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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1237, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730289

ABSTRACT

The BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine has been shown to reduce viral load of breakthrough infections (BTIs), an important factor affecting infectiousness. This viral-load protective effect has been waning with time post the second vaccine and later restored with a booster shot. It is currently unclear though for how long this regained effectiveness lasts. Analyzing Ct values of SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR tests of over 22,000 infections during a Delta-variant-dominant period in Israel, we find that this viral-load reduction effectiveness significantly declines within months post the booster dose. Adjusting for age, sex and calendric date, Ct values of RdRp gene initially increases by 2.7 [CI: 2.3-3.0] relative to unvaccinated in the first month post the booster dose, yet then decays to a difference of 1.3 [CI: 0.7-1.9] in the second month and becomes small and insignificant in the third to fourth months. The rate and magnitude of this post-booster decline in viral-load reduction effectiveness mirror those observed post the second vaccine. These results suggest rapid waning of the booster's effectiveness in reducing infectiousness, possibly affecting community-level spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunization, Secondary/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Load/immunology , Adult , Algorithms , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(2): e36-e45, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722659

ABSTRACT

Although there are many hypotheses for the age-related difference in the severity of COVID-19, differences in innate, adaptive and heterologous immunity, together with differences in endothelial and clotting function, are the most likely mechanisms underlying the marked age gradient. Children have a faster and stronger innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2, especially in the nasal mucosa, which rapidly controls the virus. In contrast, adults can have an overactive, dysregulated and less effective innate response that leads to uncontrolled pro-inflammatory cytokine production and tissue injury. More recent exposure to other viruses and routine vaccines in children might be associated with protective cross-reactive antibodies and T cells against SARS-CoV-2. There is less evidence to support other mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the age-related difference in outcome following SARS-CoV-2 infection, including pre-existing immunity from exposure to common circulating coronaviruses, differences in the distribution and expression of the entry receptors ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and difference in viral load.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood Coagulation/immunology , Child , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Endothelium/immunology , Humans , Patient Acuity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Viral Load/immunology
3.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674823

ABSTRACT

Studies comparing SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal (NP) viral load (VL) according to virus variant and host vaccination status have yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a single center prospective study between July and September 2021 at the drive-through testing center of the Toulouse University Hospital. We compared the NP VL of 3775 patients infected by the Delta (n = 3637) and Alpha (n = 138) variants, respectively. Patient's symptoms and vaccination status (2619 unvaccinated, 636 one dose and 520 two doses) were recorded. SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing and variant screening were assessed by using Thermo Fisher® TaqPath™ COVID-19 and ID solutions® ID™ SARS-CoV-2/VOC evolution Pentaplex assays. Delta SARS-CoV-2 infections were associated with higher VL than Alpha (coef = 0.68; p ≤ 0.01) independently of patient's vaccination status, symptoms, age and sex. This difference was higher for patients diagnosed late after symptom onset (coef = 0.88; p = 0.01) than for those diagnosed early (coef = 0.43; p = 0.03). Infections in vaccinated patients were associated with lower VL (coef = -0.18; p ≤ 0.01) independently of virus variant, symptom, age and sex. Our results suggest that Delta infections could lead to higher VL and for a longer period compared to Alpha infections. By effectively reducing the NP VL, vaccination could allow for limiting viral spread, even with the Delta variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Viral Load/immunology , Viral Load/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Load/methods , Young Adult
4.
Nature ; 600(7888): 295-301, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626235

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes COVID-19. Given its acute and often self-limiting course, it is likely that components of the innate immune system play a central part in controlling virus replication and determining clinical outcome. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes with notable activity against a broad range of viruses, including RNA viruses1,2. NK cell function may be altered during COVID-19 despite increased representation of NK cells with an activated and adaptive phenotype3,4. Here we show that a decline in viral load in COVID-19 correlates with NK cell status and that NK cells can control SARS-CoV-2 replication by recognizing infected target cells. In severe COVID-19, NK cells show defects in virus control, cytokine production and cell-mediated cytotoxicity despite high expression of cytotoxic effector molecules. Single-cell RNA sequencing of NK cells over the time course of the COVID-19 disease spectrum reveals a distinct gene expression signature. Transcriptional networks of interferon-driven NK cell activation are superimposed by a dominant transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) response signature, with reduced expression of genes related to cell-cell adhesion, granule exocytosis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In severe COVID-19, serum levels of TGFß peak during the first two weeks of infection, and serum obtained from these patients severely inhibits NK cell function in a TGFß-dependent manner. Our data reveal that an untimely production of TGFß is a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and may inhibit NK cell function and early control of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology , Atlases as Topic , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Influenza, Human/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , RNA-Seq , Single-Cell Analysis , Time Factors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood , Viral Load/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 772240, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551510

ABSTRACT

Antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells (Trms) and neutralizing IgA antibodies provide the most effective protection of the lungs from viral infections. To induce those essential components of lung immunity against SARS-CoV-2, we tested various immunization protocols involving intranasal delivery of a novel Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-SARS-2-spike vaccine candidate. We show that a single intranasal MVA-SARS-CoV-2-S application in mice strongly induced pulmonary spike-specific CD8+ T cells, albeit restricted production of neutralizing antibodies. In prime-boost protocols, intranasal booster vaccine delivery proved to be crucial for a massive expansion of systemic and lung tissue-resident spike-specific CD8+ T cells and the development of Th1 - but not Th2 - CD4+ T cells. Likewise, very high titers of IgG and IgA anti-spike antibodies were present in serum and broncho-alveolar lavages that possessed high virus neutralization capacities to all current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Importantly, the MVA-SARS-2-spike vaccine applied in intramuscular priming and intranasal boosting treatment regimen completely protected hamsters from developing SARS-CoV-2 lung infection and pathology. Together, these results identify intramuscular priming followed by respiratory tract boosting with MVA-SARS-2-S as a promising approach for the induction of local, respiratory as well as systemic immune responses suited to protect from SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Genetic Vectors , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lung/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccinia virus/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load/immunology
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6778-6781, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544295

ABSTRACT

A high-throughput, fully automated antigen detection test for SARS-CoV-2 is a viable alternative to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for mass screening during outbreaks. In this study, we compared RT-qPCR for viral load and the VITROS® SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test with reference to the results of the LUMIPULSE® SARS-CoV-2 Ag Test. Of 128 nasopharyngeal swab specimens taken from patients suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, 49 were positive and 79 were negative according to RT-qPCR. Consistent dose-dependent detection with VITROS® assay was successfully achieved when using nasopharyngeal swab specimens with Ct values of 32.0 or lesser, whereas the CLEIA-based LUMIPULSE® assay was able to detect lower viral loads compared with the VITROS® assay. Our results show that the performance of the VITROS® assay was satisfactory for the diagnosis of contagious COVID-19 patients in the clinical setting. Highlights The performance of the VITROS® SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test was sufficient for the diagnosis of contagious COVID-19. This test showed high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in samples with a Ct value of 32 or less.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Immunologic Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/immunology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load/genetics , Viral Load/immunology
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741796, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477826

ABSTRACT

Background: The immune response plays a pivotal role in dictating the clinical outcome in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected adults, but it is still poorly investigated in the pediatric population. Methods: Of 209 enrolled subjects, 155 patients were confirmed by PCR and/or serology as having coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Blood samples were obtained at a median of 2.8 (interquartile, 2.1-3.7) and 6.1 (5.3-7.2) months after baseline (symptom onset and/or first positive virus detection). The immune profiles of activation, senescence, exhaustion, and regulatory cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were detected by a plaque reduction neutralization test. In available nasopharyngeal swabs at baseline, SARS-CoV-2 levels were quantified by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). Results: Overall, COVID-19 patients had higher levels of immune activation, exhaustion, and regulatory cells compared to non-COVID-19 subjects. Within the COVID-19 group, activated and senescent cells were higher in adults than in children and inversely correlated with the nAbs levels. Conversely, Tregs and Bregs regulatory cells were higher in COVID-19 children compared to adults and positively correlated with nAbs. Higher immune activation still persisted in adults after 6 months of infection, while children maintained higher levels of regulatory cells. SARS-CoV-2 levels did not differ among age classes. Conclusions: Adults displayed higher immune activation and lower production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 nAbs than children. The different immune response was not related to different viral load. The higher expression of regulatory cells in children may contribute to reduce the immune activation, thus leading to a greater specific response against the virus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , B-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/blood , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load/immunology
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5819, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454763

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The continued spread of SARS-CoV-2 increases the probability of influenza/SARS-CoV-2 coinfection, which may result in severe disease. In this study, we examine the disease outcome of influenza A virus (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection in K18-hACE2 mice. Our data indicate enhance susceptibility of IAV-infected mice to developing severe disease upon coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 two days later. In contrast to nonfatal influenza and lower mortality rates due to SARS-CoV-2 alone, this coinfection results in severe morbidity and nearly complete mortality. Coinfection is associated with elevated influenza viral loads in respiratory organs. Remarkably, prior immunity to influenza, but not to SARS-CoV-2, prevents severe disease and mortality. This protection is antibody-dependent. These data experimentally support the necessity of seasonal influenza vaccination for reducing the risk of severe influenza/COVID-19 comorbidity during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/virology , Immunity , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Up-Regulation/genetics , Viral Load/immunology
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5861, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454761

ABSTRACT

Several COVID-19 vaccines have shown good efficacy in clinical trials, but there remains uncertainty about the efficacy of vaccines against different variants. Here, we investigate the efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) against symptomatic COVID-19 in a post-hoc exploratory analysis of a Phase 3 randomised trial in Brazil (trial registration ISRCTN89951424). Nose and throat swabs were tested by PCR in symptomatic participants. Sequencing and genotyping of swabs were performed to determine the lineages of SARS-CoV-2 circulating during the study. Protection against any symptomatic COVID-19 caused by the Zeta (P.2) variant was assessed in 153 cases with vaccine efficacy (VE) of 69% (95% CI 55, 78). 49 cases of B.1.1.28 occurred and VE was 73% (46, 86). The Gamma (P.1) variant arose later in the trial and fewer cases (N = 18) were available for analysis. VE was 64% (-2, 87). ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 provided 95% protection (95% CI 61%, 99%) against hospitalisation due to COVID-19. In summary, we report that ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 protects against emerging variants in Brazil despite the presence of the spike protein mutation E484K.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination , Viral Load/immunology , Young Adult
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 659419, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389180

ABSTRACT

Highly pathogenic virus infections usually trigger cytokine storms, which may have adverse effects on vital organs and result in high mortalities. The two cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ play key roles in the generation and regulation of cytokine storms. However, it is still unclear whether the cytokine with the largest induction amplitude is the same under different virus infections. It is unknown which is the most critical and whether there are any mathematical formulas that can fit the changing rules of cytokines. Three coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2), three influenza viruses (2009H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9), Ebola virus, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, West Nile virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and enterovirus 71 were included in this analysis. We retrieved the cytokine fold change (FC), viral load, and clearance rate data from these highly pathogenic virus infections in humans and analyzed the correlations among them. Our analysis showed that interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 are the most common cytokines with the largest induction amplitudes. Equations were obtained: the maximum induced cytokine (max) FC = IFN-γ FC × (IFN-γ FC/IL-4 FC) (if IFN-γ FC/IL-4 FC > 1); max FC = IL-4 FC (if IFN-γ FC/IL-4 FC < 1). For IFN-γ-inducible infections, 1.30 × log2 (IFN-γ FC) = log10 (viral load) - 2.48 - 2.83 × (clearance rate). The clinical relevance of cytokines and their antagonists is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Models, Immunological , Virus Diseases/complications , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Viral Load/immunology , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
12.
Nature ; 591(7848): 124-130, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368933

ABSTRACT

Although infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some individuals1-3, many others experience milder symptoms. Here, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the distinction between severe and mild phenotypes in the pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its origins, we performed a whole-blood-preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major immune cell types of the blood-including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of the serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 exhibit a coordinated pattern of expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)3 across every cell population, whereas these ISG-expressing cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Paradoxically, individuals with severe COVID-19 produce very high titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and have a lower viral load compared to individuals with mild disease. Examination of the serum from patients with severe COVID-19 shows that these patients uniquely produce antibodies that functionally block the production of the ISG-expressing cells associated with mild disease, by activating conserved signalling circuits that dampen cellular responses to interferons. Overzealous antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many patients with COVID-19, and perhaps also in individuals with other viral infections. Our findings reveal potential targets for immunotherapies in patients with severe COVID-19 to re-engage viral defence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferons/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Base Sequence , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Male , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Protein Domains , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/immunology , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Viral Load/immunology
13.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 595-605, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma containing neutralizing antibody to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is under investigation for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment. We report diverse virological characteristics of UK intensive care patients enrolled in the Immunoglobulin Domain of the REMAP-CAP randomized controlled trial that potentially influence treatment outcomes. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs collected pretreatment was quantified by PCR. Antibody status was determined by spike-protein ELISA. B.1.1.7 was differentiated from other SARS-CoV-2 strains using allele-specific probes or restriction site polymorphism (SfcI) targeting D1118H. RESULTS: Of 1274 subjects, 90% were PCR positive with viral loads 118-1.7 × 1011IU/mL. Median viral loads were 40-fold higher in those IgG seronegative (n = 354; 28%) compared to seropositives (n = 939; 72%). Frequencies of B.1.1.7 increased from <1% in November 2020 to 82% of subjects in January 2021. Seronegative individuals with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 had significantly higher viral loads than seropositives (medians 5.8 × 106 and 2.0 × 105 IU/mL, respectively; P = 2 × 10-15). CONCLUSIONS: High viral loads in seropositive B.1.1.7-infected subjects and resistance to seroconversion indicate less effective clearance by innate and adaptive immune responses. SARS-CoV-2 strain, viral loads, and antibody status define subgroups for analysis of treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Load/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United Kingdom
14.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(9): 1437-1453.e8, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347535

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has affected more than 185 million people worldwide resulting in over 4 million deaths. To contain the pandemic, there is a continued need for safe vaccines that provide durable protection at low and scalable doses and can be deployed easily. Here, AAVCOVID-1, an adeno-associated viral (AAV), spike-gene-based vaccine candidate demonstrates potent immunogenicity in mouse and non-human primates following a single injection and confers complete protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge in macaques. Peak neutralizing antibody titers are sustained at 1 year and complemented by functional memory T cell responses. The AAVCOVID vector has no relevant pre-existing immunity in humans and does not elicit cross-reactivity to common AAVs used in gene therapy. Vector genome persistence and expression wanes following injection. The single low-dose requirement, high-yield manufacturability, and 1-month stability for storage at room temperature may make this technology well suited to support effective immunization campaigns for emerging pathogens on a global scale.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Dependovirus/genetics , Dependovirus/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transgenes/genetics , Vaccination/methods , Viral Load/immunology
15.
J Exp Med ; 218(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345702

ABSTRACT

IFN-I and IFN-III immunity in the nasal mucosa is poorly characterized during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We analyze the nasal IFN-I/III signature, namely the expression of ISGF-3-dependent IFN-stimulated genes, in mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients and show its correlation with serum IFN-α2 levels, which peak at symptom onset and return to baseline from day 10 onward. Moreover, the nasal IFN-I/III signature correlates with the nasopharyngeal viral load and is associated with the presence of infectious viruses. By contrast, we observe low nasal IFN-I/III scores despite high nasal viral loads in a subset of critically ill COVID-19 patients, which correlates with the presence of autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against IFN-I in both blood and nasopharyngeal mucosa. In addition, functional assays in a reconstituted human airway epithelium model of SARS-CoV-2 infection confirm the role of such auto-Abs in abrogating the antiviral effects of IFN-I, but not those of IFN-III. Thus, IFN-I auto-Abs may compromise not only systemic but also local antiviral IFN-I immunity at the early stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Interferon Type I/pharmacology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity/immunology , Nasal Cavity/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Load/immunology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/immunology
16.
Science ; 373(6559): 1109-1116, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341301

ABSTRACT

The spillovers of betacoronaviruses in humans and the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants highlight the need for broad coronavirus countermeasures. We describe five monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cross-reacting with the stem helix of multiple betacoronavirus spike glycoproteins isolated from COVID-19 convalescent individuals. Using structural and functional studies, we show that the mAb with the greatest breadth (S2P6) neutralizes pseudotyped viruses from three different subgenera through the inhibition of membrane fusion, and we delineate the molecular basis for its cross-reactivity. S2P6 reduces viral burden in hamsters challenged with SARS-CoV-2 through viral neutralization and Fc-mediated effector functions. Stem helix antibodies are rare, oftentimes of narrow specificity, and can acquire neutralization breadth through somatic mutations. These data provide a framework for structure-guided design of pan-betacoronavirus vaccines eliciting broad protection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Internalization , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Convalescence , Cricetinae , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Jurkat Cells , Lung/immunology , Membrane Fusion/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Peptide Mapping , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Load/immunology
17.
Adv Biol Regul ; 81: 100818, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313202

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptom severity, which is manifested at different phases of infection and demands different levels of care. Viral load, host innate-immune response to SARS-CoV-2, and comorbidities have a direct impact on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients and determine the diverse disease trajectories. The initial SARS-CoV-2 penetrance and replication in the host causes death of infected cells, determining the viral response. SARS-CoV-2 replication in the host triggers the activation of host antiviral immune mechanisms, determining the inflammatory response. While a healthy immune response is essential to eliminate infected cells and prevent spread of the virus, a dysfunctional immune response can result in a cytokine storm and hyperinflammation, contributing to disease progression. Current therapies for COVID-19 target the virus and/or the host immune system and may be complicated in their efficacy by comorbidities. Here we review the evidence for use of two classes of anti-inflammatory drugs, glucocorticoids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the treatment of COVID-19. We consider the clinical evidence regarding the timing and efficacy of their use, their potential limitations, current recommendations and the prospect of future studies by these and related therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Load/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3406, 2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260941

ABSTRACT

Prognostic characteristics inform risk stratification in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We obtained blood samples (n = 474) from hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n = 123), non-COVID-19 ICU sepsis patients (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 30). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was detected in plasma or serum (RNAemia) of COVID-19 ICU patients when neutralizing antibody response was low. RNAemia is associated with higher 28-day ICU mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.84 [95% CI, 1.22-2.77] adjusted for age and sex). RNAemia is comparable in performance to the best protein predictors. Mannose binding lectin 2 and pentraxin-3 (PTX3), two activators of the complement pathway of the innate immune system, are positively associated with mortality. Machine learning identified 'Age, RNAemia' and 'Age, PTX3' as the best binary signatures associated with 28-day ICU mortality. In longitudinal comparisons, COVID-19 ICU patients have a distinct proteomic trajectory associated with mortality, with recovery of many liver-derived proteins indicating survival. Finally, proteins of the complement system and galectin-3-binding protein (LGALS3BP) are identified as interaction partners of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. LGALS3BP overexpression inhibits spike-pseudoparticle uptake and spike-induced cell-cell fusion in vitro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Proteomics/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antigens, Neoplasm/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Load/immunology
19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 566: 135-140, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260666

ABSTRACT

The global circulation of newly emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 is a new threat to public health due to their increased transmissibility and immune evasion. Moreover, currently available vaccines and therapeutic antibodies were shown to be less effective against new variants, in particular, the South African (SA) variant, termed 501Y.V2 or B.1.351. To assess the efficacy of the CT-P59 monoclonal antibody against the SA variant, we sought to perform as in vitro binding and neutralization assays, and in vivo animal studies. CT-P59 neutralized B.1.1.7 variant to a similar extent as to wild type virus. CT-P59 showed reduced binding affinity against a RBD (receptor binding domain) triple mutant containing mutations defining B.1.351 (K417N/E484K/N501Y) also showed reduced potency against the SA variant in live virus and pseudovirus neutralization assay systems. However, in vivo ferret challenge studies demonstrated that a therapeutic dosage of CT-P59 was able to decrease B.1.351 viral load in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, comparable to that observed for the wild type virus. Overall, although CT-P59 showed reduced in vitro neutralizing activity against the SA variant, sufficient antiviral effect in B.1.351-infected animals was confirmed with a clinical dosage of CT-P59, suggesting that CT-P59 has therapeutic potential for COVID-19 patients infected with SA variant.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ferrets , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , In Vitro Techniques , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , South Africa , Viral Load/immunology
20.
Bull Math Biol ; 83(7): 79, 2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242816

ABSTRACT

The pandemic outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has quickly spread worldwide, creating a serious health crisis. The virus is primarily associated with flu-like symptoms but can also lead to severe pathologies and death. We here present an ordinary differential equation model of the intrahost immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, fitted to experimental data gleaned from rhesus macaques. The model is calibrated to data from a nonlethal infection, but the model can replicate behavior from various lethal scenarios as well. We evaluate the sensitivity of the model to biologically relevant parameters governing the strength and efficacy of the immune response. We also simulate the effect of both anti-inflammatory and antiviral drugs on the host immune response and demonstrate the ability of the model to lessen the severity of a formerly lethal infection with the addition of the appropriately calibrated drug. Our model emphasizes the importance of tight control of the innate immune response for host survival and viral clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Models, Immunological , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Aging/immunology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Mathematical Concepts , Pandemics , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Load/immunology
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