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1.
ACS Infect Dis ; 9(5): 1064-1077, 2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304204

ABSTRACT

Entry of enveloped viruses in host cells requires the fusion of viral and host cell membranes, a process that is facilitated by viral fusion proteins protruding from the viral envelope. These viral fusion proteins need to be triggered by host factors, and for some viruses, this event occurs inside endosomes and/or lysosomes. Consequently, these 'late-penetrating viruses' must be internalized and delivered to entry-conducive intracellular vesicles. Because endocytosis and vesicular trafficking are tightly regulated cellular processes, late-penetrating viruses also depend on specific host proteins for efficient delivery to the site of fusion, suggesting that these could be targeted for antiviral therapy. In this study, we investigated a role for sphingosine kinases (SKs) in viral entry and found that chemical inhibition of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) and/or SK2 and knockdown of SK1/2 inhibited entry of Ebola virus (EBOV) into host cells. Mechanistically, inhibition of SK1/2 prevented EBOV from reaching late-endosomes and lysosomes that contain the EBOV receptor, Niemann Pick C1 (NPC1). Furthermore, we present evidence that suggests that the trafficking defect caused by SK1/2 inhibition occurs independently of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling through cell-surface S1P receptors. Lastly, we found that chemical inhibition of SK1/2 prevents entry of other late-penetrating viruses, including arenaviruses and coronaviruses, and inhibits infection by replication-competent EBOV and SARS-CoV-2 in Huh7.5 cells. In sum, our results highlight an important role played by SK1/2 in endocytic trafficking, which can be targeted to inhibit entry of late-penetrating viruses and could serve as a starting point for the development of broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Arenavirus , COVID-19 , Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Humans , Cell Line , Sphingosine , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Fusion Proteins
2.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292459

ABSTRACT

The fusion of viral and cell membranes is one of the basic processes in the life cycles of viruses. A number of enveloped viruses confer fusion of the viral envelope and the cell membrane using surface viral fusion proteins. Their conformational rearrangements lead to the unification of lipid bilayers of cell membranes and viral envelopes and the formation of fusion pores through which the viral genome enters the cytoplasm of the cell. A deep understanding of all the stages of conformational transitions preceding the fusion of viral and cell membranes is necessary for the development of specific inhibitors of viral reproduction. This review systematizes knowledge about the results of molecular modeling aimed at finding and explaining the mechanisms of antiviral activity of entry inhibitors. The first section of this review describes types of viral fusion proteins and is followed by a comparison of the structural features of class I fusion proteins, namely influenza virus hemagglutinin and the S-protein of the human coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Orthomyxoviridae , Humans , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Hemagglutinins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Membrane Fusion , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolism , Virus Internalization
3.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(676): eade9984, 2022 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276036

ABSTRACT

In clinical trials, RSV prefusion F protein induced higher neutralizing antibodies and more activated memory B cells than postfusion F protein (Chang et al.).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Humans , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Viral Fusion Proteins
5.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200880

ABSTRACT

The cessation of measles virus (MeV) vaccination in more than 40 countries as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to significantly increase deaths due to measles. MeV can infect the central nervous system (CNS) and lead to lethal encephalitis. Substantial part of virus sequences recovered from patients' brain were mutated in the matrix and/or the fusion protein (F). Mutations of the heptad repeat domain located in the C terminal (HRC) part of the F protein were often observed and were associated to hyperfusogenicity. These mutations promote brain invasion as a hallmark of neuroadaptation. Wild-type F allows entry into the brain, followed by limited spreading compared with the massive invasion observed for hyperfusogenic MeV. Taking advantage of our ex vivo models of hamster organotypic brain cultures, we investigated how the hyperfusogenic mutations in the F HRC domain modulate virus distribution in CNS cells. In this study, we also identified the dependence of neural cells susceptibility on both their activation state and destabilization of the virus F protein. Type I interferon (IFN-I) impaired mainly astrocytes and microglial cells permissiveness contrarily to neurons, opening a new way of consideration on the development of treatments against viral encephalitis.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Measles virus , Measles , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , Brain , Central Nervous System/virology , Interferons/metabolism , Measles virus/physiology , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6439, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096707

ABSTRACT

Measles is the most contagious airborne viral infection and the leading cause of child death among vaccine-preventable diseases. We show here that aerosolized lipopeptide fusion inhibitor, derived from heptad-repeat regions of the measles virus (MeV) fusion protein, blocks respiratory MeV infection in a non-human primate model, the cynomolgus macaque. We use a custom-designed mesh nebulizer to ensure efficient aerosol delivery of peptide to the respiratory tract and demonstrate the absence of adverse effects and lung pathology in macaques. The nebulized peptide efficiently prevents MeV infection, resulting in the complete absence of MeV RNA, MeV-infected cells, and MeV-specific humoral responses in treated animals. This strategy provides an additional means to fight against respiratory infection in non-vaccinated people, that can be readily translated to human trials. It presents a proof-of-concept for the aerosol delivery of fusion inhibitory peptides to protect against measles and other airborne viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, in case of high-risk exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Animals , Humans , Measles virus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Peptides/pharmacology , Macaca fascicularis/metabolism
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(10): e1008942, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021974

ABSTRACT

Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a leading cause of viral respiratory infection in children, and can cause severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. However, there remain no licensed vaccines or specific treatments for hMPV infection. Although the hMPV fusion (F) protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies, the immunological properties of hMPV F remain poorly understood. To further define the humoral immune response to the hMPV F protein, we isolated two new human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), MPV458 and MPV465. Both mAbs are neutralizing in vitro and were determined to target a unique antigenic site using competitive biolayer interferometry. We determined both MPV458 and MPV465 have higher affinity for monomeric hMPV F than trimeric hMPV F. MPV458 was co-crystallized with hMPV F, and the mAb primarily interacts with an alpha helix on the F2 region of the hMPV F protein. Surprisingly, the major epitope for MPV458 lies within the trimeric interface of the hMPV F protein, suggesting significant breathing of the hMPV F protein must occur for host immune recognition of the novel epitope. In addition, significant glycan interactions were observed with a somatically mutated light chain framework residue. The data presented identifies a novel epitope on the hMPV F protein for epitope-based vaccine design, and illustrates a new mechanism for human antibody neutralization of viral glycoproteins.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Pneumovirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Metapneumovirus/immunology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology
8.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917790

ABSTRACT

Community mitigation measures taken owing to the COVID-19 pandemic have caused a decrease in the number of respiratory viruses, including the human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), and a delay in their occurrence. HPIV3 was rarely detected as a consequence of monitoring respiratory viral pathogens in Gwangju, Korea, in 2020; however, it resurfaced as a delayed outbreak and peaked in September-October 2021. To understand the genetic characteristics of the reemerging virus, antigenic gene sequences and evolutionary analyses of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes were performed for 129 HPIV3 pathogens prevalent in Gwangju from 2018 to 2021. Unlike the prevalence of various HPIV3 strains in 2018-2019, the prevalence of HPIV3 by strains with reduced diversity was confirmed in 2021. It could be inferred that this decrease in genetic diversity was due to the restriction of inflow from other regions at home and abroad following the community mitigation measures and the spread within the region. The HPIV3 that emerged in 2021 consisted of HN coding regions that were 100% consistent with the sequence identified in Saitama, Japan, in 2018, and F coding regions exhibiting 99.6% homology to a sequence identified in India in 2017, among the ranks reported to the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The emergence of a new lineage in a community can lead to a mass outbreak by collapsing the collective immunity of the existing acquired area; therefore, continuous monitoring is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , HN Protein/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics
9.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(8): 1071-1086, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860690

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emerged as one of the biggest global health issues. Spike protein (S) and nucleoprotein (N), the major immunogenic components of SARS-CoV-2, have been shown to be involved in the attachment and replication of the virus inside the host cell. AREAS COVERED: Several investigations have shown that the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein can elicit a cell-mediated immune response capable of regulating viral replication and lowering viral burden. However, the development of an effective vaccine that can stop the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains a matter of concern. Literature was retrieved using the keywords COVID-19 vaccine, role of nucleoprotein as vaccine candidate, spike protein, nucleoprotein immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, and chimera vaccine in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google. EXPERT OPINION: We have focussed on the use of chimera protein, consisting of N and S-1 protein components of SARS-CoV-2, as a potential vaccine candidate. This may act as a polyvalent mixed recombinant protein vaccine to elicit a strong T and B cell immune response, which will be capable of neutralizing the wild and mutated variants of SARS-CoV-2, and also restricting its attachment, replication, and budding in the host cell.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Fusion Proteins , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Nucleoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
10.
N Engl J Med ; 386(17): 1615-1626, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major cause of illness and death in infants worldwide, could be prevented by vaccination during pregnancy. The efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a bivalent RSV prefusion F protein-based (RSVpreF) vaccine in pregnant women and their infants are uncertain. METHODS: In a phase 2b trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women, at 24 through 36 weeks' gestation, to receive either 120 or 240 µg of RSVpreF vaccine (with or without aluminum hydroxide) or placebo. The trial included safety end points and immunogenicity end points that, in this interim analysis, included 50% titers of RSV A, B, and combined A/B neutralizing antibodies in maternal serum at delivery and in umbilical-cord blood, as well as maternal-to-infant transplacental transfer ratios. RESULTS: This planned interim analysis included 406 women and 403 infants; 327 women (80.5%) received RSVpreF vaccine. Most postvaccination reactions were mild to moderate; the incidence of local reactions was higher among women who received RSVpreF vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide than among those who received RSVpreF vaccine without aluminum hydroxide. The incidences of adverse events in the women and infants were similar in the vaccine and placebo groups; the type and frequency of these events were consistent with the background incidences among pregnant women and infants. The geometric mean ratios of 50% neutralizing titers between the infants of vaccine recipients and those of placebo recipients ranged from 9.7 to 11.7 among those with RSV A neutralizing antibodies and from 13.6 to 16.8 among those with RSV B neutralizing antibodies. Transplacental neutralizing antibody transfer ratios ranged from 1.41 to 2.10 and were higher with nonaluminum formulations than with aluminum formulations. Across the range of assessed gestational ages, infants of women who were immunized had similar titers in umbilical-cord blood and similar transplacental transfer ratios. CONCLUSIONS: RSVpreF vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody responses with efficient transplacental transfer and without evident safety concerns. (Funded by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04032093.).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Viral Fusion Proteins , Aluminum Hydroxide/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Vaccination , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology
11.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792421

ABSTRACT

Focusing on the transmembrane domains (TMDs) of viral fusion and channel-forming proteins (VCPs), experimentally available and newly generated peptides in an ideal conformation of the S and E proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and SARS-CoV, gp41 and Vpu, both of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), haemagglutinin and M2 of influenza A, as well as gB of herpes simplex virus (HSV), are embedded in a fully hydrated lipid bilayer and used in multi-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations. It is aimed to identify differences in the dynamics of the individual TMDs of the two types of viral membrane proteins. The assumption is made that the dynamics of the individual TMDs are decoupled from their extra-membrane domains, and that the mechanics of the TMDs are distinct from each other due to the different mechanism of function of the two types of proteins. The diffusivity coefficient (DC) of the translational and rotational diffusion is decreased in the oligomeric state of the TMDs compared to those values when calculated from simulations in their monomeric state. When comparing the calculations for two different lengths of the TMD, a longer full peptide and a shorter purely TMD stretch, (i) the difference of the calculated DCs begins to level out when the difference exceeds approximately 15 amino acids per peptide chain, and (ii) the channel protein rotational DC is the most affected diffusion parameter. The rotational dynamics of the individual amino acids within the middle section of the TMDs of the fusion peptides remain high upon oligomerization, but decrease for the channel peptides, with an increasing number of monomers forming the oligomeric state, suggesting an entropic penalty on oligomerization for the latter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ion Channels , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Viral Fusion Proteins , Amino Acids , Humans , Ion Channels/ultrastructure , Peptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Fusion Proteins/ultrastructure
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736943

ABSTRACT

Rouleaux (stacked clumps) of red blood cells (RBCs) observed in the blood of COVID-19 patients in three studies call attention to the properties of several enveloped virus strains dating back to seminal findings of the 1940s. For COVID-19, key such properties are: (1) SARS-CoV-2 binds to RBCs in vitro and also in the blood of COVID-19 patients; (2) although ACE2 is its target for viral fusion and replication, SARS-CoV-2 initially attaches to sialic acid (SA) terminal moieties on host cell membranes via glycans on its spike protein; (3) certain enveloped viruses express hemagglutinin esterase (HE), an enzyme that releases these glycan-mediated bindings to host cells, which is expressed among betacoronaviruses in the common cold strains but not the virulent strains, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS. The arrangement and chemical composition of the glycans at the 22 N-glycosylation sites of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and those at the sialoglycoprotein coating of RBCs allow exploration of specifics as to how virally induced RBC clumping may form. The in vitro and clinical testing of these possibilities can be sharpened by the incorporation of an existing anti-COVID-19 therapeutic that has been found in silico to competitively bind to multiple glycans on SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sialoglycoproteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Basigin/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Glycosylation , Hemagglutination , Hemagglutinins, Viral/metabolism , Humans , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/metabolism , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
14.
Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1628349

ABSTRACT

Hendra virus (HeV) belongs to the paramyxoviridae family of viruses which is associated with the respiratory distress, neurological illness, and potential fatality of the affected individuals. So far, no competitive approved therapeutic substance is available for HeV. For that reason, the current research work was conducted to propose some novel compounds, by adopting a Computer Aided Drug Discovery approach, which could be used to combat HeV. The G attachment Glycoprotein (Ggp) of HeV was selected to achieve the primary objective of this study, as this protein makes the entry of HeV possible in the host cells. Briefly, a library of 6000 antiviral compounds was screened for potential drug-like properties, followed by the molecular docking of short-listed compounds with the Protein Data Bank (PDB) structure of Ggp. Docked complexes of top two hits, having maximum binding affinities with the active sites of Ggp, were further considered for molecular dynamic simulations of 200 ns to elucidate the results of molecular docking analysis. MD simulations and Molecular Mechanics Energies combined with the Generalized Born and Surface Area (MMGBSA) or Poisson-Boltzmann and Surface Area (MMPBSA) revealed that both docked complexes are stable in nature. Furthermore, the same methodology was used between lead compounds and HeV Ggp in complex with its functional receptor in human, Ephrin-B2. Surprisingly, no major differences were found in the results, which demonstrates that our identified compounds can also perform their action even when the Ggp is attached to the Ephrin-B2 ligand. Therefore, in light of all of these results, we strongly suggest that compounds (S)-5-(benzylcarbamoyl)-1-(2-(4-methyl-2-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl)-6-oxo-3,6-dihydropyridin-1-ium-3-ide and 5-(cyclohexylcarbamoyl)-1-(2-((2-(3-fluorophenyl)-2-methylpropyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-6-oxo-3,6-dihydropyridin-1-ium-3-ide could be considered as potential therapeutic agents against HeV; however, further in vitro and in vivo experiments are required to validate this study.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Computational Chemistry/methods , Viral Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Ephrin-B2/chemistry , Ephrin-B2/metabolism , Hendra Virus/drug effects , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Small Molecule Libraries , Viral Fusion Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Water/chemistry
15.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260360, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546953

ABSTRACT

Recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and associated COVID-19 pandemic have posed a great challenge for the scientific community. In this study, we performed bioinformatic analyses on SARS-CoV-2 protein sequences, trying to unravel potential molecular similarities between this newly emerged pathogen with non-coronavirus ssRNA viruses. Comparing the proteins of SARS-CoV-2 with non-coronavirus positive and negative strand ssRNA viruses revealed multiple sequence similarities between SARS-CoV-2 and non-coronaviruses, including similarities between RNA-dependent RNA-polymerases and helicases (two highly-conserved proteins). We also observed similarities between SARS-CoV-2 surface (i.e. spike) protein with paramyxovirus fusion proteins. This similarity was restricted to a segment of spike protein S2 subunit which is involved in cell fusion. We next analyzed spike proteins from SARS-CoV-2 "variants of concern" (VOCs) and "variants of interests" (VOIs) and found that some of these variants show considerably higher spike-fusion similarity with paramyxoviruses. The 'spike-fusion' similarity was also observed for some pathogenic coronaviruses other than SARS-CoV-2. Epitope analysis using experimentally verified data deposited in Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) revealed that several B cell epitopes as well as T cell and MHC binding epitopes map within the spike-fusion similarity region. These data indicate that there might be a degree of convergent evolution between SARS-CoV-2 and paramyxovirus surface proteins which could be of pathogenic and immunological importance.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics , Epitopes/genetics , Humans , Paramyxoviridae/genetics , Phylogeny , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
16.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526805

ABSTRACT

The advancement of precision medicine critically depends on the robustness and specificity of the carriers used for the targeted delivery of effector molecules in the human body. Numerous nanocarriers have been explored in vivo, to ensure the precise delivery of molecular cargos via tissue-specific targeting, including the endocrine part of the pancreas, thyroid, and adrenal glands. However, even after reaching the target organ, the cargo-carrying vehicle needs to enter the cell and then escape lysosomal destruction. Most artificial nanocarriers suffer from intrinsic limitations that prevent them from completing the specific delivery of the cargo. In this respect, extracellular vesicles (EVs) seem to be the natural tool for payload delivery due to their versatility and low toxicity. However, EV-mediated delivery is not selective and is usually short-ranged. By inserting the viral membrane fusion proteins into exosomes, it is possible to increase the efficiency of membrane recognition and also ease the process of membrane fusion. This review describes the molecular details of the viral-assisted interaction between the target cell and EVs. We also discuss the question of the usability of viral fusion proteins in developing extracellular vesicle-based nanocarriers with a higher efficacy of payload delivery. Finally, this review specifically highlights the role of Gag and RNA binding proteins in RNA sorting into EVs.


Subject(s)
Exosomes/metabolism , RNA Transport , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Membrane Fusion
17.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 25(10): 909, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507098
18.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481007

ABSTRACT

Nipah virus (NiV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) possess two surface glycoproteins involved in cellular attachment and membrane fusion, both of which are potential targets for vaccines. The majority of vaccine development is focused on the attachment (G) protein of NiV, which is the immunodominant target. In contrast, the fusion (F) protein of RSV is the main target in vaccine development. Despite this, neutralising epitopes have been described in NiV F and RSV G, making them alternate targets for vaccine design. Through rational design, we have developed a vaccine strategy applicable to phylogenetically divergent NiV and RSV that comprises both the F and G proteins (FxG). In a mouse immunization model, we found that NiV FxG elicited an improved immune response capable of neutralising pseudotyped NiV and a NiV mutant that is able to escape neutralisation by two known F-specific antibodies. RSV FxG elicited an immune response against both F and G and was able to neutralise RSV; however, this was inferior to the immune response of F alone. Despite this, RSV FxG elicited a response against a known protective epitope within G that is conserved across RSV A and B subgroups, which may provide additional protection in vivo. We conclude that inclusion of F and G antigens within a single design provides a streamlined subunit vaccine strategy against both emerging and established pathogens, with the potential for broader protection against NiV.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Henipavirus Infections/prevention & control , Nipah Virus/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Vaccine Development/methods , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/administration & dosage , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology
19.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470996

ABSTRACT

Infections with viral pathogens are widespread and can cause a variety of different diseases. In-depth knowledge about viral triggers initiating an immune response is necessary to decipher viral pathogenesis. Inflammasomes, as part of the innate immune system, can be activated by viral pathogens. However, viral structural components responsible for inflammasome activation remain largely unknown. Here we analyzed glycoproteins derived from SARS-CoV-1/2, HCMV and HCV, required for viral entry and fusion, as potential triggers of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis in THP-1 macrophages. All tested glycoproteins were able to potently induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation, indicated by ASC-SPECK formation and secretion of cleaved IL-1ß. Lytic cell death via gasdermin D (GSDMD), pore formation, and pyroptosis are required for IL-1ß release. As a hallmark of pyroptosis, we were able to detect cleavage of GSDMD and, correspondingly, cell death in THP-1 macrophages. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of NLRP3 and GSDMD in THP-1 macrophages confirmed and strongly support the evidence that viral glycoproteins can act as innate immunity triggers. With our study, we decipher key mechanisms of viral pathogenesis by showing that viral glycoproteins potently induce innate immune responses. These insights could be beneficial in vaccine development and provide new impulses for the investigation of vaccine-induced innate immunity.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Hepacivirus/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/biosynthesis , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Pyroptosis/immunology , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , THP-1 Cells
20.
Adv Virus Res ; 111: 1-29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370123

ABSTRACT

Parainfluenza viruses, members of the enveloped, negative-sense, single stranded RNA Paramyxoviridae family, impact global child health as the cause of significant lower respiratory tract infections. Parainfluenza viruses enter cells by fusing directly at the cell surface membrane. How this fusion occurs via the coordinated efforts of the two molecules that comprise the viral surface fusion complex, and how these efforts may be blocked, are the subjects of this chapter. The receptor binding protein of parainfluenza forms a complex with the fusion protein of the virus, remaining stably associated until a receptor is reached. At that point, the receptor binding protein actively triggers the fusion protein to undergo a series of transitions that ultimately lead to membrane fusion and viral entry. In recent years it has become possible to examine this remarkable process on the surface of viral particles and to begin to understand the steps in the transition of this molecular machine, using a structural biology approach. Understanding the steps in entry leads to several possible strategies to prevent fusion and inhibit infection.


Subject(s)
Paramyxoviridae Infections , Virus Internalization , Humans , Membrane Fusion , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics
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