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1.
Am Surg ; 87(11): 1701-1703, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556614

ABSTRACT

Inequities in society and health care combined with underlying structural and systemic racism have demonstrated significant consequences which have resulted in a renewed focus on the current state of diversity in health care and the field of surgery. However, efforts to combat racism and increase diversity and inclusion at all levels in the field of surgery require a comprehensive review, significant commitment, and purposeful action to achieve. These actions must include increasing diversity within training program recruitment, improving retention of minority and under-represented trainees, and implementing inclusive, transparent pathways to promotion, leadership, and involvement in scientific inquiry. This symposium brings together experts in surgery, health equity and policy to address antiracism, diversity, equity, and inclusion in a comprehensive manner ranging from workforce diversity and promotion, pipeline diversity, scholarly pursuits, social and political determinants of health.


Subject(s)
Cultural Diversity , Health Equity , Healthcare Disparities , Minority Groups , Social Inclusion , African Americans , Asian Americans , COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Personnel Selection , Personnel Turnover , SARS-CoV-2 , Specialties, Surgical , Violence/trends , Workforce
2.
Am J Surg ; 222(4): 832-841, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A community lockdown has a profound impact on its citizens. Our objective was to identify changes in trauma patient demographics, volume, and pattern of injury following the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted at a Level-1 Trauma Center from 2017 to 2020. RESULTS: A downward trend in volume is seen December-April in 2020 (R2 = 0.9907). February through April showed an upward trend in 2018 and 2019 (R2= 0.80 and R2 = 0.90 respectively), but a downward trend in 2020 (R2 = 0.97). In April 2020, there was 41.6% decrease in total volume, a 47.4% decrease in blunt injury and no decrease in penetrating injury. In contrast to previous months, in April the majority of injuries occurred in home zip codes. CONCLUSIONS: A community lockdown decreased the number of blunt trauma, however despite social distancing, did not decrease penetrating injury. Injuries were more likely to occur in home zip codes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals, Urban/trends , Physical Distancing , Trauma Centers/trends , Violence/trends , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Urban/standards , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers/standards , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/therapy , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/therapy , Young Adult
3.
Surgery ; 171(2): 533-540, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and associated policies have had important downstream consequences for individuals, communities, and the healthcare system, and they appear to have been accompanied by rising interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of injuries owing to interpersonal violence after implementation of a statewide stay-at-home order in Pennsylvania in March 2020. METHODS: Using the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study registry, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with gunshot wounds, stab wounds, and blunt assault-related injuries attributable to interpersonal violence treated at Pennsylvania trauma centers from March 16 to July 31 of 2018, 2019, and 2020. RESULTS: There were fewer total trauma admissions in 2020 (17,489) vs 2018 (19,290) and 2019 (19,561). Gunshot wounds increased in 2020 to 737 vs 647 for 2019 and 565 for 2018 (P = .028), whereas blunt assault injuries decreased (P = .03). In all time periods, interpersonal violence primarily impacted urban counties. African American men were predominantly affected by gunshot wounds and stab wounds, whereas Caucasian men were predominantly affected by blunt assault injuries. There were more patients with substance abuse disorders and positive drug screens during coronavirus disease than in comparison periods: (stab wound population 52.3% vs 33.9% vs 45.9%, coronavirus disease era vs 2018 vs 2019, respectively P = .0001), (blunt assault injury population 41.4% vs 33.1% vs 33.5%, coronavirus disease era vs 2018 vs 2019, respectively P < .0001). There was no correlation between the incidence of interpersonal violence and coronavirus disease 2019 rates at the county level. CONCLUSION: The implementation of a stay-at-home order was accompanied by rising incidence of gunshot and stab wound injuries in Pennsylvania. Preparedness for future resurgences of coronavirus disease 2019 and other pandemics calls for plans to address injury prevention, recidivism, and access to mental health and substance abuse prevention services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Violence/trends , Wounds, Gunshot/etiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/etiology , Wounds, Stab/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Violence/psychology , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/psychology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/psychology , Wounds, Stab/epidemiology , Wounds, Stab/psychology
4.
Child Abuse Negl ; 118: 105156, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The lockdowns occurring across society because of the COVID-19 pandemic have had far-reaching consequences for children and adolescents. One immediate concern was what the impact of the comprehensive disease control measures on rates of violence and abuse against children and adolescents would be. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish rates of child abuse and degree of family conflict during the first COVID-19 lockdown spring 2020. Additionally, we aimed to investigate associations between preexisting and concurrent risk factors and abuse during these unique times. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 3545 Norwegian 13- to 16-year-olds participated in this study. A total of 1944 of these had provided data 1 year before the lockdown. METHODS: We used a web survey format to assess abuse exposure and associated risk factors. The survey was administered in schools during school hours in June 2020, shortly after the reopening of schools after the first lockdown. RESULTS: In this sample 8.2% reported psychological abuse during lockdown, 2.4% had experienced physical abuse and 1.4% sexual abuse. For online sexual abuse, the rate was 5.6% during this time period. Adolescents did not report an increase in family conflict. Concurrently perceived family affluence and family risk factors were most strongly associated with physical abuse during lockdown (OR = 11.01(95% CI 5.32-22.84); OR = 5.36 (95% CI 2.69-10.67)), but also other types of child maltreatment. Analyses across assessment points suggested that prior victimization was the most accurate predictor of abuse experiences during lockdown (OR = 3.84 (95% CI 2.85-5.20)). CONCLUSIONS: The negative consequences of the COVID-19 preventative measures struck the adolescent population unevenly. The findings underscore the need for targeted measures to mitigate the negative outcomes of health-related crises for adolescents in risk groups such as those with low family affluence and prior abuse experiences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Population Surveillance , Violence/psychology , Adolescent , Bullying/psychology , Child Abuse/trends , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Norway/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Violence/trends
7.
J Surg Res ; 263: 24-33, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 stay-at-home (SAH) and reopening orders on trends and types of firearm violence in California, Ohio, and the United States, hypothesizing increased firearm violence after SAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data (January 1, 2018, to July 31, 2020) on firearm incidents/injuries/deaths and types of firearm violence were obtained from the Gun Violence Archive. The periods for SAH and reopening for the US were based on dates for California. Ohio dates were based on Ohio's timeline. Mann-Whitney U analyses compared trends and types of daily firearm violence per 100,000 legal firearm owners across 2018-2020 periods. RESULTS: In California, SAH and reopening orders had no effect on firearm violence in 2020 compared with 2018 and 2019 periods, respectively. In Ohio, daily median firearm deaths increased during 2020 SAH compared with 2018 and 2019 and firearm incidents and injuries increased during 2020 reopening compared with 2018, 2019 and 2020 SAH. In the United States, during 2020, SAH firearm deaths increased compared with historical controls and firearm incidents, deaths and injuries increased during 2020 reopening compared with 2018, 2019 and 2020 SAH (all P < 0.05). Nationally, when compared with 2018 and 2019, 2020 SAH had increased accidental shootings deaths with a decrease in defensive use, home invasion, and drug-involved incidents. CONCLUSIONS: During 2020 SAH, the rates of firearm violence increased in Ohio and the United States but remained unchanged in California. Nationally, firearm incidents, deaths and injuries also increased during 2020 reopening versus historical and 2020 SAH data. This suggests a secondary "pandemic" as well as a "reopening phenomenon," with increased firearm violence not resulting from self-defense.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Firearms/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence/trends , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , California/epidemiology , Firearms/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Ohio/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/mortality
8.
S Afr Med J ; 111(1): 52-56, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was recognised as a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. In South Africa (SA), a nationwide lockdown was implemented at midnight on 26 March to prepare for the predicted surge and slow the spread of the virus. OBJECTIVES: To compare the volume and type of presentations of trauma secondary to interpersonal violence and road traffic collisions (RTCs) during two 5-month periods, from February to June 2019 and 2020, in the emergency department (ED) of an academic tertiary hospital in Gauteng Province, SA. In 2020, February - June included the lockdown period. METHODS: An observational retrospective audit of the patient register at the Helen Joseph Hospital ED was conducted, comparing the number of trauma presentations secondary to interpersonal violence (assaults with gunshot wounds, general assaults including mob assaults, assaults with stab wounds) and RTC presentations between February and June 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: A total of 4 300 trauma presentations secondary to interpersonal violence and RTCs were noted in the 5-month period February - June 2019, as opposed to 3 239 presentations in February - June 2020 (25% decline). A 40% decline in the number of RTCs, from 1 704 in February - June 2019 to 1 026 in the corresponding period for 2020, was noted and found to be statistically significant (p=0.03). Declines in the volume of trauma cases secondary to interpersonal violence and of overall trauma cases were only directional in favour of 2020, but not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The volume of trauma presentations secondary to interpersonal violence and RTCs in the Helen Joseph Hospital ED decreased during the lockdown period. The decline in the volume of RTCs was statistically significant, but declines in the volume of trauma presentations secondary to interpersonal violence and in the volume of overall trauma presentations were not.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Violence/trends , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Humans , Public Policy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Stab/epidemiology
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