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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7010, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815604

ABSTRACT

The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus has highlighted the need for a synthetic biology approach to create reliable and scalable sources of viral antigen for uses in diagnostics, therapeutics and basic biomedical research. Here, we adapt plasmid-based systems in the eukaryotic microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum to develop an inducible overexpression system for SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Limiting phosphate and iron in growth media induced expression of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from the P. tricornutum HASP1 promoter in the wild-type strain and in a histidine auxotrophic strain that alleviates the requirement for antibiotic selection of expression plasmids. The RBD was purified from whole cell extracts (algae-RBD) with yield compromised by the finding that 90-95% of expressed RBD lacked the genetically encoded C-terminal 6X-histidine tag. Constructs that lacked the TEV protease site between the RBD and C-terminal 6X-histidine tag retained the tag, increasing yield. Purified algae-RBD was found to be N-linked glycosylated by treatment with endoglycosidases, was cross-reactive with anti-RBD polyclonal antibodies, and inhibited binding of recombinant RBD purified from mammalian cell lines to the human ACE2 receptor. We also show that the algae-RBD can be used in a lateral flow assay device to detect SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies from donor serum at sensitivity equivalent to assays performed with RBD made in mammalian cell lines. Our study shows that P. tricornutum is a scalable system with minimal biocontainment requirements for the inducible production of SARS-CoV-2 or other coronavirus antigens for pandemic diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diatoms , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diatoms/genetics , Diatoms/metabolism , Histidine , Humans , Mammals/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphates , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
2.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792411

ABSTRACT

Combined in silico, in vitro, and in vivo comparative studies between isogenic-recombinant Mouse-Hepatitis-Virus-RSA59 and its proline deletion mutant, revealed a remarkable contribution of centrally located two consecutive prolines (PP) from Spike protein fusion peptide (FP) in enhancing virus fusogenic and hepato-neuropathogenic potential. To deepen our understanding of the underlying factors, we extend our studies to a non-fusogenic parental virus strain RSMHV2 (P) with a single proline in the FP and its proline inserted mutant, RSMHV2 (PP). Comparative in vitro and in vivo studies between virus strains RSA59(PP), RSMHV2 (P), and RSMHV2 (PP) in the FP demonstrate that the insertion of one proline significantly resulted in enhancing the virus fusogenicity, spread, and consecutive neuropathogenesis. Computational studies suggest that the central PP in Spike FP induces a locally ordered, compact, and rigid structure of the Spike protein in RSMHV2 (PP) compared to RSMHV2 (P), but globally the Spike S2-domain is akin to the parental strain RSA59(PP), the latter being the most flexible showing two potential wells in the energy landscape as observed from the molecular dynamics studies. The critical location of two central prolines of the FP is essential for fusogenicity and pathogenesis making it a potential site for designing antiviral.


Subject(s)
Demyelinating Diseases , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Mice , Peptides/metabolism , Proline , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
3.
Virus Genes ; 58(2): 143-145, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777771

ABSTRACT

Virus like particles (VLPs) are used as a tool to study the mutations in the structural genes that influence the virus assembly and entry process. We observed that Chikungunya VLP with the E1:V291I mutation produced more fluorescence-positive cells in Vero cells than the other mutant VLPs (E1:A226V, D284E, and E2:V264A) and wild-type VLP tested in this study. According to the findings, the V291I mutation may aid the virus's ability to enter the cells more efficiently than wild-type VLPs. The study concludes that VLP is a useful model for studying the virus entry process in cells.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Mutation , Vero Cells , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Virus Assembly
4.
Cancer Discov ; 12(4): 892-894, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775023

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Fahrner and colleagues investigated the immune response of patients with cancer and cancer-free individuals to SARS-CoV-2 and found that a propensity toward an IL5-predominant Th2/Tc2 response was predictive of susceptibility to infection. The results of this study also suggest that a cellular response against the Spike 1 protein receptor binding domain (S1-RBD) region of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome contributes to protection and that mutations in this region may drive viral evolution and immune escape. See related article by Fahrner et al., p. 958 (8).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
5.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(4): 524-529, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773981

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variant Lambda was dominant in several South American countries, including Chile. To ascertain the efficacy of local vaccination efforts, we used pseudotyped viruses to characterize the neutralization capacity of antibodies elicited by CoronaVac (n = 53) and BNT162b2 (n = 56) in healthcare workers from Clínica Santa María and the Faculty of Medicine at Universidad de Chile, as well as in convalescent plasma from individuals infected during the first wave visiting the Hospital Clínico at Pontificia Universidad Católica (n = 30). We observed that BNT162b2 elicits higher neutralizing antibody titres than CoronaVac, with differences ranging from 7.4-fold for the ancestral spike (Wuhan-Hu-1) to 8.2-fold for the Lambda spike and 13-fold for the Delta spike. Compared with the ancestral virus, neutralization against D614G, Alpha, Gamma, Lambda and Delta variants was reduced by between 0.93- and 4.22-fold for CoronaVac, 1.04- and 2.38-fold for BNT162b2, and 1.26- and 2.67-fold for convalescent plasma. Comparative analyses among the spike structures of the different variants suggest that mutations in the spike protein from the Lambda variant, including the 246-252 deletion in an antigenic supersite at the N-terminal domain loop and L452Q/F490S within the receptor-binding domain, may account for immune escape. Interestingly, analyses using pseudotyped and whole viruses showed increased entry rates into HEK293T-ACE2 cells, but reduced replication rates in Vero-E6 cells for the Lambda variant when compared with the Alpha, Gamma and Delta variants. Our data show that inactivated virus and messenger RNA vaccines elicit different levels of neutralizing antibodies with different potency to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the variant of interest Lambda.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Chile , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5496, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768853

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is accompanied by chronic neurological sequelae such as cognitive decline and mood disorder, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. We explored the possibility that the brain-infiltrating SARS-CoV-2 spike protein contributes to the development of neurological symptoms observed in COVID-19 patients in this study. Our behavioral study showed that administration of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit (S1 protein) to mouse hippocampus induced cognitive deficit and anxiety-like behavior in vivo. These neurological symptoms were accompanied by neuronal cell death in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus as well as glial cell activation. Interestingly, the S1 protein did not directly induce hippocampal cell death in vitro. Rather, it exerted neurotoxicity via glial cell activation, partially through interleukin-1ß induction. In conclusion, our data suggest a novel pathogenic mechanism for the COVID-19-associated neurological symptoms that involves glia activation and non-cell autonomous hippocampal neuronal death by the brain-infiltrating S1 protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Anxiety , Cell Death , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
7.
Sci Adv ; 8(12): eabm0220, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765069

ABSTRACT

Conventional approaches to isolate and characterize nanobodies are laborious. We combine phage display, multivariate enrichment, next-generation sequencing, and a streamlined screening strategy to identify numerous anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nanobodies. We characterize their potency and specificity using neutralization assays and hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). The most potent nanobodies bind to the receptor binding motif of the receptor binding domain (RBD), and we identify two exceptionally potent members of this category (with monomeric half-maximal inhibitory concentrations around 13 and 16 ng/ml). Other nanobodies bind to a more conserved epitope on the side of the RBD and are able to potently neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 founder virus (42 ng/ml), the Beta variant (B.1.351/501Y.V2) (35 ng/ml), and also cross-neutralize the more distantly related SARS-CoV-1 (0.46 µg/ml). The approach presented here is well suited for the screening of phage libraries to identify functional nanobodies for various biomedical and biochemical applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Camelids, New World , Single-Domain Antibodies , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Camelids, New World/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
8.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742726

ABSTRACT

The prolonged duration of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in the continuous emergence of variants of concern (VOC, e.g., Omicron) and variants of interest (VOI, e.g., Lambda). These variants have challenged the protective efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines, thus calling for the development of novel therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs. Here, we constructed a novel fusion inhibitor-based recombinant protein, denoted as 5-Helix, consisting of three heptad repeat 1 (HR1) and two heptad repeat 2 (HR2) fragments. The 5-Helix interacted with the HR2 domain of the viral S2 subunit, the most conserved region in spike (S) protein, to block homologous six-helix bundle (6-HB) formation between viral HR1 and HR2 domains and, hence, viral S-mediated cell-cell fusion. The 5-Helix potently inhibited infection by pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs, including Delta and Omicron variants. The 5-Helix also inhibited infection by authentic SARS-CoV-2 wild-type (nCoV-SH01) strain and its Delta variant. Collectively, our findings suggest that 5-Helix can be further developed as either a therapeutic or prophylactic to treat and prevent infection by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Envelope Proteins , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
9.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742557

ABSTRACT

The S protein of SARS-CoV-2 is a crucial structural and functional component for virus entry. Due to the constant mutation of the virus, there are very limited ways to prevent and control COVID-19. This experiment used a macroscopic SDS-PAGE method and proved that the S protein of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus, especially the S1 subunit, is very sensitive to alkaline serine protease with acidic pI (ASPNJ), NJ represents Neanthes japonica (Izuka) from which ASP is purified). ASPNJ cleaves proteins when the carbonyl group of the peptide bond is contributed by arginine or lysine. ASPNJ can degrade the S protein very quickly and effectively in vitro with relative selectivity. It can be inferred that the S, S1 and RBD of SARS-CoV-2 variants can also be easily degraded by ASPNJ. This rapid and strong degradation of the S protein by ASPNJ may become a potential new treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Serine Proteases , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteases/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
10.
Protein J ; 39(3): 198-216, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718840

ABSTRACT

The devastating effects of the recent global pandemic (termed COVID-19 for "coronavirus disease 2019") caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) are paramount with new cases and deaths growing at an exponential rate. In order to provide a better understanding of SARS CoV-2, this article will review the proteins found in the SARS CoV-2 that caused this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Drug Discovery/methods , Genome, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Polyproteins , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4502, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550282

ABSTRACT

Cells in many tissues, such as bone, muscle, and placenta, fuse into syncytia to acquire new functions and transcriptional programs. While it is known that fused cells are specialized, it is unclear whether cell-fusion itself contributes to programmatic-changes that generate the new cellular state. Here, we address this by employing a fusogen-mediated, cell-fusion system to create syncytia from undifferentiated cells. RNA-Seq analysis reveals VSV-G-induced cell fusion precedes transcriptional changes. To gain mechanistic insights, we measure the plasma membrane surface area after cell-fusion and observe it diminishes through increases in endocytosis. Consequently, glucose transporters internalize, and cytoplasmic glucose and ATP transiently decrease. This reduced energetic state activates AMPK, which inhibits YAP1, causing transcriptional-reprogramming and cell-cycle arrest. Impairing either endocytosis or AMPK activity prevents YAP1 inhibition and cell-cycle arrest after fusion. Together, these data demonstrate plasma membrane diminishment upon cell-fusion causes transient nutrient stress that may promote transcriptional-reprogramming independent from extrinsic cues.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Animals , Biological Transport , Cell Fusion , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Giant Cells/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Mice , RNA-Seq/methods , Signal Transduction/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5739, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475293

ABSTRACT

Protein aggregates associated with neurodegenerative diseases have the ability to transmit to unaffected cells, thereby templating their own aberrant conformation onto soluble homotypic proteins. Proteopathic seeds can be released into the extracellular space, secreted in association with extracellular vesicles (EV) or exchanged by direct cell-to-cell contact. The extent to which each of these pathways contribute to the prion-like spreading of protein misfolding is unclear. Exchange of cellular cargo by both direct cell contact or via EV depends on receptor-ligand interactions. We hypothesized that enabling these interactions through viral ligands enhances intercellular proteopathic seed transmission. Using different cellular models propagating prions or pathogenic Tau aggregates, we demonstrate that vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein and SARS-CoV-2 spike S increase aggregate induction by cell contact or ligand-decorated EV. Thus, receptor-ligand interactions are important determinants of intercellular aggregate dissemination. Our data raise the possibility that viral infections contribute to proteopathic seed spreading by facilitating intercellular cargo transfer.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Protein Aggregation, Pathological/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Brain/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Cell Line , Endocytosis , Female , Humans , Intravital Microscopy , Male , Middle Aged , Prions/metabolism , Protein Aggregation, Pathological/pathology , Protein Folding , tau Proteins/metabolism
13.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438738

ABSTRACT

Antibodies targeting the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are essential tools. In addition to important roles in the treatment and diagnosis of infection, the availability of high-quality specific antibodies for the S and N proteins is essential to facilitate basic research of virus replication and in the characterization of mutations responsible for variants of concern. We have developed panels of mouse and rabbit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) and N protein for functional and antigenic analyses. The mAbs to the S-RBD were tested for neutralization of native SARS-CoV-2, with several exhibiting neutralizing activity. The panels of mAbs to the N protein were assessed for cross-reactivity with the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV N proteins and could be subdivided into sets that showed unique specificity for SARS-CoV-2 N protein, cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV N proteins only, or cross-reactivity to all three coronavirus N proteins tested. Partial mapping of N-reactive mAbs were conducted using truncated fragments of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein and revealed near complete coverage of the N protein. Collectively, these sets of mouse and rabbit monoclonal antibodies can be used to examine structure/function studies for N proteins and to define the surface location of virus neutralizing epitopes on the RBD of the S protein.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Cross Reactions , Epitopes/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Binding/immunology , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(11): 166218, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323748

ABSTRACT

Throughout history, pandemics of infectious diseases caused by emerging viruses have spread worldwide. Evidence from previous outbreaks demonstrated that pregnant women are at high risk of contracting the diseases and suffering from adverse outcomes. However, while some viruses can cause major health complications for the mother and her fetus, others do not appear to affect pregnancy. Viral surface proteins bind to specific receptors on the cellular membrane of host cells and begin therewith the infection process. During pregnancy, the molecular features of these proteins may determine specific target cells in the placenta, which may explain the different outcomes. In this review, we display information on Variola, Influenza, Zika and Corona viruses focused on their surface proteins, effects on pregnancy, and possible target placental cells. This will contribute to understanding viral entry during pregnancy, as well as to develop strategies to decrease the incidence of obstetrical problems in current and future infections.


Subject(s)
Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Variola virus/metabolism , Variola virus/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Zika Virus/metabolism , Zika Virus/pathogenicity
15.
Dalton Trans ; 49(39): 13538-13543, 2020 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305373

ABSTRACT

Lectins, which exhibit viral-interaction abilities, have garnered attention in the current pandemic era as potential neutralizing agents and vaccine candidates. Viral invasion through envelope proteins is modulated by N-linked glycosylation in the spike (S) protein. This study demonstrates the biophysical aspects between lectins and high-mannose and -galactose N-glycans to provide insights into binding events.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Concanavalin A/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Mannose/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
16.
J Chem Phys ; 154(24): 245101, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293030

ABSTRACT

Ethanol is highly effective against various enveloped viruses and can disable the virus by disintegrating the protective envelope surrounding it. The interactions between the coronavirus envelope (E) protein and its membrane environment play key roles in the stability and function of the viral envelope. By using molecular dynamics simulation, we explore the underlying mechanism of ethanol-induced disruption of a model coronavirus membrane and, in detail, interactions of the E-protein and lipids. We model the membrane bilayer as N-palmitoyl-sphingomyelin and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine lipids and the coronavirus E-protein. The study reveals that ethanol causes an increase in the lateral area of the bilayer along with thinning of the bilayer membrane and orientational disordering of lipid tails. Ethanol resides at the head-tail region of the membrane and enhances bilayer permeability. We found an envelope-protein-mediated increase in the ordering of lipid tails. Our simulations also provide important insights into the orientation of the envelope protein in a model membrane environment. At ∼25 mol. % of ethanol in the surrounding ethanol-water phase, we observe disintegration of the lipid bilayer and dislocation of the E-protein from the membrane environment.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus/physiology , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Permeability
17.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282636

ABSTRACT

An effective vaccine for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major unmet medical and public health need, and it requires an antigen that elicits immune responses to multiple key conserved epitopes. Decades of research have generated a number of vaccine candidates; based on these data and research through clinical development, a vaccine antigen based on the E1E2 glycoprotein complex appears to be the best choice. One bottleneck in the development of an E1E2-based vaccine is that the antigen is challenging to produce in large quantities and at high levels of purity and antigenic/functional integrity. This review describes the production and characterization of E1E2-based vaccine antigens, both membrane-associated and a novel secreted form of E1E2, with a particular emphasis on the major challenges facing the field and how those challenges can be addressed.


Subject(s)
Hepacivirus/chemistry , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/chemistry , Animals , Epitopes/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C/virology , Humans , Mice , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Multimerization , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273462

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus deeply affected the world community. It gave a strong impetus to the development of not only approaches to diagnostics and therapy, but also fundamental research of the molecular biology of this virus. Fluorescence microscopy is a powerful technology enabling detailed investigation of virus-cell interactions in fixed and live samples with high specificity. While spatial resolution of conventional fluorescence microscopy is not sufficient to resolve all virus-related structures, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy can solve this problem. In this paper, we review the use of fluorescence microscopy to study SARS-CoV-2 and related viruses. The prospects for the application of the recently developed advanced methods of fluorescence labeling and microscopy-which in our opinion can provide important information about the molecular biology of SARS-CoV-2-are discussed.


Subject(s)
Microscopy, Fluorescence , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Endocytosis , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Genes, Reporter , Humans , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259507

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2 virus. This severe acute respiratory syndrome is currently a global health emergency and needs much effort to generate an urgent practical treatment to reduce COVID-19 complications and mortality in humans. Viral infection activates various cellular responses in infected cells, including cellular stress responses such as unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy, following the inhibition of mTOR. Both UPR and autophagy mechanisms are involved in cellular and tissue homeostasis, apoptosis, innate immunity modulation, and clearance of pathogens such as viral particles. However, during an evolutionary arms race, viruses gain the ability to subvert autophagy and UPR for their benefit. SARS-CoV-2 can enter host cells through binding to cell surface receptors, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and neuropilin-1 (NRP1). ACE2 blockage increases autophagy through mTOR inhibition, leading to gastrointestinal complications during SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. NRP1 is also regulated by the mTOR pathway. An increased NRP1 can enhance the susceptibility of immune system dendritic cells (DCs) to SARS-CoV-2 and induce cytokine storm, which is related to high COVID-19 mortality. Therefore, signaling pathways such as mTOR, UPR, and autophagy may be potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19. Hence, extensive investigations are required to confirm these potentials. Since there is currently no specific treatment for COVID-19 infection, we sought to review and discuss the important roles of autophagy, UPR, and mTOR mechanisms in the regulation of cellular responses to coronavirus infection to help identify new antiviral modalities against SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , COVID-19/pathology , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Unfolded Protein Response , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Molecular Chaperones/chemistry , Molecular Chaperones/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
20.
ChemMedChem ; 16(15): 2345-2353, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248684

ABSTRACT

The C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN mediates interactions with envelope glycoproteins of many viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, ebola, and HIV and contributes to virus internalization and dissemination. In the context of the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, involvement of DC-SIGN has been linked to severe cases of COVID-19. Inhibition of the interaction between DC-SIGN and viral glycoproteins has the potential to generate broad spectrum antiviral agents. Here, we demonstrate that mannose-functionalized poly-l-lysine glycoconjugates efficiently inhibit the attachment of viral glycoproteins to DC-SIGN-presenting cells with picomolar affinity. Treatment of these cells leads to prolonged receptor internalization and inhibition of virus binding for up to 6 h. Furthermore, the polymers are fully bio-compatible and readily cleared by target cells. The thermodynamic analysis of the multivalent interactions reveals enhanced enthalpy-driven affinities and promising perspectives for the future development of multivalent therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycoconjugates/pharmacology , Lectins, C-Type/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Cell Surface/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Glycoconjugates/chemical synthesis , Glycoconjugates/metabolism , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Mannose/analogs & derivatives , Mannose/metabolism , Mannose/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polylysine/analogs & derivatives , Polylysine/metabolism , Polylysine/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , THP-1 Cells , Thermodynamics , Viral Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
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