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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 15-16, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708724

ABSTRACT

A 3-year analysis released in August 2021 by the WHO indicated that more than 700 healthcare workers and patients have died (2,000 injured) as a result of attacks against health facilities since 2017. The COVID-19 pandemic has made the risks even worse for doctors, nurses, and support staff, unfortunately. According to the latest figures from the International Committee of the Red Cross, 848 COVID-19-related violent incidents were recorded in 2020, and this is likely an underrepresentation of a much more widespread phenomenon. In response to rises in COVID-19-related attacks against healthcare, some countries have taken action. In Algeria, for instance, the penal code was amended to increase protection for healthcare workers against attacks and to punish individuals who damage health facilities. In the United Kingdom, the police, crime, sentencing, and courts bill proposed increased the maximum penalty from 12 months to 2 years in prison for anyone who assaults an emergency worker. Measures taken by countries represent a good practical way to counteract this crisis within COVID-19. However, we stress the importance of primary prevention with the use of communication: social media and other communication channels are fundamentally important to combat violence against health professionals, both to inform the population with quality data and to disseminate campaigns to prevent these acts.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/trends , Violence , Health Personnel , Humans , Patients , Risk Factors , Violence/prevention & control , Violence/statistics & numerical data
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2145708, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669323

ABSTRACT

Importance: Public health measures instituted to reduce the spread of COVID-19 led to severe disruptions to the structure of daily life, and the resultant social and financial impact may have contributed to an increase in violence. Objective: To examine the trends in violent penetrating injuries during the first COVID-19 pandemic year compared with previous years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to compare the prevalence of violent penetrating injuries during the first COVID-19 pandemic year, March 2020 to February 2021, with the previous 5 years, March 2015 to February 2020. This study was performed among all patients with a violent penetrating injury presenting at Boston Medical Center, an urban, level I trauma center that is the largest safety-net hospital and busiest trauma center in New England. Data were analyzed from January 4 to November 29, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were the incidence and timing of emergency department presentation for violent penetrating injuries during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the previous 5 years. Patient demographics and injury characteristics were also assessed. Results: A total of 2383 patients (median [IQR] age, 29.5 [23.4-39.3] years; 2032 [85.4%] men and 351 [14.6%] women) presenting for a violent penetrating injury were evaluated, including 1567 Black patients (65.7%), 448 Hispanic patients (18.8%), and 210 White patients (8.8%). There was an increase in injuries during the first pandemic year compared with the previous 5 years, with an increase in shootings (mean [SD], 0.61 [0.89] injuries per day vs 0.46 [0.76] injuries per day; P = .002) but not stabbings (mean [SD], 0.60 [0.79] injuries per day vs 0.60 [0.82] injuries per day; P = .78). This surge in firearm violence began while Massachusetts was still under a stay-at-home advisory and before large-scale racial justice protests began. Patients presenting with violent penetrating injuries in the pandemic surge months (April-October 2020) compared with the same period in previous years were disproportionately male (153 patients [93.3%] vs 510 patients [87.6%]; P = .04), unemployed (70 patients [57.4%] vs 221 patients [46.6%]; P = .03), and Hispanic (40 patients [26.0%] vs 99 patients [17.9%]; P = .009), with a concurrent decrease in White patients (0 patients vs 26 patients [4.7%]), and were more likely to have no previous history of violent penetrating injury (146 patients [89.0%] vs 471 patients [80.9%]; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that unprecedented measures implemented to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 were associated with an increase in gun violence. As the pandemic abates, efforts at community violence prevention and intervention must be redoubled to defend communities against the epidemic of violence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Adult , Boston/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/ethnology , Wounds, Stab/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e31, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655369

ABSTRACT

In Ethiopia, the magnitude of violence against girls during COVID-19 in the study area is not known. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the violence and associated factors during COVID-19 pandemic among Gondar city secondary school girls in North West Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2021. Data were collected from four public and two private Gondar city secondary schools. Investigators used stratified simple random sampling to select participants and the investigators used roster of the students at selected schools. Investigators collected the data using self-reported history of experiencing violence (victimisation). Investigators analysed data using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Investigators invited a total of 371 sampled female students to complete self-administered questionnaires. The proportion of girls who experienced violence was 42.05% and psychological violence was the highest form of violence. Having a father who attended informal education (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.08-3.51), ever use of social media 1.65 (AOR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.02-2.69), ever watching sexually explicit material (AOR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.24-3.36) and use of a substance (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.17-3.15) were significantly associated variables with violence. Almost for every five girls, more than two of them experienced violence during the COVID-19 lockdown. The prevalence of violence might be under reported due to desirability bias. Therefore, it is better to create awareness towards violence among substance users, fathers with informal education and social media including user females.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Data Collection , Education/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Students , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
PLoS Med ; 18(12): e1003552, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627468

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interpersonal violence has physical, emotional, educational, social, and economic implications. Although there is interest in empowering young people to challenge harmful norms, there is scant research on how individual agency, and, specifically, the "power to" resist or bring about an outcome relates to peer violence perpetration and victimization in early adolescence. This manuscript explores the relationship between individual agency and peer violence perpetration and victimization among very young adolescents (VYAs) living in two urban poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa (Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Blantyre, Malawi). METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study draws on two cross-sectional surveys including 2,540 adolescents 10 to 14 years from Kinshasa in 2017 (girls = 49.8% and boys = 50.2%) and 1,213 from Blantyre in 2020 (girls = 50.7% and boys = 49.3%). The sample was school based in Malawi but included in-school and out-of-school participants in Kinshasa due to higher levels of early school dropout. Peer violence in the last 6 months (dependent variable) was defined as a four categorical variable: (1) no victimization or perpetration; (2) victimization only; (3) perpetration only; and (4) both victimization and perpetration. Agency was operationalized using 3 scales: freedom of movement, voice, and decision-making, which were further divided into tertiles. Univariate analysis and multivariable multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate the relationships between each agency indicator and peer violence. The multivariable regression adjusted for individual, family, peer, and community level covariates. All analyses were stratified by gender and site. In both sites, adolescents had greater voice and decision-making power than freedom of movement, and boys had greater freedom of movement than girls. Boys in both settings were more likely to report peer violence in the last six months than girls (40% to 50% versus 32% to 40%, p < 0.001), mostly due to higher rates of a perpetration-victimization overlap (18% to 23% versus 10% to 15%, p < 0.001). Adolescents reporting the greatest freedom of movement (Tertile 3) (with the exception of girls in Kinshasa) had a greater relative risk ratio (RRR) of reporting a perpetrator-victim overlap (boys Kinshasa: RRR = 1.9 (1.2 to 2.8, p = 0.003); boys Blantyre: RRR = 3.8 (1.7 to 8.3, p = 0.001); and girls Blantyre: RRR = 2.4 (1.1 to 5.1, p = 0.03)). Adolescents with the highest decision-making power in Kinshasa also had greater RRR of reporting a perpetrator-victim overlap (boys: RRR = 3.0 (1.8 to 4.8, p < 0.001). Additionally, girls and boys in Kinshasa with intermediate decision-making power (tertile 2 versus 1) had a lower RRR of being victimized (Girls: RRR = 1.7 (1.02 to 2.7, p = 0.04); Boys: RRR = 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9, p = 0.01)). Higher voice among boys in Kinshasa (Tertile 2: RRR = 1.9 (1.2 to 2.9, p = 0.003) and Tertile 3: 1.8 (1.2 to 2.8, p = 0.009)) and girls in Blantyre (Tertile 2: 2.0 (1.01 to 3.9, p = 0.048)) was associated with a perpetrator-victim overlap, and girls with more voice in Blantyre had a greater RRR of being victimized (Tertile 2: RRR = 1.9 (1.1 to 3.1, p = 0.02)). Generally, associations were stronger for boys than girls, and associations often differed when victimization and perpetration occurred in isolation of each other. A main limitation of this study is that the cross-sectional nature of the data does not allow a causal interpretation of the findings, which need further longitudinal exploration to establish temporality. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that peer violence is a gendered experience that is related to young people's agency. This stresses the importance of addressing interpersonal violence in empowerment programs and of including boys who experience the greatest perpetration-victimization overlap.


Subject(s)
Crime Victims/statistics & numerical data , Peer Influence , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Crime Victims/classification , Crime Victims/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Malawi/epidemiology , Male , Violence/classification , Violence/psychology
5.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(1): 65-68, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the patterns of firearm violence against children before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the patterns of specific types of firearm violence against children over time (2016-2020). METHODS: Retrospective firearm violence data were obtained from the Gun Violence Archive. The rate of firearm violence was weighted per 100,000 children. A scatterplot was created to depict the rate of total annual child-involved shooting incidents over time; with a linear trendline fit to 2016 to 2019 data to show projected versus actual 2020 firearm violence. All 50 states were categorized into either "strong gun law" (n = 25) or "weak gun law" (n = 25) cohorts. Multivariate linear regressions were performed for number of child-involved shootings over time. RESULTS: There were a total of 1,076 child-involved shootings in 2020, 811 in 2019, and 803 in 2018. The median total child-involved shooting incidents per month per 100,000 children increased from 2018 to 2020 (0.095 vs. 0.124, p = 0.003) and from 2019 to 2020 (0.097 vs. 0.124, p = 0.010). Child killed by adult incidents also increased in 2020 compared with 2018 (p = 0.024) and 2019 (p = 0.049). The scatterplot demonstrates that total child-involved shootings in addition to both fatal and nonfatal firearm violence incidents exceeded the projected number of incidents extrapolated from 2016 to 2019 data. Multivariate linear regression demonstrated that, compared with weak gun law states, strong gun law states were associated with decreased monthly total child-involved shooting incidents between 2018 and 2020 (p < 0.001), as well as between 2019 and 2020 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Child-involved shooting incidents increased significantly in 2020 surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that gun law strength was associated with a decreased rate of monthly child-involved firearm violence, public health and legislative efforts should be made to protect this vulnerable population from exposure to firearms. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological, level III.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Child , Firearms/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/mortality
6.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 144-153, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559717

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe associations between neighborhood racial and economic segregation and violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. For 13 US cities, we obtained zip code-level data on 5 violence outcomes from March through July 2018 through 2020. Using negative binomial regressions and marginal contrasts, we estimated differences between quintiles of racial, economic, and racialized economic segregation using the Index of Concentration at the Extremes as a measure of neighborhood privilege (1) in 2020 and (2) relative to 2018 through 2019 (difference-in-differences). Results. In 2020, violence was higher in less-privileged neighborhoods than in the most privileged. For example, if all zip codes were in the least privileged versus most privileged quintile of racialized economic segregation, we estimated 146.2 additional aggravated assaults (95% confidence interval = 112.4, 205.8) per zip code on average across cities. Differences over time in less-privileged zip codes were greater than differences over time in the most privileged for firearm violence, aggravated assault, and homicide. Conclusions. Marginalized communities endure endemically high levels of violence. The events of 2020 exacerbated disparities in several forms of violence. Public Health Implications. To reduce violence and related disparities, immediate and long-term investments in low-income neighborhoods of color are warranted. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):144-153. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306540).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gun Violence/statistics & numerical data , Race Factors , Residence Characteristics/classification , Social Segregation , Socioeconomic Factors , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Homicide/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Rape/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Theft/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
7.
Am J Surg ; 222(4): 832-841, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A community lockdown has a profound impact on its citizens. Our objective was to identify changes in trauma patient demographics, volume, and pattern of injury following the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted at a Level-1 Trauma Center from 2017 to 2020. RESULTS: A downward trend in volume is seen December-April in 2020 (R2 = 0.9907). February through April showed an upward trend in 2018 and 2019 (R2= 0.80 and R2 = 0.90 respectively), but a downward trend in 2020 (R2 = 0.97). In April 2020, there was 41.6% decrease in total volume, a 47.4% decrease in blunt injury and no decrease in penetrating injury. In contrast to previous months, in April the majority of injuries occurred in home zip codes. CONCLUSIONS: A community lockdown decreased the number of blunt trauma, however despite social distancing, did not decrease penetrating injury. Injuries were more likely to occur in home zip codes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals, Urban/trends , Physical Distancing , Trauma Centers/trends , Violence/trends , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Urban/standards , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers/standards , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/therapy , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/therapy , Young Adult
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 15-16, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528970

ABSTRACT

A 3-year analysis released in August 2021 by the WHO indicated that more than 700 healthcare workers and patients have died (2,000 injured) as a result of attacks against health facilities since 2017. The COVID-19 pandemic has made the risks even worse for doctors, nurses, and support staff, unfortunately. According to the latest figures from the International Committee of the Red Cross, 848 COVID-19-related violent incidents were recorded in 2020, and this is likely an underrepresentation of a much more widespread phenomenon. In response to rises in COVID-19-related attacks against healthcare, some countries have taken action. In Algeria, for instance, the penal code was amended to increase protection for healthcare workers against attacks and to punish individuals who damage health facilities. In the United Kingdom, the police, crime, sentencing, and courts bill proposed increased the maximum penalty from 12 months to 2 years in prison for anyone who assaults an emergency worker. Measures taken by countries represent a good practical way to counteract this crisis within COVID-19. However, we stress the importance of primary prevention with the use of communication: social media and other communication channels are fundamentally important to combat violence against health professionals, both to inform the population with quality data and to disseminate campaigns to prevent these acts.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/trends , Violence , Health Personnel , Humans , Patients , Risk Factors , Violence/prevention & control , Violence/statistics & numerical data
9.
Am Surg ; 88(3): 356-359, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused an abrupt change to societal norms. We anecdotally noticed an increase in penetrating and violent trauma during the period of stay-at-home orders. Studying these changes will allow trauma centers to better prepare for future waves of COVID-19 or other global catastrophes. METHODS: We queried our institutional database for all level 1 and 2 trauma activations presenting from the scene within our local county from March 18 to May 21, 2020 and matched time periods from 2016 to 2019. Primary outcomes were overall trauma volume, rates of penetrating trauma, rates of violent trauma, and transfusion requirements. RESULTS: The number of penetrating and violent traumas at our trauma center during the period of societal quarantine for the COVID-19 pandemic was more than any historical total. During the COVID-19 time period, we saw 39 penetrating traumas, while the mean value for the same time period from 2016 to 2019 was 26 (P = .03). We saw 45 violent traumas during COVID; the mean value from 2016 to 2019 was 32 (P = .05). There was also a higher rate of trauma patients requiring transfusion in the COVID cohort (6.7% vs 12.2%). DISCUSSION: Societal quarantine increased the number of penetrating and violent traumas, with a concurrent increased percentage of patients transfused. Despite this, there was no change in outcomes. Given the continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic, quarantine measures could be re-implemented. Data from this study can help guide expectations and utilization of hospital resources in the future.


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Arkansas/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Sex Distribution , Time Factors , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
12.
Am J Surg ; 222(5): 922-932, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233354

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated many social conditions associated with violence. The objective of this systematic review was to examine trends in hospital reported violent trauma associated with the pandemic. METHODS: Databases were searched in using terms "trauma" or "violence" and "COVID-19," yielding 4,473 records (2,194 de-duplicated). Exclusion criteria included non-hospital based studies and studies not reporting on violent trauma. 44 studies were included in the final review. RESULTS: Most studies reported no change in violent trauma incidence. Studies predominately assessed trends with violent trauma as a proportion of all trauma. All studies demonstrating an increase in violent trauma were located in the United States. CONCLUSIONS: A disproportionate rise in violence has been reported within the US. However, most studies examined violent trauma as a proportion of all trauma; results may reflect relative changes from lockdowns. Future studies should examine rates of violent trauma to provide additional context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans
13.
J Surg Res ; 266: 62-68, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether any specific acute care surgery patient populations are associated with a higher incidence of COVID-19 infection. BACKGROUND: Acute care providers may be exposed to an increased risk of contracting the COVID-19 infection since many patients present to the emergency department without complete screening measures. However, it is not known which patients present with the highest incidence. METHODS: All acute care surgery (ACS) patients who presented to our level I trauma center between March 19, 2020, and September 20, 2020 and were tested for COVID-19 were included in the study. The patients were divided into two cohorts: COVID positive (+) and COVID negative (-). Patient demographics, type of consultation (emergency general surgery consults [EGS], interpersonal violence trauma consults [IPV], and non-interpersonal violence trauma consults [NIPV]), clinical data and outcomes were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare differences between the groups. RESULTS: In total, 2177 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 116 were COVID+ (5.3%) and 2061 were COVID- (94.7%). COVID+ patients were more frequently Latinos (64.7% versus 61.7%, P = 0.043) and African Americans (18.1% versus 11.2%, P < 0.001) and less frequently Caucasian (6.0% versus 14.1%, P < 0.001). Asian/Filipino/Pacific Islander (7.8% versus 7.2%, P = 0.059) and Native American/Other/Unknown (3.4% versus 5.8%, P = 0.078) groups showed no statistical difference in COVID incidence. Mortality, hospital and ICU lengths of stay were similar between the groups and across patient populations stratified by the type of consultation. Logistic regression demonstrated higher odds of COVID+ infection amongst IPV patients (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.62-7.56, P < 0.001) compared to other ACS consultation types. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that victims of interpersonal violence were more likely positive for COVID-19, while in hospital outcomes were similar between COVID-19 positive and negative patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
14.
New Solut ; 31(2): 113-124, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221723

ABSTRACT

Women make up the large majority of workers in global supply chains, especially factories in the apparel supply chain. These workers face significant inequalities in wages, workplace hazards, and a special burden of gender-based violence and harassment. These "normal" conditions have been compounded by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has exacerbated long-standing structural inequities. Decades of well-financed "corporate social responsibility" programs have failed because they do not address the underlying causes of illegal and abusive working conditions. New initiatives in the past half-decade offer promise in putting the needs and rights of workers front and center. Occupational health and safety professionals can assist in the global effort to improve working and social conditions, and respect for the rights and dignity of women workers, through advocacy and action on the job, in their professional associations, and in society at large.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clothing , Manufacturing Industry/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Women , Workplace , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Harassment/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Women's Rights/statistics & numerical data , Women's Rights/trends
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 467, 2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic. Many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda inclusive, implemented lockdowns, curfew, banning of both private and public transport systems, and mass gatherings to minimize spread. Social control measures for COVID-19 are reported to increase violence and discrimination globally, including in Uganda as some may be difficult to implement resulting in the heavy deployment of law enforcement. Media reports indicated that cases of violence and discrimination had increased in Uganda's communities following the lockdown. We estimated the incidence and factors associated with experiencing violence and discrimination among Ugandans during the COVID-19 lockdown to inform control and prevention measures. METHODS: In April 2020, we conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data under the International Citizen Project (ICP) to assess adherence to public health measures and their impact on the COVID-19 outbreak in Uganda. We analyzed data on violence and discrimination from the ICP study. We performed descriptive statistics for all the participants' characteristics and created a binary outcome variable called experiencing violence and/or discrimination. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify the factors associated with experiencing violence and discrimination. RESULTS: Of the 1726 ICP study participants, 1051 (58.8%) were males, 841 (48.7%) were currently living with a spouse or partner, and 376 (21.8%) had physically attended work for more than 3 days in the past week. Overall, 145 (8.4%) experienced any form of violence and/or discrimination by any perpetrator, and 46 (31.7%) of the 145 reported that it was perpetrated by a law enforcement officer. Factors associated with experiencing violence or discrimination were: being male (AOR = 1.60 CI:1.10-2.33), having attended work physically for more than 3 days in the past week (AOR = 1.52 CI:1.03-2.23), and inability to access social or essential health services since the epidemic started (AOR = 3.10 CI:2.14-4.50). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of Ugandan residents experienced violence and/or discrimination during the COVID-19 lockdown, mostly perpetrated by law enforcement officers. We recommend mitigation of the collateral impact of lockdowns with interventions that focus on improving policing quality, ensuring continuity of essential services, and strengthening support systems for vulnerable groups including males.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Prejudice/psychology , Violence/psychology , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prejudice/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(2): 657-668, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1119498

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se averiguar a relação da COVID-19 com variáveis de vulnerabilidade social em Fortaleza e verificar a influência da violência no trabalho do ACS e suas implicações no enfrentamento da COVID-19. Dados quantitativos primários (e.g., questionários com ACS) e secundários (e.g., IDH, homicídio, analfabetismo, cobertura do Programa Bolsa Família [PBF] e da Estratégia Saúde da Família [ESF]) foram utilizados. Observou-se relação da COVID-19 com indicadores de vulnerabilidade social, onde os casos têm relação negativa com IDH e analfabetismo; e os óbitos relação positiva com taxa de homicídios e cobertura do PBF. Regiões com altas taxas de óbito por COVID-19 e vulnerabilidade social possuem maior cobertura da ESF e menor realização de visita domiciliar pelo ACS. A atuação deste, no enfrentamento da pandemia, é limitada pela violência do território. A plena atuação do ACS, no enfrentamento da COVID-19, é dependente de políticas intersetoriais. Assim, a construção de uma política de enfrentamento da COVID-19, com participação do ACS, precisa levar em consideração, além de seu adequado treinamento na prevenção e detecção de COVID-19, ações intersetoriais para o enfrentamento e prevenção da violência no território.


Abstract The scope of the study was to investigate the relationship between COVID-19 and social vulnerability variables in Fortaleza, as well as to verify the influence of violence on the work of the Community Health Worker (ACS) and the implications for tackling COVID-19. Primary quantitative data (e.g., questionnaires with the ACS) and secondary data (e.g., HDI, homicide, illiteracy, Bolsa Família [PBF] coverage and Family Health Strategy [ESF] coverage) were used. There was a relationship between COVID-19 and indicators of social vulnerability, where cases had a negative relationship with HDI and illiteracy; and deaths had a positive relationship with the homicide rate and PBF coverage. Regions with high death rates due to COVID-19 and social vulnerability have greater FHS coverage and less home visits by the CHA. The latter's role in tackling COVID-19 is limited by the violence in the territory. The thorough performance of the ACS in confronting this pandemic is dependent on intersectoral policies. Thus, the creation of a policy to tackle COVID-19 with the participation of the ACS needs to consider intersectoral actions for curtailing and preventing violence in the territory, in addition to adequate training in the prevention and detection of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Violence/prevention & control , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Community Health Workers , Brazil/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e211320, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092488

ABSTRACT

Importance: Describing the changes in trauma volume and injury patterns during the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could help to inform policy development and hospital resource planning. Objective: To examine trends in trauma admissions throughout Los Angeles County (LAC) during the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, all trauma admissions to the 15 verified level 1 and level 2 trauma centers in LAC from January 1 to June 7, 2020 were reviewed. All trauma admissions from the same period in 2019 were used as historical control. For overall admissions, the study period was divided into 3 intervals based on daily admission trend analysis (January 1 through February 28, March 1 through April 9, April 10 through June 7). For the blunt trauma subgroup analysis, the study period was divided into 3 similar intervals (January 1 through February 27, February 28 through April 5, April 6 through June 7). Exposures: COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: Trends in trauma admission volume and injury patterns. Results: A total of 6777 patients in 2020 and 6937 in 2019 met inclusion criteria. Of those admitted in 2020, the median (interquartile range) age was 42 (28-61) years and 5100 (75.3%) were men. Mechanisms of injury were significantly different between the 2 years, with a higher incidence of penetrating trauma and fewer blunt injuries in 2020 compared with 2019 (penetrating: 1065 [15.7%] vs 1065 [15.4%]; blunt: 5309 [78.3%] vs 5528 [79.7%]). Overall admissions by interval in 2020 were 2681, 1684, and 2412, whereas in 2019 they were 2462, 1862, and 2613, respectively. There was a significant increase in overall admissions per week during the first interval (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.02; 95% CI, 1.002-1.04; P = .03) followed by a decrease in the second interval (IRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.94; P < .001) and, finally, an increase in the third interval (IRR, 1.05; CI, 1.03-1.07; P < .001). On subgroup analysis, blunt admissions followed a similar pattern to overall admissions, while penetrating admissions increased throughout the study period. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, trauma centers throughout LAC experienced a significant change in injury patterns and admission trends during the COVID-19 pandemic. A transient decrease in volume was followed by a quick return to baseline levels. Trauma centers should prioritize maintaining access, capacity, and functionality during pandemics and other national emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Abbreviated Injury Scale , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Bites and Stings/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Stab/epidemiology
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