained school staff. RESULTS: The trial was implemented from 2019 to 2021, which overlapped with the pandemic and civil unrest in Minnesota. At baseline, 444 staff and 188 students enrolled in the study. Over a quarter of American Indian/Alaska Native students, 18% of multiple race, 12% of Black/African American, 14% of Hispanic/Latinx students reported 4+ ACEs. Between 44 and 53% of all the BIPOC students in the study were symptomatic for PTSD. Of the enrolled students, 78.7% qualified for one-on-one Link support. CONCLUSION: We implemented a multilevel waitlist-controlled trial of Link for Equity using community-engaged methods. Despite school closures during the pandemic, the study persisted with its methods now being employed in an expanded cohort of middle schools. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04026477, NCT04026490).


Subject(s)
Community Participation , Stakeholder Participation , Child , Humans , Students , Violence/prevention & control , Schools
14.
Nurse Educ Today ; 121: 105713, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Firearm violence, whether intentional or accidental, affects families worldwide. Nurses often encounter firearm-related injury and death with little knowledge or preparation for dealing with firearm safety issues. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to locate published research on nurse education in firearm safety and examine the preparation of nurses to deal with issues of firearm safety as a deterrent toward decreasing violence. The review included nurse perceptions of barriers and facilitators related to firearm safety in clinical situations. DESIGN: A literature scoping review for article identification, examination, and reporting was structured on the extended form of Arksey and O'Malley's 5-step design framework. DATA SOURCES: Databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, Sociological Abstracts, PsychInfo, and ERIC were searched for articles in English language published between 2010 and 2021 that included nurses in the studies' samples. REVIEW METHODS: Searches were managed via Covidence®, a literature screening and data extraction tool. Two independent reviewers screened the articles retrieved from the databases by title, abstract, and full-text review. Data from selected articles were extracted onto a spreadsheet and critically appraised for eligibility. RESULTS: A search of healthcare databases resulted in identification of 645 articles, of which 15 met inclusion criteria. Seven of the 15 articles addressed nurse firearm safety preparation, and seven related to counseling firearm safety for suicide prevention. Main barriers included lack of standardized guidelines, inadequate knowledge, and discomfort discussing firearm safety with patients and families. CONCLUSIONS: The scoping review findings show a noticeable gap: nurse education addressing firearm safety is, for all purposes, non-existent. A need exists for evidence-based training within academic curricula and across acute and behavioral healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
Education, Nursing , Firearms , Humans , Violence/prevention & control , Suicide Prevention , Delivery of Health Care
15.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 272, 2022 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Violence against children (VAC) in the home, or by household members, is a widespread problem with devastating and costly consequences for individuals and societies. In the past two decades, much research has been dedicated to the prevention of VAC in the home, in particular, in low- and- middle-income countries, but there are few systematic examinations of the growing body of literature. We present a protocol for an overview of reviews to synthesize the evidence from recent reviews on the effectiveness and characteristics of both universal and selective interventions to prevent VAC in the home or by household members. METHODS: We will conduct an overview of reviews of quantitative studies of universal and selective interventions to prevent VAC in the home published after 2000. Our outcomes will be VAC in the home (e.g., physical, sexual, or psychological violence or neglect) and drivers or direct risk factors for VAC (e.g., beliefs or attitudes towards VAC, parenting stress). We will search for reviews in multiple databases using controlled vocabularies and keywords. We will use the AMSTAR 2 to assess the quality of reviews and will extract information on outcomes, main results, and geographic distribution of primary studies, among other data. We will conduct a narrative synthesis of the findings. DISCUSSION: The proposed overview will provide timely evidence on effective strategies to prevent VAC in the home and will identify the key strengths and limitations of the current body of evidence on this topic. In doing so, we will inform future research, policy, and practice aimed at building effective strategies to prevent VAC globally. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022304784.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse , Violence , Child , Humans , Violence/prevention & control , Child Abuse/prevention & control , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Research Design
16.
17.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(11)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119186

ABSTRACT

Collecting data to understand violence against women and children during and after the COVID-19 pandemic is essential to inform violence prevention and response efforts. Although researchers across fields have pivoted to remote rather than in-person data collection, remote research on violence against women, children and young people poses particular challenges. As a group of violence researchers, we reflect on our experiences across eight studies in six countries that we redesigned to include remote data collection methods. We found the following areas were crucial in fulfilling our commitments to participants, researchers, violence prevention and research ethics: (1) designing remote data collection in the context of strong research partnerships; (2) adapting data collection approaches; (3) developing additional safeguarding processes in the context of remote data collection during the pandemic; and (4) providing remote support for researchers. We discuss lessons learnt in each of these areas and across the research design and implementation process, and summarise key considerations for other researchers considering remote data collection on violence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Pandemics , Violence/prevention & control
19.
Prev Med ; 165(Pt A): 107263, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042217

ABSTRACT

This study provides insight into New York City residents' perceptions about violence after the outbreak of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) based on information from communities in New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) buildings. In this novel analysis, we used focus group and social media data to confirm or reject findings from qualitative interviews. We first used data from 69 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with low-income residents and community stakeholders to further explore how violence impacts New York City's low-income residents of color, as well as the role of city government in providing tangible support for violence prevention during co-occurring health (COVID-19) and social (anti-Black racism) pandemics. Residents described how COVID-19 and the Black Lives Matter movement impacted safety in their communities while offering direct recommendations to improve safety. Residents also shared recommendations that indirectly improve community safety by addressing long term systemic issues. As the recruitment of interviewees was concluding, researchers facilitated two focus groups with 38 interviewees to discuss similar topics. In order to assess the degree to which the themes discovered in our qualitative interviews were shared by the broader community, we developed an integrative community data science study which leveraged natural language processing and computer vision techniques to study text and images on public social media data of 12 million tweets generated by residents. We joined computational methods with qualitative analysis through a social work lens and design justice principles to most accurately and holistically analyze the community perceptions of gun violence issues and potential prevention strategies. Findings indicate valuable community-based insights that elucidate how the co-occurring pandemics impact residents' experiences of gun violence and provide important implications for gun violence prevention in a digital era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gun Violence , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Gun Violence/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Violence/prevention & control , New York City/epidemiology
20.
CMAJ ; 194(35): E1216-E1217, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039456
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