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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0061821, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622002

ABSTRACT

The host transmembrane protein MARCH8 is a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase that downregulates various host transmembrane proteins, such as MHC-II. We have recently reported that MARCH8 expression in virus-producing cells impairs viral infectivity by reducing virion incorporation of not only HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein but also vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein through two different pathways. However, the MARCH8 inhibition spectrum remains largely unknown. Here, we show the antiviral spectrum of MARCH8 using viruses pseudotyped with a variety of viral envelope glycoproteins. Infection experiments revealed that viral envelope glycoproteins derived from the rhabdovirus, arenavirus, coronavirus, and togavirus (alphavirus) families were sensitive to MARCH8-mediated inhibition. Lysine mutations at the cytoplasmic tails of rabies virus-G, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoproteins, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, and Chikungunya virus and Ross River virus E2 proteins conferred resistance to MARCH8. Immunofluorescence showed impaired downregulation of the mutants of these viral envelope glycoproteins by MARCH8, followed by lysosomal degradation, suggesting that MARCH8-mediated ubiquitination leads to intracellular degradation of these envelopes. Indeed, rabies virus-G and Chikungunya virus E2 proteins proved to be clearly ubiquitinated. We conclude that MARCH8 has inhibitory activity on a variety of viral envelope glycoproteins whose cytoplasmic lysine residues are targeted by this antiviral factor. IMPORTANCE A member of the MARCH E3 ubiquitin ligase family, MARCH8, downregulates many different kinds of host transmembrane proteins, resulting in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. On the other hands, MARCH8 acts as an antiviral factor when it binds to and downregulates HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein that are viral transmembrane proteins. This study reveals that, as in the case of cellular membrane proteins, MARCH8 shows broad-spectrum inhibition against various viral envelope glycoproteins by recognizing their cytoplasmic lysine residues, resulting in lysosomal degradation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Lysine/drug effects , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/pharmacology , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Blotting, Western , Down-Regulation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , Lysine/metabolism , Ubiquitination/physiology , Viral Envelope Proteins/drug effects
2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(40): 17024-17038, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772998

ABSTRACT

Broad-spectrum antivirals are powerful weapons against dangerous viruses where no specific therapy exists, as in the case of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We discovered that a lysine- and arginine-specific supramolecular ligand (CLR01) destroys enveloped viruses, including HIV, Ebola, and Zika virus, and remodels amyloid fibrils in semen that promote viral infection. Yet, it is unknown how CLR01 exerts these two distinct therapeutic activities. Here, we delineate a novel mechanism of antiviral activity by studying the activity of tweezer variants: the "phosphate tweezer" CLR01, a "carboxylate tweezer" CLR05, and a "phosphate clip" PC. Lysine complexation inside the tweezer cavity is needed to antagonize amyloidogenesis and is only achieved by CLR01. Importantly, CLR01 and CLR05 but not PC form closed inclusion complexes with lipid head groups of viral membranes, thereby altering lipid orientation and increasing surface tension. This process disrupts viral envelopes and diminishes infectivity but leaves cellular membranes intact. Consequently, CLR01 and CLR05 display broad antiviral activity against all enveloped viruses tested, including herpesviruses, Measles virus, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. Based on our mechanistic insights, we potentiated the antiviral, membrane-disrupting activity of CLR01 by introducing aliphatic ester arms into each phosphate group to act as lipid anchors that promote membrane targeting. The most potent ester modifications harbored unbranched C4 units, which engendered tweezers that were approximately one order of magnitude more effective than CLR01 and nontoxic. Thus, we establish the mechanistic basis of viral envelope disruption by specific tweezers and establish a new class of potential broad-spectrum antivirals with enhanced activity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bridged-Ring Compounds/pharmacology , Organophosphates/pharmacology , Viral Envelope Proteins/drug effects , Acid Phosphatase/chemistry , Acid Phosphatase/metabolism , Amyloid/antagonists & inhibitors , Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Arginine/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Bridged-Ring Compounds/chemistry , Cell Membrane/chemistry , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/virology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , Lysine/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Organophosphates/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Seminal Vesicle Secretory Proteins/chemistry , Seminal Vesicle Secretory Proteins/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Zika Virus/drug effects
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717746

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created a severe global health crisis. In this paper, we used docking and simulation methods to identify potential targets and the mechanism of action of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) against SARS-CoV-2. Our results showed that both CQ and HCQ influenced the functionality of the envelope (E) protein, necessary in the maturation processes of the virus, due to interactions that modify the flexibility of the protein structure. Furthermore, CQ and HCQ also influenced the proofreading and capping of viral RNA in SARS-CoV-2, performed by nsp10/nsp14 and nsp10/nsp16. In particular, HCQ demonstrated a better energy binding with the examined targets compared to CQ, probably due to the hydrogen bonding of the hydroxyl group of HCQ with polar amino acid residues.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/drug effects , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins/drug effects , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 153: 105465, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639701

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, is a disease resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic. Due to the current global emergency and the length of time required to develop specific antiviral agent(s) and a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, the world health organization (WHO) adopted the strategy of repurposing existing medications to treat COVID-19. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were previously approved by the US food and drug administration (FDA) for anemia treatment and studies have also demonstrated its antiviral activity in vitro. Therefore, we performed a docking study to explore the interaction of IONPs (Fe2O3 and Fe3O4) with the spike protein receptor binding domain (S1-RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 that is required for virus attachment to the host cell receptors. A similar docking analysis was also performed with hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins E1 and E2. These studies revealed that both Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 interacted efficiently with the SARS-CoV-2 S1-RBD and to HCV glycoproteins, E1 and E2. Fe3O4 formed a more stable complex with S1-RBD whereas Fe2O3 favored HCV E1 and E2. These interactions of IONPs are expected to be associated with viral proteins conformational changes and hence, viral inactivation. Therefore, we recommend FDA-approved-IONPs to proceed for COVID-19 treatment clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Ferric Compounds/therapeutic use , Metal Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Drug Approval , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Pandemics , Protein Conformation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Viral Envelope Proteins/drug effects , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
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